L8. b. cognition chp 7


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  • Because scores become meaningful only when they can be compared with others’ performance, they must be defined relative to a pretested group, a process called standardization. Obviously, the group on which a test is standardized must be representative of those who will be taking the test in the future. For example, Terman recognized that a scale standardized on Parisians did not provide a satisfactory standard for evaluating Americans. Thus, he revised Binet’s test and standardized the new version by testing 2300 native-born, white Americans of differing socioeconomic levels.
  • Is it measuring the same thing every time? You do not need to know each type of reliability but learning about the different types will better help you to understand what reliability is.
  • Reliability – it is hitting the same mark every time? It is consistent? Validity – is it measuring what it supposed to measure or are all items equally measuring the same thing?
  • Human language is unique because it can transmit abstract ideas. Although most animals communicate, for the most part they are able to signal to other members of their species very concrete states such as being angry or threatened. Yet we can discuss not only our immediate feelings but also very remote ideas or states of being such as infinity, the afterlife. The easiest way to demonstrate the arbitrary nature of the connection between sound and meaning is to point out how we can say the exact same sentence in almost every language in the world, of which there are 5,000 to 6,000.
  • Our ancestors moved from protolanguage to grammatical language, which required brains with greater working memory and the ability for abstract thought. As the human brain, and especially the frontal lobes, grew larger and larger, people became capable of thinking and communicating more and more complex and abstract thoughts. Increases in the size of human social groups may have also triggered increased brain size as well. The more complex a group is, the greater the need for its members to communicate.
  • English is also supposedly the hardest language to learn.
  • Phoneme is sound that can change the meaning of a word e.g. cat and cut and cot.
  • Free morphemes like town, and dog can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, i.e. "free".Bound morphemes like "un-" appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as "cranberry" morphemes, from the "cran" in that very word.Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness." They carry semantic information.Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on, without deriving a new word or a word in a new grammatical category (as in the "dog" morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme "-s" becomes "dogs"). They carry grammatical information.Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme, e.g. the plural marker in English is sometimes realized as /-z/, /-s/ or /-ɨz/.
  • Finally, language must have a grammar, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with others. Semantics refers to the rules we use to derive meaning from the morphemes, and syntax refers to the rules we use to order words into sentences.semantics: the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences. Syntax: the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences.
  • Do the nouns and verbs fit together to make a proper sentence = syntax. Does the sentence make any sense (semantics) maybe not….but syntax can still be correct.
  • This means that the way verbs are formed is by combining a verb that means (ex. Go) and a verb that means specifically “past tense” (which varies in the different languages, but in Swahili is “ka”). In English to do this one would change the lexical category of the verb. But like I said, African languages make the past tense of a verb by using a separate word/verb (morpheme-s). This kind of structure carried over to Patois in sentence structure like: “Mi a go lef today” (“I am leaving today”). The verb in the first is two separate words “a” and “go” instead of the one English word “leaving,” indicating the inflected form of the verb “to leave.” Another reason it might be referred to as “slang” according to “Suite for Ebony and Phonics” is because it tends to “omit word-final consonants, especially if they come after another consonant, as in "tes(t)" and "han(d).” However, because so many new words are created using identical words from English for new meaning, it could be said that the shortening process is one of expansion and economy. In order to speak faster and more easily say complex thoughts, they have condensed words to shorter ones. Similar to how Americans use “clipping” which is “an omission from a word like bathtub and making it tub or air plane and making it just plane.” (Bergmann) This speaks to an argument of intelligence and economy in both languages, because communication is a means of survival. Therefore, the argument of Patois words being slang is not solid.
  • For example when asked to describe themselves in Chinese or English bilingual students had different (culturally related) descriptions depending on what language was used. language in the sense we ordinary think of it, in the sense that people in Germany speak German, is a historical or social or political notion, rather than a scientific one. There are around 5000 languages in use today, and each is quite different from many of the others. Differences are especially pronounced between languages of different families, e.g., between Indo-European languages like English and Hindi and Ancient Greek, on the one hand, and non-Indo-European languages like Hopi and Chinese and Swahili, on the other.Many thinkers have urged that large differences in language lead to large differences in experience and thought. They hold that each language embodies a worldview, with quite different languages embodying quite different views, so that speakers of different languages think about the world in quite different ways. Suppose the hypothesis is true. Then all the trouble many people go to today to avoid sexist language is useful and worthwhile; it�s rational to hope that change in the language will help bring about change in attitudes about gender. Suppose the hypothesis is false, on the other hand; suppose social change has to come first, and language only reflects that change. Then the people who say that nonsexist language is silly and awkward -- people who want to always say "Every physician must wear his lab coat" instead of "Every physician must wear his or her lab coat" -- have a strong case. If saying "Every U.S. president makes decisions after consulting his or her Cabinet officers" makes it more likely that a woman could become president, the hypothesis is true
  • Humans share a kind of “psychic unity”Language is merely a reflection of human thought, and so all languages are significantly similar in their conceptual categories.Culture is a reflection of how humans think, which is both a reflection of innateness and their interaction with their environment, not their language Universalism operates under the assumption that there are “Universal semantic primes” in language.
