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Chapter 17
Reaction and
Revolution
World History
Mrs. Holland
“When France sneezes, all
Europe catches cold.”
The “Cold” is actually the spirit
of revolution. Liberalism,
nationalism,...
Reactionaries were men who
wanted to reverse the trends
begun by the French
Revolution and restore
Europe to its pre-Revo...
The Congress of Vienna
The victorious nations of the Grand
Alliance – Britain, Austria, Prussia,
Russia – were now faced ...
Great Britain was the Quintuple
Alliance member that was more
sympathetic to social reform
and strongly opposed the plan
...
Belgium was given to the Dutch
by the Congress of Vienna. The
Belgium people were dissatisfied
and revolted. The Treaty o...
The French constitution of 1848
established “universal human
suffrage,” which means that all
men can vote.
The first maj...
In the mid nineteenth
century, Italy was still politically
divided into small kingdoms.
Nationalism movement –
Risorgime...
Spokesmen for the great
powers at the Congress:
Lord Castlereagh – Britain
Czar Alexander I – Russia
Prince Klemens vo...
Matternich was the
leading figure at the
congress. His influence
was so great that the
period from 1815 to
1848 is called ...
Goals of the Congress:
Safeguards against France-
stripped France of her
conquests and reduced her
territory to her 1792...
Restoration of legitimate rulers
– Napoleon had deposed
many European rulers and
placed his relatives on their
thrones.
...
Balance of Power – The
delegates wanted to
prevent any nation from
becoming so strong that it
could threaten the security...
The Congress of Vienna
was dominated by the idea
of restoring order in Europe
and the conservative ideas
of the monarchy ...
Reform of the Liberals
Advocated democratic reforms
such as written constitutions that
guarantee rights and freedoms
and...
The Concert of Europe – the
major powers hoped to work
together to avoid major wars
and suppress nationalism and
liberali...
The policy of doing
whatever is necessary to
obtain national goals is
known as realpolitik. (“the
politics of reality”)
The Dual Monarchy – made
Austria equal partners with
Hungary. (Austria-Hungary)
Both countries remained under
the Hapsbu...
Romanticism was a cultural
movement that gave literary
and artistic expression to the
concepts of “Liberty, Equality,
and...
Important people
Louis XVIII – invited to assume
the throne of France after
Napolean’s defeat.
Monroe – American preside...
Charles X – forced to flee
France in 1830 after the
people of France revolted
against his attempts to restrict
certain fr...
Nicholas I – Russian czar who
replaced westernization with
“Russification.”
Cavour – Primarily responsible for
unifying ...
Garibaldi – Italian patriot, his
followers were called “Red
Shirts.”
Bismarck – Architect of
German unification.
Talley...
Alexander II – Russian czar
who abolished serfdom in 1861
but was assassinated in 1881.
Pushkin – great Russian
poet/sup...
Florence Nightingale –
nurse whose efforts during
the Crimean War made her
a national heroine in Great
Britain/Advised th...
Byron – British poet who
died in a greed war for
Independence.
Coleridge – Wrote poems
describing a Mongol
palace and th...
Cooper – American novelist
who glorified the noble
savage.
Goethe – German author
of Faust.
Grimm brothers – German
Fai...
Hugo – French author of the
Hunchback of Notre Dame.
Poe – American author of
mysterious and emotional
poems and short s...
Shelley – British poet who
condemned the tyranny of
Christianity.
Wordsworth – Expressed his
love of nature through his
...
Beethoven – bridged the gap
between classical and
romantic music. Increased the
size of the orchestra and
added the tromb...
Constable – British painter
of landscapes
David – Neoclassical
painter
Delacroix – Painted Liberty
Leading the People.
Liszt – one of the most
accomplished pianists of that
day.
Tchaikovsky – Nutcracker ballet
and 1812 Overture.
Written a...
Verdi – Great Italian opera
composer associated with
the cause of Italian
unification.
Wagner – Based his operas
on Germ...
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  1. 1. Chapter 17 Reaction and Revolution World History Mrs. Holland
  2. 2. “When France sneezes, all Europe catches cold.” The “Cold” is actually the spirit of revolution. Liberalism, nationalism, local autonomy and the longing for independence stirred the desire for revolution and change.
  3. 3. Reactionaries were men who wanted to reverse the trends begun by the French Revolution and restore Europe to its pre-Revolution condition. This conservative movement lost momentum to the liberal forces of nationalism.
  4. 4. The Congress of Vienna The victorious nations of the Grand Alliance – Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia – were now faced with restoring order and stability in Europe. They convened a congress of European leaders to draw up a settlement. (They were later called the Quadruple Alliance-established by the Congress. When France was added, it became the Quintuple Alliance.)
  5. 5. Great Britain was the Quintuple Alliance member that was more sympathetic to social reform and strongly opposed the plan to restore the Spanish colonies to the monarchy of Spain. These colonies had previously fought and won independence during the Napoleonic Era.
