CHAPTER 7:
LIFE OF PEOPLE IN COLONIAL
GEORGIA
Trinity Christian School
Mrs. Stephanie Holland
REGIONAL DIFFERENCES
New England
Colonies

Middle Atlantic
Colonies

Southern
Colonies

NH, RI, MA, CT

NY, NJ, DE, PA

VA...


Georgia’s Main Export: Rice

 http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/georgias_major_export_r
LIFE IN GEORGIA
Wilderness of Summer Heat & Insects
 Strange Animals: Alligator, cougar, opossum,
buffalo, raccoon, & rat...
THE EBENEZER COMMUNITY


1734: Austrian Salzburgers arrive in Savannah
 Lutheran Protestants

religiously persecuted at ...
EBENEZER, CONT’D
Disease & hardship plaque the Salzburgers
 1737: An orphanage was est. for children who lost
their paren...
SALZBURGERS
EBENEZER
EARLY EBENEZER



This sketch of the early Ebenezer settlement was drawn in
1736 by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck. That...
NEW EBENEZER



German artist Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck drew a map of New Ebenezer during his visit to the
settleme...
JOHN MARTIN BOLTZIUS



Lutheran minister Johann Martin Boltzius, along with
religious refugees from Salzburger, founded ...
SALZBURGERS
Products: lumber, rice, beef, pork
 Led all other colonies in silk
 Grew the first cotton in Georgia




T...
JOHN ADAMS TREUTLEN



John Treutlen was a leader in Georgia during the American
Revolution and helped to write Georgia's...
AFRICANS COME TO AMERICA
Juan Canaries: free black member on Colombus’
first voyage in 1492
 Africans lived in Spain from...
AFRICANS IN SPAIN
THE SLAVE TRADE
SLAVERY 

Slave: one who lost their freedom and were forced
to work for another person who “owned” them;
Time limit varie...
AFRICANS ACCOMPANY
SPANISH EXPLORERS


1st Africans to North America accompany Lucas
Vasquez de Ayllon in 1526
SLAVERY IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES


1619: Dutch Captain stops in VA with 20 African
slaves on board his ship, which he tra...
HOW DID SLAVERY BECOME LEGAL IN
AMERICA?


1640: VA judge sentenced a runaway indentured
servant to life enslavement



...


Need for CHEAP LABOR: plantations, clearing
land, settling towns, etc.



Indentured Servants: immigrants (poor, young...
WHY AFRICAN SLAVES?



Runaway slaves were easily identified by their skin color.
1672: England chartered the Royal Afri...
SLAVE HOLD
AFRICANS CAPTURED TO BE SOLD INTO SLAVERY CROSSED THE
ATLANTIC OCEAN LYING PRESSED TOGETHER IN CROWDED SHIPS'
H...
TRIANGULAR TRADE
New England Rum was sold directly to Africa for
payment in newly captured slaves.
 Slaves were taken to ...
WHERE DID SLAVES END UP?


1700s:
400,000 (6%)
 3,600,000
 1,700,000
 1,600,000
 1,500,000


American Colonies
Brazi...
POLLY MANIFEST
SLAVE SHIP MANIFEST OF THE SCHOONER POLLY, MASTERED BY JOSHUA
SMITH. THE POLLY DEPARTED GAMBIA WITH FORTY S...
SUGARCANE
SLAVERY IN GEORGIA:
THE SAVANNAH PETITION


Trustees were anti-slavery!



