THE ABC’S OF
AGE ARTS, AND
ELED 412, Summer 2013
A IS FOR.....
Alliteration – is a technique used to emphasize
phonemes. This can be accomplished by using
many words that have the same consonant sound
Example – Tongue Twisters
B IS FOR…..
Bottom-Up Approach – “Parts to the whole”, This
approach begins with phonemes and graphemes
and continues by expanding to the
syllable, words, sentences, paragraphs, and then
whole reading selections.
In other words – Phonics Instruction
C IS FOR…..
“Clues” Clues for Decoding – Context Clues are
use to help identify unknown words. There are also
three main types of contexts clues
Semantic, Syntactic, and Structural.
Semantic Clues (thinking) – requires student to
think of the meaning of the word.
Syntactic Clues (order) – requires the student to
use the order of words in the sentence.
Structural Clues (built) – requires the student to pay
attention to the letter groups, many groups of letters
frequently occur with in words. Example – Prefixes –
pre, anti, and sub
D IS FOR…..
Dolch Words – “sight words” or frequently used
words in the English language. If students are
exposed to the words and learn to recognize them
as sight words, they will become more fluent
E IS FOR…..
Emergent Readers – understand that print contains
meaningful information. These students imitate the
reading process and display basic reading
-Eye Movement – top to bottom and left to right
-Participate in shared reading activities
-Follow and match words
-Use illustrations to support text
F IS FOR…..
Full Alphabetic Stage – Students begin making
connections between the letters, the sounds they
represent, and the actual meaning of the word.
Students begin to “Crack the Code” of the written
G IS FOR…..
Graphemes – or “letters”.
Graph made up of lines and dots.
Line and dots form letters.
Therefor – a graph is made up of lines and dots
so, Graphemes means letters.
H IS FOR…..
Homophones – words that sound the same but are
spelled differently and have different meanings.
Blew and Blue, Cents and Sense, Heir and Air, Wait and Weight, Hear
and Here, Eight and Ate
I IS FOR…..
Intonation Patterns – describe the pitch contour of a
phrase or a sentence that is used to change the
meaning of the sentence.
Question – How are you?
Reply – How are you?
J IS FOR…..
Journals – writing in journals provide students with
opportunities to use language authentically in
K IS FOR…..
Knowledge – activating prior knowledge lets
readers pay more attention because they can relate
to the text. Students receive a better understanding
of the text if they can make connections between
text, their lives, and the larger world.
You can address this by – K-W-L’s, Reflecting, and Confirming Prediction only to
name a few.
L IS FOR…..
Lexicon – refers to the vocabulary of a language.
Meaning of words change based on context and its
historical framework. Vocabulary is said to be one of
the most variable and rich components of language.
M IS FOR…..
Morphemes – are the smallest representation of the
meaning of a word.
N IS FOR…..
Newly Fluent Readers - can read with relative
fluency and comprehension.
Ability to use several cuing systems
Sematic, Structural, Visual, and Grapho-Phonemic
Cuing Systems cuing systems.
O IS FOR…..
Observation – teachers should use observations
during individual or group work. Teachers can make
a checklist of competencies, skills, or requirements
then uses the list to check off the skills the students
or group displays.
P IS FOR…..
Phonology – is the study of the sound system of a
Q IS FOR…..
Questions – comprehensive questions can begin at
reading level of the student and continue to
increase in complexity until the student is not able
to respond to the comprehension questions.
R IS FOR…..
Readers Theater – used to emphasize reading
fluency. A story is modified so that various
characters have to read portion of the text.
Students rehearse their reading part and then
create a theater format to present the reading.
S IS FOR…..
Syllabication – refers to the ability to conceptualize
and separate words into their basic syllables.
T IS FOR…..
Top Down Approach – begins with the whole and
then proceeds to its individual parts.
Whole stories, paragraphs, sentences, words and
then proceeds to the smallest units of
syllables, graphemes, and phonemes.
U IS FOR…..
Using – Using parts of a book such as the
charts, diagrams, indexes, and tables of contents to
improve their understanding of the reading content.
V IS FOR…..
Visualizing – active readers create visual images
based on the words they read in the text. These
created pictures in turn enhance readers’
W IS FOR…..
Whole Language Approach – More than graphic
information the whole language approach relies on
the structure and meaning of the language.
Teachers can help this by reading and rereading texts to children
Teachers must have a sharp emphasis on phonics will skill-based approaches to reading.
X IS FOR…..
SuffiX & AffiX & PrefiX– Affix is commonly a suffix or attached to
a base word, stem, or root. Suffix is an affix attached to the end
of a base word or word root. Prefix comes at the beginning of a
Y IS FOR…..
Syllable Juncture – The transition for one syllable to
Sometimes this transition involves a spelling
change such as a consonant doubling or dropping the
final –e before adding ing.
Z IS FOR…..
Zone Proximal Developing (ZPD) – The conditions
for learning something new.
A persons ZPD is the zone that which is neither too
hard nor too easy.
THE ABCS OF ENGLISH, LANGUAGE
ARTS, AND READING.
Summer II, 2013
Rosado , L. A. (2013 ). Texes 191 generalist ec-6 test . Research &
Education Association, INC.
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