TCP-India - IIM Bangalore


Published on

TCP-India's presentation at IIM Bangalore.

Published in: Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This slide series has images of the Sun and the Earth with a schematic treatment of solar rays coming down and (some of the) heat filtering back up through the atmosphere to Space.   As sunlight warms the earth, a good deal of the heat that arrives in these rays then escapes back out to outer space through the atmosphere. Still, the atmosphere captures some of the heat. If the atmosphere “thickens” through the addition of increased levels of greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), more heat will be held in by the atmosphere, much like throwing a thicker blanket on the bed will retain more heat.  
  • For many years the amount of greenhouse gas found in the atmosphere has kept the temperatures of the planet within a range that is comfortable for humans and other living creatures. Compare this balance in temperature to two other planets: Mars has very little atmosphere, retains little heat and is very cold temperatures while Venus has large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is much too hot for humans.  
  • This slide is showing the Sun shining energy rays down to the Earth and red upward arrows indicating how much heat remains in the atmosphere and how much of it drifts back to space. Solar energy contains visible radiation. Basically, the Earth’s surface absorbs most of the visible solar radiation and re-sends much of it as infrared radiation back up to the atmosphere.
  • Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, absorb this infrared radiation, and re-radiate it in all directions including back to Earth. This is how the greenhouse effect keeps the atmosphere and surface much warmer than if these infrared radiation absorbers were absent from the atmosphere.  
  • Human beings, their industries, transportation and settlements are now sizable and numerous enough to be capable of altering the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere. The primary source of the increased atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide since the pre-industrial period results from fossil fuel use, with land-use change providing another significant, but smaller, contribution. Here we see smokestacks spewing smoke and vapor. Again, many people hold the longstanding but false assumption that the Earth is too vast to harm through human activity and even if real environmental harms is done the Earth would recover quickly. In reality, scientists find that the earth’s atmosphere is so thin that we have been changing its chemical composition though human activities. In 2007, the United Nations peak scientific body on climate change the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change said: “We conclude that warming caused by human activities has likely had a discernible impact on the global level on many physical and biological systems.” (IPCC AR4 press conference, Brussels.) Background: Other quotes from IPCC’s 4AR report could be woven into the discussion at this point. Either of these statements are relevant and can be sourced to 4AR It is very likely (more than 90%) that greenhouse gas increase caused most of the warming since the mid 20 th century - It is extremely unlikely (less than 5%) that warming caused by natural variability – human activities – at least 5 times greater than due to solar output change.
  • Slides 11-14: Indian Examples Talking Points : Human beings, their industries, transportation and settlements are now sizeable and numerous enough to be capable of altering the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere. Background: A smoke stack in Mumbai. We can alter the basic molecular components of the Earths’ atmosphere and specifically are doing so with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas. It goes into the atmosphere during plant respiration, organic fuel combustion, and decomposition of organic material. CO2 is the most important of the greenhouse gases because of its abundance.
  • Talking Point: Deforestation is responsible for nearly 26% of India’s greenhouse emissions.
  • Talking Points: Our lifestyles require polluting forms of transportation. The number of cars in India have drastically increased in the last few decades, and we do not have proper urban systems in place to handle this new traffic. Our lack of investment in the scale of public transport needed has lead to increased pollution levels that could have easily been mitigated. Source: These pictures come from the Sanctuary Asia Photo Library. Data is sourced from CSE, the Planning Commission, and TERI.
  • This slide schematically shows the atmosphere thickening as a result of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases.  
  • This slide schematically shows that the thicker atmosphere (thickened by higher amounts of greenhouse gas) holds more heat onto the Earth’s surface, as reflected in the red upward arrows.  
  • In June (2009), in the US, the White House released a report which explained that the effects of climate change are already been felt. Temperatures are climbing, sea levels and rising and rainfall is increasing. The United Nations is warning that tens of millions of people living in the worlds biggest cities are highly exposed to “mega disaster.” Report lead author Dr Jerry Melillo said: “It is clear that climate change is happening now. The observed climate changes we report are not opinions to be debated; they are facts to be dealt with.’ Jane Lubchenco is the administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said on the day of the report launch “I really believe this report is a game changer, I think that much of the foot dragging in addressing climate change is a reflection of the perception that climate change is way down the road, it's in the future. And this report demonstrates, provides the concrete scientific information that says unequivocally that climate change is happening now.” Source