December 1738: the “Malcontents” petition the...
OBJECTIONS TO SLAVERY


Jan 1739: Scots-Irish @ Darien: having slaves would take
away the white workers will to work hard...
WHAT WAS THE “VERDICT”?
Some planters “rented” slaves from the Carolinas,
or sneaked them in.
 1750: Trustees give in.
 ...
SLAVE CODES
Slave Codes: laws that governed the behavior of
slaves.
 Passed by the Colonial Assembly in 1755 and 1770.
 ...
Woodcut from 1839 Anti-Slavery Almanac
 A woodcut depicts the capture of a fugitive slave by a
slave patrol. Slave Patrol...
SLAVE CODES (1770)
The offspring of slaves were to remain absolute
slaves and the personal property of their owners.
 Any...
SLAVE CODES (1770) CONT’D
If a slave struck a white person, the slave would
suffer after trial and conviction any punishme...
GEORGIA SOCIETY & CULTURE
To begin with Georgia colonists experienced a
simple life of equality among “common folk”
 1773...
GEORGIA SOCIETY & CULTURE:
LIFE IN SAVANNAH
1773: Savannah a busy British seaport
 Colonists have help of hired laborers,...
SAVANNAH’S SOCIAL LADDER
Position depended on ability and ambition.
 Little opportunity for women. – position was tied to...
“Step” of Ladder

Voice in Gov’t

Social Activities

Plantation Owners &
Merchants

Provided most of the
colony’s leaders
...
LIFE IN THE COLONY OF GEORGIA:
LIFE IN THE BACKCOUNTRY
Where Georgia was really growing in the 1760s!
 Steady growth in A...
LIFE IN THE COLONY OF GEORGIA:
EDUCATION
No government established school system
 Children were primarily taught by their...
LIFE IN THE COLONY OF GEORGIA:
RELIGION UNDER THE TRUSTEES




Trustees sent Bibles, prayer books, & other religious wo...
JOHN WESLEY






1735: Appointed Anglican Rector of GA
1736: Travels with his brother, John, from England to the GA
C...
CHARLES WESLEY






Brother of John Wesley
Secretary to General Oglethorpe
Chaplain at Fort Frederica
One of the foun...
“AN ELEGIAC POEM, ON THE DEATH OF THAT CELEBRATED
DIVINE AND EMINENT SERVANT OF JESUS CHRIST, THE LATE
REVEREND, AND PIOUS...
RELIGION UNDER ROYAL RULE
Royal Governor was required to see that the
Sabbath was observed.
 1758: Church of England was ...
GEORGE WHITFIELD
http://www.bethesdahomeforboys.org/
•One of the most famous figures before
George Washington!
•Ben Frankl...
BETHESDA HOME FOR BOYS, 1740
1361 PH GEORGIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTION, BOX 7, FOLDER 12,
ITEM 1303





http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/georgias_oldest_business
http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/savannah...
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Georgia History Chapter 7

