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Wh c7 india china japan africa

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  • 1. Chapter 7: Civilizations of India & Africa World History Trinity Christian School Mrs. Stephanie Holland
  • 2. 7.1: India
  • 3. India     Population 1.12 billion Capital: New Delhi Largest city: Mumbai Major Cities:      Bangalore Delhi Hyderabad Kolkata Mumbai
  • 4. India  Population: 1 billion (1/4 of everyone on planet)   Only a quarter of them have access to clean water Half are illiterate
  • 5. Early Civilizations 1st civilizations began in river valleys:  INDUS RIVER Archaeological Evidence:  Mohenjo Daro  Harappa • Carefully planned cities Wide, straight streets • Brick houses • Drainage systems • Traded with Egypt & Mesopotamia Indus civilization ended suddenly: Aryan migration Excerpt, p. 148• • •
  • 6. The Harappan Civilization 3300 BCE - 2400 BCE
  • 7. Aerial View of Mohenjo-Daro
  • 8. Wide View, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 9. The Great Bath, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 10. Well, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 11. A Main Street, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 12. Granery, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 13. pottery, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 14. Bison Seal, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 15. A Horned-God Seal, Mohenjo-Daro
  • 16. A Male Head, MohenjoDaro Dravidian
  • 17. A Priest-King, MohenjoDaro
  • 18. Public Well, Harappa
  • 19. Unicorn Seal, Harappa
  • 20. Bull Figurine, Harappa
  • 21. Burial Pottery, Harappa
  • 22. Male Skeleton, Harappa
  • 23. Female Skeleton with Child, Harappa
  • 24. Harappan Writing Undecipherable to date.
  • 25. Early Civilization 1. Aryans 1. 2. 1500 BC: Migrate into Central Asia Fair-skinned 1. Related to tribes invading Near East, Greece & Rome? 2. Herdsmen 3. Language: Sanskrit 3. Vedas: (Vedic Age 1500 BC – 500 BC) 1. 2. Oral tradition Religious beliefs & early traditions 1. * Basis of Indian culture
  • 26. Aryan Migration  pastoral  depended on their cattle.  warriors  horse-drawn chariots.
  • 27. Sanskrit writing
  • 28. The Vedas  1200 BCE-600 BCE.  written in SANSKRIT.  Hindu core of beliefs:   religious prayers.  Rig Veda  oldest work. hymns and poems. magical spells.  lists of the gods and goddesses.
  • 29. Key Features of Indian Society  Joint (extended) Family         VIP Parents, children, grandchildren, blood relatives of common ancestor Oldest male = authority figure Sons remained in household of father/grandfather Family concerns before individual concerns Arranged marriages Responsibilities for each member Village Life     Small, rural villages Independent & self-governing Governed by: Headman / Village Council 8/10 Indians today live in small villages!
  • 30. Key Features of Indian Society  Caste System  Rigid social class system – governed by strict rules   Determines: location of home, profession, clothing, partners, meals, friends, Determined at birth   Can rise within, but NOT OUT OF your caste 2,000-3,000 caste & subcaste groups; 4 broad “class” groups      1.) Brahmans (priests 2.) rulers & warriors 3.) merchants & traders 4.) servants & slaves 5.) Outcastes “Untouchables” (avoided by other castes)
  • 31. Varna (Social Hierarchy) Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables
  • 32. The Vedic Age The foundations for Hinduism were established!
  • 33. Religion & the Indian Way of Life: Hinduism  Ingrained by history, social structure, arts, customs    Preserved traditional elements of India Unifies diverse interests of society NO formal statement of doctrine   Literature    = ability to absorb concepts of various people Vedas Upanishads: philosophical essays elaborating on teaching of the Vedas Acknowledgement of all deities as manifestations of the eternal, unchanging Brahman  Brahman: Not personal being but the World Soul  Ultimate goal of man: reunite with World Soul along Wheel of Life through reincarnation & escape of physical world  Deeds in present life determine status in the next  Bad now = roach later!
