THE ABC’S OF
ENGLISH, LANGU
AGE ARTS, AND
READING.
Ashley Ellis
ELED 412, Summer 2013
A IS FOR.....
 Alliteration – is a technique used to emphasize
phonemes. This can be accomplished by using
many words tha...
B IS FOR…..
 Bottom-Up Approach – “Parts to the whole”, This
approach begins with phonemes and graphemes
and continues by...
C IS FOR…..
 “Clues” Clues for Decoding – Context Clues are
use to help identify unknown words. There are also
three main...
D IS FOR…..
 Dolch Words – “sight words” or frequently used
words in the English language. If students are
exposed to the...
E IS FOR…..
 Emergent Readers – understand that print contains
meaningful information. These students imitate the
reading...
F IS FOR…..
 Full Alphabetic Stage – Students begin making
connections between the letters, the sounds they
represent, an...
G IS FOR…..
 Graphemes – or “letters”.
Graph  made up of lines and dots.
Line and dots form letters.
Therefor – a graph ...
H IS FOR…..
 Homophones – words that sound the same but are
spelled differently and have different meanings.
Examples 
B...
I IS FOR…..
 Intonation Patterns – describe the pitch contour of a
phrase or a sentence that is used to change the
meanin...
J IS FOR…..
 Journals – writing in journals provide students with
opportunities to use language authentically in
literary...
K IS FOR…..
 Knowledge – activating prior knowledge lets
readers pay more attention because they can relate
to the text. ...
L IS FOR…..
 Lexicon – refers to the vocabulary of a language.
Meaning of words change based on context and its
historica...
M IS FOR…..
 Morphemes – are the smallest representation of the
meaning of a word.
N IS FOR…..
 Newly Fluent Readers - can read with relative
fluency and comprehension.
 Ability to use several cuing syst...
O IS FOR…..
 Observation – teachers should use observations
during individual or group work. Teachers can make
a checklis...
P IS FOR…..
 Phonology – is the study of the sound system of a
language.
Q IS FOR…..
 Questions – comprehensive questions can begin at
reading level of the student and continue to
increase in co...
R IS FOR…..
 Readers Theater – used to emphasize reading
fluency. A story is modified so that various
characters have to ...
S IS FOR…..
 Syllabication – refers to the ability to conceptualize
and separate words into their basic syllables.
T IS FOR…..
 Top Down Approach – begins with the whole and
then proceeds to its individual parts.
 Whole stories, paragr...
U IS FOR…..
 Using – Using parts of a book such as the
charts, diagrams, indexes, and tables of contents to
improve their...
V IS FOR…..
 Visualizing – active readers create visual images
based on the words they read in the text. These
created pi...
W IS FOR…..
 Whole Language Approach – More than graphic
information the whole language approach relies on
the structure ...
X IS FOR…..
 SuffiX & AffiX & PrefiX– Affix is commonly a suffix or attached to
a base word, stem, or root. Suffix is an ...
Y IS FOR…..
 Syllable Juncture – The transition for one syllable to
the next.
 Sometimes this transition involves a spel...
Z IS FOR…..
 Zone Proximal Developing (ZPD) – The conditions
for learning something new.
A persons ZPD is the zone that w...
THE ABCS OF ENGLISH, LANGUAGE
ARTS, AND READING.
Ashley Ellis
ELED 412
Summer II, 2013
 Refrences –
 Rosado , L. A. (201...
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Abc book, eled 412

  1. 1. THE ABC’S OF ENGLISH, LANGU AGE ARTS, AND READING. Ashley Ellis ELED 412, Summer 2013
  2. 2. A IS FOR.....  Alliteration – is a technique used to emphasize phonemes. This can be accomplished by using many words that have the same consonant sound or letter. Example – Tongue Twisters
  3. 3. B IS FOR…..  Bottom-Up Approach – “Parts to the whole”, This approach begins with phonemes and graphemes and continues by expanding to the syllable, words, sentences, paragraphs, and then whole reading selections. In other words – Phonics Instruction
  4. 4. C IS FOR…..  “Clues” Clues for Decoding – Context Clues are use to help identify unknown words. There are also three main types of contexts clues Semantic, Syntactic, and Structural. Semantic Clues (thinking) – requires student to think of the meaning of the word. Syntactic Clues (order) – requires the student to use the order of words in the sentence. Structural Clues (built) – requires the student to pay attention to the letter groups, many groups of letters frequently occur with in words. Example – Prefixes – pre, anti, and sub
  5. 5. D IS FOR…..  Dolch Words – “sight words” or frequently used words in the English language. If students are exposed to the words and learn to recognize them as sight words, they will become more fluent readers.