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7: LIFE OF PEOPLE IN COLONIAL GEORGIA Trinity Christian School Mrs. Stephanie Holland
  2. 2. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES New England Colonies Middle Atlantic Colonies Southern Colonies NH, RI, MA, CT NY, NJ, DE, PA VA, MD, NC, SC, GA Agriculture limited by short growing season, cold climate, & rocky land Temperate climate, longer growing season, rolling land and fertile soil = crop variety: what, oats, corn (surplus) Warm climate, rich soil, vast coastal plain = agrarian economy (agricultural) Small farms, family crops Low demand for slaves (household servants, laborers, skilled (&un) workers Fishing industry, sea trade, shipbuilding, blacksmiths, coopers, furniture makers Colonists more interested in slave labor Small farms (subsistence) & Plantations (subsistence & Cash Crops) Rich iron ore & mineral deposits = mining industry VA & MD: tobacco Colonists lived inland Abundant forest land = timber industry SC & GA: Rice & Indigo Colonists lived near the coast Combination of small towns, rural farms and cities Dependence on cheap (slave) labor developed No requirements for public schools – education left to tutors & church schools Few towns and cities Most urbanized region Schools in place by 1671 Most founded for religious reasons English, German, Dutch, ScotsIrish Few schools and educational requirements – parent funded English, African, Scots-Irish
  3. 3.  Georgia’s Main Export: Rice  http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/georgias_major_export_r
  4. 4. LIFE IN GEORGIA Wilderness of Summer Heat & Insects  Strange Animals: Alligator, cougar, opossum, buffalo, raccoon, & rattlesnake  Development of an agrarian culture: small communities, far apart, hard work with the goal of survival 
  5. 5. THE EBENEZER COMMUNITY  1734: Austrian Salzburgers arrive in Savannah  Lutheran Protestants religiously persecuted at home  Came to Georgia on charity  Settled Ebenezer  (25 miles upriver from Savannah)  Ebenezer was laid out by Oglethorpe, who sent workers from Savannah to clear the land  Problems: too far from river, swampy land, poor soil  1736: New Ebenezer was est. where the Savannah River and Ebenezer creek converged
  6. 6. EBENEZER, CONT’D Disease & hardship plaque the Salzburgers  1737: An orphanage was est. for children who lost their parents  Minister: John Martin Boltzius  Strict Church Regulations:   Citizens worked according to a set plan  Worker’s labor supported the church and orphanage  No hard liquor  No dancing  No gambling  No frivolous activity  Those who “misbehaved” were punished
  7. 7. SALZBURGERS
  8. 8. EBENEZER
  9. 9. EARLY EBENEZER  This sketch of the early Ebenezer settlement was drawn in 1736 by Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck. That same year the Salzburger settlement moved to a location closer to the Savannah River, where conditions were better for farming.
  10. 10. NEW EBENEZER  German artist Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck drew a map of New Ebenezer during his visit to the settlement in 1736. New Ebenezer, located on the bluffs above the Savannah River, was the second settlement established by the Georgia Salzburgers, a group of Protestants expelled from the Catholic province of Salzburg in 1731.
  11. 11. JOHN MARTIN BOLTZIUS  Lutheran minister Johann Martin Boltzius, along with religious refugees from Salzburger, founded the settlement of Ebenezer near Savannah in the early 1730s as a religious utopia. Boltzius hoped to create a successful economic system that was not dependent upon slavery.
  12. 12. SALZBURGERS Products: lumber, rice, beef, pork  Led all other colonies in silk  Grew the first cotton in Georgia   Though it took a while, the Salzburgers began to assimilate with other colonists as they learned English.  Ebenzer: The Stone of Help  http:// www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/stone_of_help
  13. 13. JOHN ADAMS TREUTLEN  John Treutlen was a leader in Georgia during the American Revolution and helped to write Georgia's first constitution. In 1777 he became Georgia's first elected governor.
  14. 14. AFRICANS COME TO AMERICA Juan Canaries: free black member on Colombus’ first voyage in 1492  Africans lived in Spain from at least 700 A.D., when Islamic forces invaded Spain  Spanish & other European countries participated in a slave trade with Africa.  The definition/organization of slavery varied from region to region. 