  • 34. Religion & the Indian Way of Life: Buddhism  Founder: Siddhartha Bautama  “The Enlightened One” (Buddha)  Age 29: Concerned over misery, poverty & death in world  Leaves life, wife, child & princely status  Live 6 years as hermit  528: Enlightenment: 4 Noble Truths  1.) Suffering is part of all existence  2.) Suffering has a cause: Selfish desires (pleasure, power, possessions)  3.) Suffering can be overcome by destroying selfish desires  4.) If man follows the Eightfold Path he will destroy selfish desires and end suffering (correct beliefs, intentions, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, thought
  • 35. Religion & the Indian Way of Life Buddhism  Stresses Works & Moral Behavior [to end suffering]   Not the aid of deities or a high caste Goal: Nirvana (state of absolute peace & happiness; freedom from cravings)  Belief that all will eventually achieve eternal peace  THE BIBLE SAYS: All people reach [I John 5:11-12]   A.) eternal union with God through Jesus B.) eternal separation from God
  • 36. Lack of Political Unity: Mauryan Empire India: patchwork of small rival kingdoms & successive waves of invaders  Mauryan Empire:  326: Alexander the Great enters India (army refuses to cont.)  Meets & influences Chandragupta Maurya towards conquest  Chandragupta Maurya conquers disorganized kindoms & unifies 1 st strong Indian empire.  C. Maurya’s grandson Asoka rises to power  Extends Indian empire’s borders to include all but S. tip of India  Renounces War  Converts to Buddhism  Builds 1000s of stupas (Buddhist shrines)  Inscribes Buddhist teachings throughout empire  Send Buddhist missionaries abroad (= Buddhism takes hold in SE Asia)  Buddhism does not gain wide support in India (threat to Hindu priest’s power)
  • 37. Asoka – Buddhist Proselytism   Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. Butkara stupa, 3rd century BCE. Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260–218 BCE).
  • 38. Lack of Political Unity: Gupta Empire  2nd-3rd Centuries AD: (232 BC: Asoka dies)    CON: Invasions & Competing Kingdoms PRO: trade with Rome & China 4th Century AD:  Gupta Empire: golden era of prosperity & achievement     India reunited by a strong gov’t Trade flourished Materially prosperous Culture spreads to SE Asia
  • 39. Lack of Political Unity: Gupta Empire  Gupta Culture      Spreads throughout SE Asia Universities attract international students Textiles Ironwork Indian art, architecture, literature & science  Literature:  Poet Kalidasa “the Indian Shakespeare”  Influences the brothers Grimm & Rudyard Kipling  Math, Science & Medicine      Arabic numerals Negative numbers The decimal The zero Science  Indian theories of gravity  Knowledge that the earth was round & rotated on an axis  Medicine  Free hospitals  Surgical procedures performed
  • 40. Post-Guptan India:  6th Century:  Gupta Empire collapses under White Huns      Political disorder Small warring kingdoms Foreign invaders (absorbed by Hindus) N. India falls under Muslim control 1206: Muslim warriors est. kingdom near Delhi Muslims Religious Monotheistic Way of Life: Equality of men before god Hindus Polytheistic Caste system
  • 41. 7.1 Timeline 1. Religion founded by Siddhartha Guatama  (approximate year) 1. Earliest civilization (two cities) on Indus River  (year) 3. Threatened India with his armies  (year) BUDDHISM 528?BC MOHENJO-DARO & HARAPPA 2300BC ALEX. THE GREAT (GREEK) 326 BC
  • 42. 7.2: China
  • 43. 7.1 Timeline – Section 2 4. The most honored teacher in Chinese history  (year of birth) CONFUCIOUS 551 BC 5. Dynasty establishing the Pax Sinica  (year established) HAN DYNASTY 202 BC 6. Earliest known Chinese dynasty  (year established) SHANG DYNASTY 1500 BC 7. Dynasty known for the consolidation of existing structures into the Great Wall  (year established) CH’IN DYNASTY 221 BC 8. Dynasty in which Chinese culture flourished  (year established) SUNG DYNASTY 960 BC 9. Dynasty in which Li Po, Chinese poet, lived  (year dynasty established) T’ANG DYNASTY 618 AD 10. Legendary founder of Taoism  (year of birth) LAO-TZU 604 BC
  • 44. The Land  “Middle Kingdom”  Believed to be the center of the earth  Today:  1/5 world’s population  Same size as U.S. geographically  One of world’s oldest civilizations  Yellow River (Huang He) & Yangtze Valley Civilization  Isolated  Pacific Ocean, Himalayas, Gobi Desert  Free from outside influence = maintenance of stable culture 47
  • 45. Societal Features: Family Ties  Strong Family Ties  Large Families     Parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nephews, nieces, cousins, in-laws Knowledge of 100s years of genealogy Responsibility: Bring honor to thy family! Ancestor worship  Household altars  Purpose: receive blessings & guidance 48
  • 46. Societal Features: Language & Learning  Spoken Language  Tonal Quality: different tones (pitch) convey different meanings   Makes communication difficult b/w regions Common Written Language  65,000 characters    Most literate Chinese know about 4,000 Many Chinese have been illiterate “Scholars’ World”  Masters of written language hold distinction 49