  6. 6. E IS FOR…..  Emergent Readers – understand that print contains meaningful information. These students imitate the reading process and display basic reading readiness skills. -Eye Movement – top to bottom and left to right -Participate in shared reading activities -Follow and match words -Use illustrations to support text
  7. 7. F IS FOR…..  Full Alphabetic Stage – Students begin making connections between the letters, the sounds they represent, and the actual meaning of the word. Students begin to “Crack the Code” of the written language.
  8. 8. G IS FOR…..  Graphemes – or “letters”. Graph  made up of lines and dots. Line and dots form letters. Therefor – a graph is made up of lines and dots so, Graphemes means letters.
  9. 9. H IS FOR…..  Homophones – words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings. Examples  Blew and Blue, Cents and Sense, Heir and Air, Wait and Weight, Hear and Here, Eight and Ate
  10. 10. I IS FOR…..  Intonation Patterns – describe the pitch contour of a phrase or a sentence that is used to change the meaning of the sentence. Example  Question – How are you? Reply – How are you?
  11. 11. J IS FOR…..  Journals – writing in journals provide students with opportunities to use language authentically in literary contexts.
  12. 12. K IS FOR…..  Knowledge – activating prior knowledge lets readers pay more attention because they can relate to the text. Students receive a better understanding of the text if they can make connections between text, their lives, and the larger world. You can address this by – K-W-L’s, Reflecting, and Confirming Prediction only to name a few.
  13. 13. L IS FOR…..  Lexicon – refers to the vocabulary of a language. Meaning of words change based on context and its historical framework. Vocabulary is said to be one of the most variable and rich components of language.
  14. 14. M IS FOR…..  Morphemes – are the smallest representation of the meaning of a word.
  15. 15. N IS FOR…..  Newly Fluent Readers - can read with relative fluency and comprehension.  Ability to use several cuing systems  Sematic, Structural, Visual, and Grapho-Phonemic Cuing Systems cuing systems.
  16. 16. O IS FOR…..  Observation – teachers should use observations during individual or group work. Teachers can make a checklist of competencies, skills, or requirements then uses the list to check off the skills the students or group displays.
  17. 17. P IS FOR…..  Phonology – is the study of the sound system of a language.
  18. 18. Q IS FOR…..  Questions – comprehensive questions can begin at reading level of the student and continue to increase in complexity until the student is not able to respond to the comprehension questions.
  19. 19. R IS FOR…..  Readers Theater – used to emphasize reading fluency. A story is modified so that various characters have to read portion of the text. Students rehearse their reading part and then create a theater format to present the reading.
  20. 20. S IS FOR…..  Syllabication – refers to the ability to conceptualize and separate words into their basic syllables.
  21. 21. T IS FOR…..  Top Down Approach – begins with the whole and then proceeds to its individual parts.  Whole stories, paragraphs, sentences, words and then proceeds to the smallest units of syllables, graphemes, and phonemes.
  22. 22. U IS FOR…..  Using – Using parts of a book such as the charts, diagrams, indexes, and tables of contents to improve their understanding of the reading content.
  23. 23. V IS FOR…..  Visualizing – active readers create visual images based on the words they read in the text. These created pictures in turn enhance readers’ understanding.
  24. 24. W IS FOR…..  Whole Language Approach – More than graphic information the whole language approach relies on the structure and meaning of the language.  Teachers can help this by reading and rereading texts to children  Teachers must have a sharp emphasis on phonics will skill-based approaches to reading.
  25. 25. X IS FOR…..  SuffiX & AffiX & PrefiX– Affix is commonly a suffix or attached to a base word, stem, or root. Suffix is an affix attached to the end of a base word or word root. Prefix comes at the beginning of a word.
  26. 26. Y IS FOR…..  Syllable Juncture – The transition for one syllable to the next.  Sometimes this transition involves a spelling change such as a consonant doubling or dropping the final –e before adding ing.
  27. 27. Z IS FOR…..  Zone Proximal Developing (ZPD) – The conditions for learning something new. A persons ZPD is the zone that which is neither too hard nor too easy.
  28. 28. THE ABCS OF ENGLISH, LANGUAGE ARTS, AND READING. Ashley Ellis ELED 412 Summer II, 2013  Refrences –  Rosado , L. A. (2013 ). Texes 191 generalist ec-6 test . Research & Education Association, INC.  http://www.texes.ets.org/assets/pdf/testprep_manuals/191_generalist _ec_6.pdf
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