  15. 15. AFRICANS IN SPAIN
  16. 16. THE SLAVE TRADE
  17. 17. SLAVERY  Slave: one who lost their freedom and were forced to work for another person who “owned” them; Time limit varied  Lifetime Condition  Temporary Condition  Slavery in Spain  Slaves could purchase their freedom  Household servants, skilled workers, laborers, crew members
  18. 18. AFRICANS ACCOMPANY SPANISH EXPLORERS  1st Africans to North America accompany Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon in 1526
  19. 19. SLAVERY IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES  1619: Dutch Captain stops in VA with 20 African slaves on board his ship, which he trades for provisions.  The slaves are Christian, and English Law (then) did not allow Christians to be sold as slaves – so they became servants.  Colonists hunger for more slaves
  20. 20. HOW DID SLAVERY BECOME LEGAL IN AMERICA?  1640: VA judge sentenced a runaway indentured servant to life enslavement  1662: Law provided that a baby born in VA should have the status (free or slave) of its mother  1705: VA law designates that slaves can be inherited as part of one’s estate
  21. 21.  Need for CHEAP LABOR: plantations, clearing land, settling towns, etc.  Indentured Servants: immigrants (poor, young, white) who agreed to work as servants for anyone paying their way to the colonies  Indenture: Contract; required 4-7 years of work, after which the servant was free  Problems: (1) Indentured servants refused to complete certain jobs, (2) they often ran away.  A preference for slavery developed.
  22. 22. WHY AFRICAN SLAVES?   Runaway slaves were easily identified by their skin color. 1672: England chartered the Royal African Company to supply slaves from Africa to North America & the West Indies.     English traders shipped English goods (rum) to the Africa to exchange for slaves. Slaves were shipped to the Caribbean & sold to sugarcane plantation owners in return for sugar and molasses Sugar & molasses was shipped back to England or to the American colonies. Money from the sale of sugar and molasses in America was used to purchase tobacco, rice, indigo, fish, timber, tar, animal skins & other raw materials for shipment to England.
  23. 23. SLAVE HOLD AFRICANS CAPTURED TO BE SOLD INTO SLAVERY CROSSED THE ATLANTIC OCEAN LYING PRESSED TOGETHER IN CROWDED SHIPS' HOLDS. THE CITY OF SAVANNAH SERVED AS A MAJOR PORT FOR THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE FROM 1750, WHEN THE GEORGIA COLONY REPEALED ITS BAN ON SLAVERY, UNTIL 1798, WHEN THE STATE OUTLAWED THE IMPORTATION OF SLAVES.
  24. 24. TRIANGULAR TRADE New England Rum was sold directly to Africa for payment in newly captured slaves.  Slaves were taken to the West Indies and sold to sugarcane planters.  Money from the sale of slaves was used to purchase a cargo of sugar and molasses that was taken and sold to New England distilleries to be used in making more rum. 
  25. 25. WHERE DID SLAVES END UP?  1700s: 400,000 (6%)  3,600,000  1,700,000  1,600,000  1,500,000  American Colonies Brazil West Indies French Colonies Mexico 9/10 worked in the sugar plantations or mines of South America, the Caribbean or Mexico  1800s   20 millions slaves capture from W. Africa (Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Angola) had been shipped to the Americas.
  26. 26. POLLY MANIFEST SLAVE SHIP MANIFEST OF THE SCHOONER POLLY, MASTERED BY JOSHUA SMITH. THE POLLY DEPARTED GAMBIA WITH FORTY SLAVES AND ARRIVED IN SAVANNAH ON SEPTEMBER 14, 1796. THE MANIFEST LISTS THE NUMBER OF SLAVES ON THE VESSEL, THE CONSIGNOR, THE DESTINATION, AND THE SHIPPER. THE POLLY ALSO CARRIED TEN GALLONS OF RUM.
  27. 27. SUGARCANE
  28. 28. SLAVERY IN GEORGIA: THE SAVANNAH PETITION  Trustees were anti-slavery!  December 1738: the “Malcontents” petition the Trustees to allow slavery.  Georgia could never raise enough products for export without help.  Georgia needed to compete with NC and SC, which allowed slavery.  African slaves were better suited to work in the Georgia climate, especially in the rice industry.
  29. 29. OBJECTIONS TO SLAVERY  Jan 1739: Scots-Irish @ Darien: having slaves would take away the white workers will to work hard.  “It is shocking to human nature, that any race of mankind…should be sentenced to perpetual slavery; … freedom to them must be as dear as to us.”  Salzburgers: the idea that white workers couldn’t raise rice was ridiculous – they’d done it!