  • 47. Chinese Thought & Life Confucianism Taoism K’ung Fu-Tzu (Confucious) Lao-tzu (604-531BC) Raised in poverty Period of social/political unrest •Tao (“the way”) was pervading force in nature Teacher •Achieve peace by living in harmony with nature •Do not seek power, wealth or learning •Man can solve societal problems and be happy •Be simple & inactive through proper conduct. •“There is nothing in the world more soft and weak •Societal peace maintained through proper balance than water, yet for attacking things that are hard in 5 Basic Relationships: and strong there is nothing that surpasses it.” •Father & Son •Elder & Younger Brothers •Husband & Wife •Friend & Friend • Ruler & Subjects •“What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.” • Problem: •Neglect of the relationship between man & God 50
  • 48. Confucianism Taoism •Philosophy of Chinese educational, social & political system •Basis of mystical, magical & superstitious elements •Active lifestyle • Man has many social obligations • Passive lifestyle • Man should be free from busyness of responsibility •Goal: improved government, laws & education •Goal: Minimal external authority & minimal societal involvement 51
  • 49. Dynastic Cycle Decline Begin Prosper Mature 52
  • 50. 53
  • 51. Map of the Silk Road (OrexCA.com)
  • 52. Ruins of the Han Dynasty (Bear)
  • 53. Woven Silk Textile (drs2biz)
  • 54. Terra Cotta Army  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RsUE-ZtcUFg
  • 55. Chinese Contributions          Silk Porcelain Block Printing Moveable Type Paper Ink Gunpowder Fireworks Magnetic Compass 59
  • 56. 7.3: Japan
  • 57. Japan   100 mi. off coast of Asia Island nation   4 main islands, 100s of lesser islands About the size of California    Most land mountainous 20% land suitable for farming More geographically remote than China
  • 58. Early History  Little known of early history  Myths & legends not historical records   Creation Myth Ancient Japan: warring clans  Clan: group of families descended from a common ancestor; basic unit of social, religious & political organization
  • 59. Early History  5th Century AD: Yamato Clan  Jimmu Tennu “Heavenly Prince”    Direct descendant of Sun Goddess = divine Japan has 1 imperial family Shintoism “the way of the gods”  Supports belief in divine emperor  Dieties attributed to anything awe-inspring  Stressed supremacy of sun goddess & divine emperor  Religion of feeling, love of homeland, loyalty to clan & reverence for emperor  Becomes the National Religion
  • 60. Influence of China 5th – 8th Centuries: Chinese cultural invasion  7th Century: Prince Shotoku  Buddhism firmly est.    Chinese culture studied   national religion temples, hospitals & schools constructed Chinese Writing, literature, Religion, weight system, measurements, medical practices, calendar, furniture styles, dress, roads & bridges Taika Reform “Great Change”: Semi-independent gov’t -> central gov’t  Civil Service Exams Gov’t posts by ability Capitol: Kyoto  Fujiwara Clan gains power     Fujiwara daughters + imperial sons = male children  Ruling emperor forced to abdicate so Fujiwara elders could rule as regents Wealthy & extravagance = corruption & bankruptcy = disorder
  • 61. Rise of the Samurai  Provincial governors begin to rely on military clans for protection  12th century: Yorimoto (Minamoto Clan) becomes supreme military leader     Titled Shogun “Great General” Creation of military state ruled by warriors (1162-1868) Warrior class becomes ruling class  Samurai (bushi): Japanese warrior    Mastered: horsemanship, fencing, archery, jujitsu Studied: history, literature & art of writing Bushido: “The way of the warrior” – code governing Samurai conduct; demanded loyalty, honor, duty, justice, courage, sincerity, & politeness
  • 62. INDIA CHINA JAPAN History Indus River Valley -Mohenjo-Daro --Harappa Aryan Invasion Yellow River Valley Yangtze River Valley Remote Islands Creation Myth -Yamato Clan -Jimmu Tenno Society & Culture Sanskrit Vedas/Upanishads Joint Families Caste System Village Life Family Ties -Ancestor Worship Language -Spoken -Written -Scholar’s Society -Chinese Cultural Invasion -Prince Shotoku -Taika Reform - - - (effects gov’t) Mauryan Empire -Alex. The Great -C. Gupta Gupta Empire Dynasties -Shang -Chou -Chi’in -Han -T’ang -Sung Imperial Family -Fujiwara (Regents) -Samurai Hinduism -Brahman -Wheel of Life -World Soul Buddhism Taoism Confucianism Shintoism Gov’t Religion
  • 63. 7.4: Comparison of the Asian Cultures
  • 64. Traditionalism    “Changeless Lands”  Deep rooted beliefs and customs  Little change Traditional Values  India: Hinduism & caste system  China: Extended family  Japan: Shintoism & mythology Dependence on history to determine what was good  Colossians 2:8 “Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.”
