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chapter 9 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 9 The Landscape and People of the United States Mrs. Stephanie Holland Trinity Christian School
  • 2. BLESSED IS THE NATION WHOSE GOD IS LORD. Psalm 33:12
  • 3. Fast Facts: Capital – Washington D.C. Government – Federal Republic Third in the world in physical size Third in the world in population
  • 4. The United States is unique among other countries in the world. Varied Climate Varied topography Varied natural resources Fertile croplands Blend of different cultures/ethnicities It is has the freest, most stable government in the world, a strong economy and powerful influence across the globe.
  • 5.  Northern border – Canada   Longest unfortified border in the world The main border follows the St. Lawrence From New England to Quebec and divides four of the five United States  Southern border – Mexico   Border unfortified, but law enforcement is visible because of the problem with illegal immigrants traveling from Mexico. One natural border is the Rio Grande River.
  • 6. Eastern Border – Atlantic Ocean Western Border – Pacific Ocean
  • 7. Topography The lower 48 states can be divided into 8 distinct topographical regions Coastal Plains Piedmont Appalachian Mtns Central Plains Great Plains Rocky Mtns Great Basin Pacific Mtn Ranges Then, there is Alaska and Hawaii
  • 8. Coastal Plains  Sandy plains along the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico – extending from Maine to Texas  300 ft or less in elevation  Mostly fertile soil  Areas with poor drainage include the Everglades, the Dismal Swam, and the Okeefenoke Swamp  Allows for good harbors
  • 9. The Piedmont  Foothills of the Appalachian Mountains  Extends from Maine to Alabama  Elevation ranges from 300 to 1500 feet  Where the rivers drop from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain, there are numerous waterfalls…that line is also the Fall Line.  Fertile ground – very conducive to growing cotton
  • 10. Appalachian Mountains  West of Piedmont  Extends from Eastern Canada to Northern Alabama  Smokey, blue Ridge, Allegheny, Pocono, Catskills, Berkshire Hills, White and Green Mountain ranges  Highest peak is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina.  Eastern Continental Divide is formed by the Appalachians. The waters that flow from here eventually flow into the Atlantic
  • 11. Central Plains  West of the Appalachians  Fertile rolling hills and prairies  Stretch about 1000 miles  Rich soil  Mississippi river and its tributaries and the Great Lakes proved numerous water routes for transportation
  • 12. The Great Plains  West of the Central Plains  Altitude rises from about 1,000 feet to 5,000 feet.  Characterized by flat grasslands and a dry climate  Irrigation was needed to turn the fertile soil from the Great American Desert into fertile plains good for both farming and grazing cattle.
  • 13. Rocky Mountains  Western boundary of the Great Plains  Peaks exceed 10,000 feet/tallest is Mount Elbert at 14,433  Formidable obstacle to western settlement  Mineral resources/natural parks/ski resorts  Western Contintental Divide – waters flow from here to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico and to the Pacific Ocean.
  • 14. The Great Basin  Lowlands between the Rockies and the Pacific coast mountains.  Most of Nevada and a part of Utah  To the north is the Columbian Plateau and to the south is the Colorado Plateau  Winds have created unusual rock formations and rivers cut deep canyons
  • 15. Pacific Mountain Ranges  Pacific coast  Includes the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Mountains, and the Coastal Ranges  Include active volcanoes  Fertile valleys  Mild climates  Gold rush
  • 16. Alaska  Separated from the mainland states by an ocean and another country  Coastal mountains rim the Gulf of Alaska  Highest peak is Mount McKinley at 20,320 (Highest peak in North America)  Cold climate  Rich in mineral resources, especially oil  Mountain ranges flow mostly into the Yukon River.
  • 17. Hawaii  Western most state  Chain of volcanic islands  Rich soil  Tropical climate  Military headquarters for the Pacific region  Beaches make it a popular tourist destination
  • 18. Climate  Prevailing winds are west to east.  Japanese current warms the northwest coast and bring a lot of rain  Cool ocean current blows by California giving a mild mediterranean climate with dry summers and mild wet winters
  • 19.  Moisture evaporates at the mountain ranges, so east of the Pacific mountains the winds are dryer, milder and cooler. These areas are hot during the day but quickly cool at night.  As winds pass over the Rockies, they lose even more moisture. The area of the Great Plains gets much less rainfall – only 10 to 20 inches per year. This area is hot in summer and cold in winter.  In the Eastern US, there are two basic climates
  • 20.  The Eastern US has a generally cool, mild climate. Winters are cold and summers are hot.  The South is influenced by the westerly flow of air and the warm, moist breezes from the Gulf of Mexico. Milder temps than in the North. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur in the summer, especially in the border states  Between June and November, the Southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts are susceptible to hurricanes and tropical storms.
  • 21. Resources  The United States is among the top producers of the resources it possesses.  Obtains lacking resources through trade  In the US, free government and economic freedoms encourage individual and corporate groups to creatively and intelligently utilize resources.
  • 22.  The U.S. has been very successful in its use of plant and animal life – providing not only enough for our own use, but also for trade with other countries.
  • 23. American People Very few Americans can trace their ancestry back to the Native American people. Most are descended from immigrants. Early settlers build a strong, prosperous, and united country with a shared respect for Christian values and willingness to endure personal sacrifice. They are also united by certain core values. (?)
  • 24. Core Values  Freedom - includes economic, political and religious liberty. Political liberty is the freedom of the people to chose their own leaders and to have voice in their government.  These are not the same as Biblical views of liberty which is freedom from sin and the ability to serve God.
  • 25.  Equality – All men are created equal. Early in our history, this meant that all men are equally human, not that they should have the same rights and privileges. Lincoln is the one who expanded the meaning of equality to mean that all men are socially equal and the belief that equality meant freedom from slavery. Equality and liberty often conflict. If the government tries to enforce a social equality, it would have to restrict some of the freedoms of some citizens. (Such as the freedom to make financial gain through individual work and ability)
  • 26.  Individualism – celebrates self reliance and individuality, often at the expense of the group.  Another distinct quality of American society is the melting pot of religious thought, ethnicity, cultures. These differences can make equality a challenge, but America strives to succeed.
  • 27. Demography  Estimated population 296 million   79% urban areas (including suburbs) Minority groups are growing in population – Texas is now 50.2% nonwhite, the largest group is Hispanic.  Birth rate is approximately 14…(14 live births per 1,000 people.  Average life span – 77
  • 28. Government  Federal Republic    Power is shared between the federal government and the fifty states. (As well as local governments) US Constitution is the overriding government document. All other government levels must follow this example and not contradict it. Separation of powers between three distinct branches of the national government – Executive, Legislative and Judicial
  • 29.  Economy   Free Enterprise Capitalism – private individuals own most of the factors of production and make most of the economic decisions. Individuals and corporations can compete in the economy to make profit. GDP – $11.65 trillion  Less than 1% is from agriculture, yet America “feeds the world” and are the most productive in the world.  Almost 20% industry  80% services
  • 30.  Per capita GDP is $40,100.  One major concern is national debt    17% of Government expenditures are interest payments. War on Terrorism is costly Relief for national disasters  1/3 of the land is owned by the government. 55% of the west is owned by the government. 36.4% of Alaska and Hawaii are owned by the government.  Only 2.4% of government owned land is for military purposes. The rest is National parks, forests, wildlife areas or protected areas.