  30. 30. WHAT WAS THE “VERDICT”? Some planters “rented” slaves from the Carolinas, or sneaked them in.  1750: Trustees give in.  1,000 slaves brought to GA in 1752.  Opponents of slavery came to accept it.   Even the  1773: Salzburgers! 15,000 blacks vs. 18,000 whites
  31. 31. SLAVE CODES Slave Codes: laws that governed the behavior of slaves.  Passed by the Colonial Assembly in 1755 and 1770.  Offered protection for the slaves in some cases.  Main intent: to ensure that slaves were kept in their place. 
  32. 32. Woodcut from 1839 Anti-Slavery Almanac  A woodcut depicts the capture of a fugitive slave by a slave patrol. Slave Patrols were common in Georgia from 1757 until the end of the Civil War in 1865.
  33. 33. SLAVE CODES (1770) The offspring of slaves were to remain absolute slaves and the personal property of their owners.  Any person employing a slave on the Lord’s Day (Sunday) except in work of absolute necessity, must forfeit 10 shillings.  Anyone teaching a slave to read or write would forfeit 20 pounds. 
  34. 34. SLAVE CODES (1770) CONT’D If a slave struck a white person, the slave would suffer after trial and conviction any punishment the justice though fit, not extending to life or limb. For the second offense, the punishment was death.  Slaves could not travel outside the town or plantation without a ticket signed by a responsible person. If a slave was found without a ticket or not in the company of a white person, punishment was whipping on the bare back not exceeding 20 lashes.  Georgia’s African Heritage:   http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/georgias_african_heritag
  35. 35. GEORGIA SOCIETY & CULTURE To begin with Georgia colonists experienced a simple life of equality among “common folk”  1773: GA is a colony of   33,000 people  50% black  slaves Colonist who own slaves begin to prosper  Sir James Wright (1st Royal Governor) owned 11 plantations 26,000 acres of land and 525 slaves
  36. 36. GEORGIA SOCIETY & CULTURE: LIFE IN SAVANNAH 1773: Savannah a busy British seaport  Colonists have help of hired laborers, indentured servants or slaves  Specialists Available: shoemakers, tailors, cabinetmakers, coopers, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, masons, saddlers, wheelwrights, sailmakers, mechanics and artists  Trained Professionals Available: lawyers, doctors, clergymen & teachers 
  37. 37. SAVANNAH’S SOCIAL LADDER Position depended on ability and ambition.  Little opportunity for women. – position was tied to husband’s position.  Except for a few freedmen, blacks occupied the lowest part. 
  38. 38. “Step” of Ladder Voice in Gov’t Social Activities Plantation Owners & Merchants Provided most of the colony’s leaders Public Celebrations: military ceremonies, weddings, funerals Celebration of the King’s Birthday Picnics & dances Social Fraternities (males) Taverns/Public Houses – Meetings Reading – Booksellers; 1763 Georgia Gazette
  39. 39. LIFE IN THE COLONY OF GEORGIA: LIFE IN THE BACKCOUNTRY Where Georgia was really growing in the 1760s!  Steady growth in Augusta   1736: Indian Trading Post  Gateway to the backcountry  The unofficial capital of Georgia’s frontier  Backcountry settlers lived simple, rugged, rowdy lives  self-sufficient; relied on their own skills to survived  Did not like government interference in their lives  Primarily small-scale farmers: Posessions: simple tools, guns, spinning wheel, kitchen items  Males: cleared land, tended crops, building maintenance, hunting  Females: tended gardens, cared for children, prepared meals, sewed  Recreation: shooting matches, horse races, “work gatherings”: barn-raisings, corn shuckings & quilting bees 
  40. 40. LIFE IN THE COLONY OF GEORGIA: EDUCATION No government established school system  Children were primarily taught by their parents   Boys – learned farming skills  Girls – learned household management skills  Orphans were “bound out” for families to teach  Sporadically, schools were est.  Bethseda Orphan House: THE school that lasted  Schoolmasters: clergymen  Subjects: Reading, writing, arithmetic & RELIGION Larger Plantations hired tutors.  Most GA children NEVER went to school. 
