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  • 1. Chapter 17 Reaction and Revolution World History Mrs. Holland
  • 2. “When France sneezes, all Europe catches cold.” The “Cold” is actually the spirit of revolution. Liberalism, nationalism, local autonomy and the longing for independence stirred the desire for revolution and change.
  • 3. Reactionaries were men who wanted to reverse the trends begun by the French Revolution and restore Europe to its pre-Revolution condition. This conservative movement lost momentum to the liberal forces of nationalism.
  • 4. The Congress of Vienna The victorious nations of the Grand Alliance – Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia – were now faced with restoring order and stability in Europe. They convened a congress of European leaders to draw up a settlement. (They were later called the Quadruple Alliance-established by the Congress. When France was added, it became the Quintuple Alliance.)
  • 5. Great Britain was the Quintuple Alliance member that was more sympathetic to social reform and strongly opposed the plan to restore the Spanish colonies to the monarchy of Spain. These colonies had previously fought and won independence during the Napoleonic Era.
  • 6. Belgium was given to the Dutch by the Congress of Vienna. The Belgium people were dissatisfied and revolted. The Treaty of London recognized the independence of Belgium. It also declared Belgium a perpetually neutral state.
  • 7. The French constitution of 1848 established “universal human suffrage,” which means that all men can vote. The first major international conflict after the defeat of Napoleon was the Crimean War. – It pitted Britain, France and the Kingdom of Sardinia against Russia.
  • 8. In the mid nineteenth century, Italy was still politically divided into small kingdoms. Nationalism movement – Risorgimento (resurgence). A society called “Young Italy” wanted unification. The kingdom of Italy’s first king was Victor Emmanuel.
  • 9. Spokesmen for the great powers at the Congress: Lord Castlereagh – Britain Czar Alexander I – Russia Prince Klemens von Matternich – Austria
  • 10. Matternich was the leading figure at the congress. His influence was so great that the period from 1815 to 1848 is called the “Age of Matternich.”
  • 11. Goals of the Congress: Safeguards against France- stripped France of her conquests and reduced her territory to her 1792 borders/required France to pay compensations (indemnities) to the other nations for war damages.
  • 12. Restoration of legitimate rulers – Napoleon had deposed many European rulers and placed his relatives on their thrones. Grants of compensation – victors of the Napoleonic wars and those nations that lost territory were compensated with additional territory.
  • 13. Balance of Power – The delegates wanted to prevent any nation from becoming so strong that it could threaten the security of Europe as France had done.
  • 14. The Congress of Vienna was dominated by the idea of restoring order in Europe and the conservative ideas of the monarchy - not promoting the liberal rebellions.
  • 15. Reform of the Liberals Advocated democratic reforms such as written constitutions that guarantee rights and freedoms and limited the power of autocratic rulers. They promoted parliamentary government and increased public participation in government.
  • 16. The Concert of Europe – the major powers hoped to work together to avoid major wars and suppress nationalism and liberalism. After liberal revolutions in 1830 and 1848, France ended up with the dictatorship.
  • 17. The policy of doing whatever is necessary to obtain national goals is known as realpolitik. (“the politics of reality”)
  • 18. The Dual Monarchy – made Austria equal partners with Hungary. (Austria-Hungary) Both countries remained under the Hapsburg monarchy and co-operated in matters such as the finances, foreign affairs and defense, but each had its own constitution, official language, flag and parliament.
  • 19. Romanticism was a cultural movement that gave literary and artistic expression to the concepts of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.” Major themes of romantic writers included the love of freedom, the “noble savage”, and an emphasis on nature.
  • 20. Important people Louis XVIII – invited to assume the throne of France after Napolean’s defeat. Monroe – American president who warned European nations against establishing colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
  • 21. Charles X – forced to flee France in 1830 after the people of France revolted against his attempts to restrict certain freedoms Napoleon III – French leader who staged a coup d’etat in 1851 and proclaimed himself emperor a year later.
  • 22. Nicholas I – Russian czar who replaced westernization with “Russification.” Cavour – Primarily responsible for unifying Italy. Louis Philippe – “citizen king” who replaced Charles X in France.
  • 23. Garibaldi – Italian patriot, his followers were called “Red Shirts.” Bismarck – Architect of German unification. Talleyrand – Represented France at the Congress of Vienna
  • 24. Alexander II – Russian czar who abolished serfdom in 1861 but was assassinated in 1881. Pushkin – great Russian poet/supported the Decembrist Revolt in 1825. Nationalism was a major theme in his writing.
  • 25. Florence Nightingale – nurse whose efforts during the Crimean War made her a national heroine in Great Britain/Advised the United States during the American Civil War/First woman to receive the British Order of Merit.
  • 26. Byron – British poet who died in a greed war for Independence. Coleridge – Wrote poems describing a Mongol palace and the voyage of an old seaman.
  • 27. Cooper – American novelist who glorified the noble savage. Goethe – German author of Faust. Grimm brothers – German Fairy Tales.
  • 28. Hugo – French author of the Hunchback of Notre Dame. Poe – American author of mysterious and emotional poems and short stories. Scott – Scottish author of Ivanhoe.
  • 29. Shelley – British poet who condemned the tyranny of Christianity. Wordsworth – Expressed his love of nature through his poetry.
  • 30. Beethoven – bridged the gap between classical and romantic music. Increased the size of the orchestra and added the trombone and piccolo. Brahms – German composer of chamber music, symphonies and songs.
  • 31. Constable – British painter of landscapes David – Neoclassical painter Delacroix – Painted Liberty Leading the People.
  • 32. Liszt – one of the most accomplished pianists of that day. Tchaikovsky – Nutcracker ballet and 1812 Overture. Written about the commemorate the 1812 Russian victory over Napoleon. http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=VbxgYlcNxE8
  • 33. Verdi – Great Italian opera composer associated with the cause of Italian unification. Wagner – Based his operas on Germanic myths.