  6. 6. Belgium was given to the Dutch by the Congress of Vienna. The Belgium people were dissatisfied and revolted. The Treaty of London recognized the independence of Belgium. It also declared Belgium a perpetually neutral state.
  7. 7. The French constitution of 1848 established “universal human suffrage,” which means that all men can vote. The first major international conflict after the defeat of Napoleon was the Crimean War. – It pitted Britain, France and the Kingdom of Sardinia against Russia.
  8. 8. In the mid nineteenth century, Italy was still politically divided into small kingdoms. Nationalism movement – Risorgimento (resurgence). A society called “Young Italy” wanted unification. The kingdom of Italy’s first king was Victor Emmanuel.
  9. 9. Spokesmen for the great powers at the Congress: Lord Castlereagh – Britain Czar Alexander I – Russia Prince Klemens von Matternich – Austria
  10. 10. Matternich was the leading figure at the congress. His influence was so great that the period from 1815 to 1848 is called the “Age of Matternich.”
  11. 11. Goals of the Congress: Safeguards against France- stripped France of her conquests and reduced her territory to her 1792 borders/required France to pay compensations (indemnities) to the other nations for war damages.
  12. 12. Restoration of legitimate rulers – Napoleon had deposed many European rulers and placed his relatives on their thrones. Grants of compensation – victors of the Napoleonic wars and those nations that lost territory were compensated with additional territory.
  13. 13. Balance of Power – The delegates wanted to prevent any nation from becoming so strong that it could threaten the security of Europe as France had done.
  14. 14. The Congress of Vienna was dominated by the idea of restoring order in Europe and the conservative ideas of the monarchy - not promoting the liberal rebellions.
  15. 15. Reform of the Liberals Advocated democratic reforms such as written constitutions that guarantee rights and freedoms and limited the power of autocratic rulers. They promoted parliamentary government and increased public participation in government.
  16. 16. The Concert of Europe – the major powers hoped to work together to avoid major wars and suppress nationalism and liberalism. After liberal revolutions in 1830 and 1848, France ended up with the dictatorship.
  17. 17. The policy of doing whatever is necessary to obtain national goals is known as realpolitik. (“the politics of reality”)
  18. 18. The Dual Monarchy – made Austria equal partners with Hungary. (Austria-Hungary) Both countries remained under the Hapsburg monarchy and co-operated in matters such as the finances, foreign affairs and defense, but each had its own constitution, official language, flag and parliament.
  19. 19. Romanticism was a cultural movement that gave literary and artistic expression to the concepts of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.” Major themes of romantic writers included the love of freedom, the “noble savage”, and an emphasis on nature.
  20. 20. Important people Louis XVIII – invited to assume the throne of France after Napolean’s defeat. Monroe – American president who warned European nations against establishing colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
  21. 21. Charles X – forced to flee France in 1830 after the people of France revolted against his attempts to restrict certain freedoms Napoleon III – French leader who staged a coup d’etat in 1851 and proclaimed himself emperor a year later.
  22. 22. Nicholas I – Russian czar who replaced westernization with “Russification.” Cavour – Primarily responsible for unifying Italy. Louis Philippe – “citizen king” who replaced Charles X in France.
  23. 23. Garibaldi – Italian patriot, his followers were called “Red Shirts.” Bismarck – Architect of German unification. Talleyrand – Represented France at the Congress of Vienna
  24. 24. Alexander II – Russian czar who abolished serfdom in 1861 but was assassinated in 1881. Pushkin – great Russian poet/supported the Decembrist Revolt in 1825. Nationalism was a major theme in his writing.
  25. 25. Florence Nightingale – nurse whose efforts during the Crimean War made her a national heroine in Great Britain/Advised the United States during the American Civil War/First woman to receive the British Order of Merit.
  26. 26. Byron – British poet who died in a greed war for Independence. Coleridge – Wrote poems describing a Mongol palace and the voyage of an old seaman.
  27. 27. Cooper – American novelist who glorified the noble savage. Goethe – German author of Faust. Grimm brothers – German Fairy Tales.
  28. 28. Hugo – French author of the Hunchback of Notre Dame. Poe – American author of mysterious and emotional poems and short stories. Scott – Scottish author of Ivanhoe.
  29. 29. Shelley – British poet who condemned the tyranny of Christianity. Wordsworth – Expressed his love of nature through his poetry.
  30. 30. Beethoven – bridged the gap between classical and romantic music. Increased the size of the orchestra and added the trombone and piccolo. Brahms – German composer of chamber music, symphonies and songs.
  31. 31. Constable – British painter of landscapes David – Neoclassical painter Delacroix – Painted Liberty Leading the People.
  32. 32. Liszt – one of the most accomplished pianists of that day. Tchaikovsky – Nutcracker ballet and 1812 Overture. Written about the commemorate the 1812 Russian victory over Napoleon. http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=VbxgYlcNxE8
  33. 33. Verdi – Great Italian opera composer associated with the cause of Italian unification. Wagner – Based his operas on Germanic myths.
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