  41. 41. LIFE IN THE COLONY OF GEORGIA: RELIGION UNDER THE TRUSTEES    Trustees sent Bibles, prayer books, & other religious works Anglican Church raised money for GA Other religious were welcome NO Catholics (They settled after the American Revolution)  Jewish Families: 1733 Dr.Samuel Nunes; Abraham DeLyon  Georgia’s Oldest Congregation: http:// www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/stone_of_help   Anglican Clergymen Arrive: minister to the colonists and convert the Indians  John Wesley: led “Sunday Schools” ; founder of Methodism  Charles Wesley: Oglethorpe’s Secretary  George Whitfield: est. Bethseda Orphan House
  42. 42. JOHN WESLEY     1735: Appointed Anglican Rector of GA 1736: Travels with his brother, John, from England to the GA Colony 1737: Returns to England 1784: Founded Methodism in England
  43. 43. CHARLES WESLEY     Brother of John Wesley Secretary to General Oglethorpe Chaplain at Fort Frederica One of the founders of Methodism
  44. 44. “AN ELEGIAC POEM, ON THE DEATH OF THAT CELEBRATED DIVINE AND EMINENT SERVANT OF JESUS CHRIST, THE LATE REVEREND, AND PIOUS GEORGE WHITFIELD” Hail, happy Saint, on thy immortal throne! To thee complaints of grievance are unknown; We hear no more the music of thy tongue, Thy wonted auditories cease to throng. Thy lessons in unequal'd accents flow'd! While emulation in each bosom glow'd; Thou didst, in strains of eloquence refin'd, Inflame the soul, and captivate the mind. Unhappy we, the setting Sun deplore! Which once was splendid, but it shines no more; He leaves this earth for Heav'n's unmeasur'd height, And worlds unknown, receive him from our sight; There WHITEFIELD wings, with rapid course his way, And sails to Zion, through vast seas of day. When his AMERICANS were burden'd sore, When streets were crimson'd with their guiltless gore! Unrival'd friendship in his breast now strove: The fruit thereof was charity and love. Towards America – couldst thou do more Than leave thy native home, the British shore, To cross the great Atlantic's wat'ry road, To see America's distress'd abode? Thy prayers, great Saint, and thy incessant cries, Have pierc'd the bosom of thy native skies! Thou moon hast seen, and ye bright stars of light Have witness been of his requests by night! He pray'd that grace in every heart might dwell: He long'd to see America excell; He charg'd its youth to let the grace divine Arise, and in their future actions shine; He offer'd THAT he did himself receive, A greater gift not GOD himself can give: He urg'd the need of HIM to every one; It was no less than GOD's coequal SON! Take HIM ye wretched for your only good; Take HIM ye starving souls to be your food. Ye thirsty, come to his life giving stream: Ye Preachers, take him for your joyful theme: Take HIM, "my dear AMERICANS," he said, Be your complaints in his kind bosom laid: Take HIM ye Africans, he longs for you; Impartial SAVIOUR, is his title due; If you will chuse to walk in grace's road,
  45. 45. RELIGION UNDER ROYAL RULE Royal Governor was required to see that the Sabbath was observed.  1758: Church of England was made the colony’s official church   Georgians were taxed to support the COE, but worshipped as they chose At the end of the colonial period, a number of religious groups had churches in Savannah  Religion varied elsewhere in GA:   Ebenezer: the Church was THE center of life  Backcountry: Religion barely existed
  46. 46. GEORGE WHITFIELD http://www.bethesdahomeforboys.org/ •One of the most famous figures before George Washington! •Ben Franklin supported Bethseda – only he felt that it should be located in PA! "The poor little ones were tabled out here and there, and besides the hurt they received by bad examples, forgot at home what they learned at school. Others were at hard service and likely to have no education at all. Upon seeing this I thought I could not better show my regard to God and my country than by getting a house and land for these children where they might learn to labor, read, and write, and at the same time be brought up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord." "Bethesda" means "House of Mercy"
  47. 47. BETHESDA HOME FOR BOYS, 1740 1361 PH GEORGIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTION, BOX 7, FOLDER 12, ITEM 1303
  48. 48.     http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/georgias_oldest_business http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/savannah_under_attack http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/big_question http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/story/big_question

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