  • L8. b. cognition chp 7

    1. 1. COGNITIONLecture 8. Part B. Chapter 7.
    2. 2. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill three criteria:1. Standardization2. Reliability3. Validity
    3. 3. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION STANDARDIZATIONStandardizing a test involves administering the test toa representative sample of future test takers in orderto establish a basis for meaningful comparison.
    4. 4. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION STANDARDIZATION Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population — a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.
    5. 5. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION RELIABILITYA test is reliable when it yields consistent results. Toestablish reliability researchers establish differentprocedures:1. Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are.2. Reliability using different tests: Using different forms of the test to measure consistency between them.3. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency.
    6. 6. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION VALIDITYThe degree to which a test actually measures whatit’s supposed to measure or predict.1. Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait.2. Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.
    7. 7. RELIABLE AND VALID LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed Construct (i.e., “intelligence) TEST Scores on testTest MUST be RELIABLE to be VALID! Menu
    8. 8. RELIABLE BUT INVALID LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed Construct (i.e., “intelligence”) TEST Scores on testTest can be RELIABLE but still be INVALID! Menu
    9. 9. UNRELIABLE AND INVALIDLO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed Construct (i.e., “intelligence”)TEST Scores on test Menu
    10. 10. Marys bathroom scale always overstates peoples actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ________ reliability and ________ validity.A. low; high 25% 25% 25% 25%B. high; lowC. low; lowD. high; high 1 2 3 4
    11. 11. LANGUAGE Language = An open and symbolic communication system that has rules of grammar and allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas Open = free to change Symbolic = no connection between a sound and the meaning or idea with associated with it.
    12. 12. LANGUAGE INTERESTING FACTS Protolanguage – very rudimentary language, also known as pre-language, used by earlier species of homo. Evolution of language and the brain are intertwined  Particularly the frontal lobe  Evolved to grammatical language
    13. 13. LANGUAGE INTERESTING FACTS English is language with most words – app. 250,000 Countries where English (or other Germanic languages) is spoken account for more than 40 percent of the world GDP, while comprising only about 8 percent of the worlds population Every human being is born with the capacity to make every sound of every language in the world perfectly. With time, we filter out the sounds we don’t need for our primary language and focus on the ones we do. http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/guide/languages.s html
    14. 14. LANGUAGE STRUCTURESpoken language is built of basic speechsounds, called phonemes; elementary units ofmeaning, called morphemes; and words.Finally, language must have a grammar, a system ofrules that enables us to communicate with others.Semantics refers to the rules we use to derivemeaning from the morphemes, and syntax refers tothe rules we use to order words into sentences.
    15. 15. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREPhonemes: The smallest distinctive sound unit in aspoken language. For example: bat, has three phonemes b · a · t chat, has three phonemes ch · a · t English has about 40 different phonemes
    16. 16. LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word. For example: Previewed = pre . view. ed Uneventful = un. event. ful
    17. 17. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREGrammar - A system of rules in a language thatenables us to communicate with and understandothers. Grammar Semantics Syntax
    18. 18. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREGrammar> Semantics Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. For example: Semantic rule tells us that adding –ed to the word laugh means that it happened in the past.
    19. 19. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREGrammar> Syntax The rules for ordering words into grammatically sensible sentences. For example:In English syntactical rule is that adjectives comebefore nouns; white house. In Spanish it is reversed;casa blanca.“Blue happy processes swim angrily down stream”
    20. 20. The smallest distinctive sound unit is a ___________ and the smallest unit that carries meaning is a ____________.1. Phoneme, morpheme 25% 25% 25% 25%2. Syntax, grammar3. Morpheme, phoneme4. Semantics, morpheme 1 2 3 4
    21. 21. LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Jamaican patois me glad for to see you” (pro: I am glad to see you)…” West African languages form their sentences and forms of verbs differently in the basic morphological structure
    22. 22. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHTLinguistic relativity hypothesisthe theory that thought processes and concepts arecontrolled by language
    23. 23. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHTCognitive universalismtheory that concepts are universal and influence thedevelopment of language
    24. 24. WHAT DAY DO YOU WANT OFF?1. Tuesday 16th Oct 33% 33% 33%2. Thursday 18th Oct3. Thursday 1st Sept 1 2 3