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# Atomic structure

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### Atomic structure

1. 1. Atomic Structure
2. 2. Subatomic ParticlesEmpty Space
3. 3. SubatomicParticleActual MassRelativeMassAtomic MassUnitsProton1.673 x 10-24g1 1Neutron1.675 x 10-24g1 1Electron9.11 x 10 -28g1/1840Approximately0•Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) = is defined as 1/12the mass of a carbon – 12 atom
4. 4. Atomic & Mass Number• Atomic number:• Mass number:• Atomic Number =number of protons in nucleus• Mass number =protons + neutrons
5. 5. Number of electrons• For a neutral atom:number of protons = number of electrons• Atomic number:(# of protons)• Number of electrons:• Mass number:(p++ n0)
6. 6. Isotope Notation• Atomic Number = number of protons in nucleus• Mass number = protons + neutrons• Number of neutrons = Mass number – atomic number• Number of neutrons:
7. 7. Examples1. Neon – 20– Protons:– Neutrons:– Electrons:– Atomic #:– Mass #:– Isotope Notation:2. Iron – 56– Protons:– Neutrons:– Electrons:– Atomic #:– Mass #:– Isotope Notation:
8. 8. Isotopes• Definition:– Atoms of the SAME element, but different MASS• What is different between these 3 atoms?
9. 9. Atom OR Ion?K– Protons:– Neutrons:– Electrons:– Atomic #:– Mass #:K+1– Protons:– Neutrons:– Electrons:– Atomic #:– Mass #:
10. 10. Atom OR Ion?S– Protons:– Neutrons:– Electrons:– Atomic #:– Mass #:S-2– Protons:– Neutrons:– Electrons:– Atomic #:– Mass #:
11. 11. Band ofStability
12. 12. Radioactive• Low Mass– Elements 1-20– Stable – n/p ratio = 1– Unstable – Above orBelow• Middle Mass– Elements 21-83– Stable – n/p ratio =• 1 to 1.5Unstable – Above orBelow•NOTE: All atoms of elements above 83 areradioactive!!!
13. 13. Radioactive• Radioactive– Elements 84 and above(all isotopes)– n/p ratio is too large• Conclusions:– Number n0= number p+ Stable– Atoms above or below this ratio  Unstable– More mass  Unstable (radioactive)
14. 14. Radioactive• Lithium - 8• Number protons:• Number neutrons:• n/p =• Lead - 214• Number protons:• Number neutrons:• n/p =
15. 15. Radioisotopes• Definition:– a radioactive isotope of an element; producedeither naturally or artificially
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