  • 65. Stifling of Individuality  Groups     India: caste system China: family Japan: clan Group holds the primary place (not individuals)  Responsible for welfare of members    (all members accountable to group) Lack of personal initiative Problems with Groups:   “But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another. For every man shall bear his own burden.” –Galatians 6:2, 4-5 “So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.” Romans 14:12
  • 66. False Religion   Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism Oldest cultures (&most deceived by Satan)
  • 67. 7.5: The Mongol Empire
  • 68. The Mongolian Empire, at its height, was much larger than the Roman Empire.
  • 69. Mongols    United the people of central Asia Mongols began north of China Nomadic people    Raised sheep, goats and horses No government, but several tribes with a chief. 1162-Temugin was born   Succeeded his father as chief at the age of 13! Gradually united all Mongol tribes under his authority and established an empire.
  • 70. Genghis Khan  1206 – Mongols gave him the title Genghis Khan     He was “Lord of all people dwelling in felt tents” Genghis Khan means – “Universal Ruler” Believed it was his divine commission to conquer the world 1227 – he died before he could see China under his rule
  • 71. Reasons for success:  Organization and mobility  Conquered through fear  They often massacred an entire population of a city to teach future conquests not to resist.  Expert horsemen  The horse was a Mongol’s pride possession The Great Khan was Genghis’ son and successor.
  • 72. Yuan Dynasty      Grandson of Genghis – Kublai Khan Completed the conquest of China Moved capital to Cambaluc (modern Bejing) Built highways Invited missionaries, scholars, artists, and engineers and employed many as government officials.   Example – Marco Polo. Kublai’s death meant the end to the empire.  It was still large, but not unified.
  • 73. Ming Dynasty     Restored Chinese rule. Drove the Mongols back into Mongolia Re-established old Chinese ways As a result of Mongol rule, the Chinese cut themselves off from the outside world.
  • 74. Batu Khan      Also a grandson of Genghis Led Mongols into Russia Called “Tartars” by Europeans Also called the “Golden Horde” – horde means camp. The sun shone off the felt tents and appeared to glisten as if golden. Ruled in Russia for 250 years.  Moscow became important because of its location and its willingness to cooperate with the Horde.
  • 75. Golden Horde….     Recognized the prince in Moscow as the Grand Prince of Russian Growth of the Russian church in Moscow due to the movement of head of the Orthodox church from Kiev to Moscow. By 14th century, princes began to openly challenge Mongol overlords. Ivan III, Grand Prince from 1462 to 1505, refused to pay tribute and by 1480 had pushed the Mongols out.
  • 76. Tamerlane   Tamerlane was a cruel conqueror. Timur the Lame    Claims to be a descendant of Genghis Began a new wave of Mongol invasions in Muslim lands and into India His sweep into southern Russia assisted the Russians in overthrowing the Horde  Died in 1405 plotting to re-enter China.
  • 77. Mughal - Mongol Empire in India  Babur – descendant of Genghis and Tamerlane      Babur means “The Tiger” Became leader of Turkish Mongols in what is today Afghanistan Established law and order Greatest Mughal leader was Akbar 0 Babur’s grandson Won support of Hindu people thru religious tolerance.
  • 78. 7.6: Africa
  • 79. Africa   Four times the size of the continental US. Covers 1/5 of the earth’s landsurface
  • 80. Sub Saharan Africa South of the Sahara Desert Two primary kingdoms Kush Aksum
  • 81. Kingdom of Kush
  • 82. Kush   Overthrew Egyptian rule Tirhakah of Ethiopia   2 Kings 19:9 Fell to Aksum around AD 330
  • 83. Embraced Christianity  Frumentius – helped lead the Aksum people to God  The claim to be descendants of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba 
  • 84.  Muslim invasions cut off Aksum from almost all European contact.  This civilization began modern Ethiopia.
  • 85. Kanem-Bornu     Camel trade Built a strong army 800-1846 Central Africa
  • 86. Three early kingdoms in Western Africa   Ghana 700-1200 Mali 1200-1500  Most famous ruler Mansa-Musa     Encouraged trade and learning Islamic – made pilgrimage to Mecca His capital Timbuktu was important trade center Songhai over threw Mali in 15th century  Overthrown by Moroccans in 1591
  • 87. All three were along the Niger River  All three built derived wealth from gold mines and caravan trade   Caravan trade included gold and salt
  • 88. East African City-States  Eastern Coast     Trade ports, each an independent state Outlets for gold, iron, ivory and animal skins Trade and climate made these ports wealthy Common culture    Mixture of Arab, Persian and African Language Swahili Architecture – Arabian
  • 89. Forest Kingdoms    Provided goods for eastern city-states Few written records Most important – Benin (Western Africa)   Fine statues Relief sculptures
  • 90. African Culture  Family   Most basic organization Polygamy    Religion      Divers and large family groups Clans/Tribes Christianity Islam Muslim Traditional primitive religions Economy  Farming and herding  Trading  Later, the slave trade took prominence