  • This graph simply explains what the likely scenarios are. It is based on recent information from the UK’s Met Office. The graph explains simply what will happen, globally, under four climate change abatement models which are on the table The red arrow shows the projected temperature rise (the figure to the left) and percentage emissions will increase by - if no action is taken The yellow arrow shows the projected temperature rise (the figure to the left) and percentage emissions will increase by - if action is delayed until 2030 The blue arrow shows the projected temperature rise (the figure to the left) and percentage emissions will increase by - if action starts at 2010, but slowly The green arrow shows the projected temperature rise (the figure to the left) and percentage emissions will increase by - if rapid action starts at 2010 To stay close to a two degree Celsius we need to implement the model represented by the green arrow, specifically – early but rapid decline of carbon emissions globally beginning in 2010. How do we do this? Mr Gore and the following slides will explain. (… and that is to et an ambitious target and lobby our leaders ensure the Copenhagen COP is the forum to ensure the world quickly moves away from fossil fuels and embraces a renewable future ….) (The Met Office in an abbreviation for Meteorological Office. It is the UK’s national weather services and is a subsidiary of the Ministry of Defence. It provides a range of critical services globally. It is the U Weather has international responsibilities for the provision of services.)
  • The Asia Pacific Summit trained people from Australia, Bangladesh, China, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nauru, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, The Philippines, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, Thailand, Timor-Leste, the United Kingdom, the USA and Yemen. This map above indicates what most of these countries in Asia and Oceania contribute, in terms of emissions, the global climate crisis. As an example - the average Australian produces 27 tonnes of carbon a year – that is one person – producing an amount of carbon pollution, most of that is attributed to the electricity we consume and buy. Note to speakers: If it helps you explain to your audiences – here are two examples of what one tonne of carbon “is” in practical terms - A transatlantic return flight from London to New York will emit more than a tonne of carbon per passenger. - Leaving ten twin fluorescent light fittings on for eight hours a day will produce one tonne of carbon a year. - Reducing the heating temperature in an office by just 1°C can save 30 tonnes of carbon a year. Source guardian
  • Carbon pollution does not recognise national boundaries. Everything that we do, buy and produce effects the quantity of carbon and other gases which are constantly manufactured and released into the atmosphere. This is a table of the amount of carbon pollution each of our regions produce and contribute to the global problem, and where we stand in order of rank globally as an emitter. Understanding the root cause of the problem is the primary step to solving the crisis. Each of our regions have different contributing factors which, if addressed, will largely solve the crisis and help us work together and achieve a low carbon future and enjoy prosperity. For Australia it is the dependence on burning coal as the main source of cheap electricity, in Indonesia it is deforestation. In China it is processes involved in industry and it is a similar story in India. But as you can tell already – all of these issues are all of our problem – we all benefit from cheap manufacturing, Australia exports its coal, the forests of PNG and Indonesia are being cut down by multi national companies and are used in products which are sold all over the world.
  • The table above is a snapshot of what governments in the Asia Pacific region has decided to do about reducing their carbon pollution. Above the white line are the immediate short term targets by the countries which have been agreed. Below the line are the maximum longer term agreements in place. What we each do as countries individually is relevant, but mostly not enough – and not integrated. India and China have an action plan, as does Indonesia. Australia is struggling to agree a Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme and the Philippines has a voluntary reduction goal in place. While all this stop – start policy planning is happening with various degrees of success at a government level – the thing we need to understand and spell out very clearly is … that mother nature does not do bail outs. Look at what is happening right now in your region ….. It can be hard to keep abreast of all the changes happening in our region. And to make it more difficult to keep track of, some regions have intentions but no agreed policy on what is called the abatement and mitigation of climate change.
  • Important to note that India is ranked 5 th world wide, even with a much lower number that USA and China. The point here is installed does not necessarily mean it is being efficiently used.
  • Description: This graph shows the intensity of sun that each part of the Earth receives. As you can see, India is quite red, especially in the Rajasthan region. Talking Point: We are proud to say that the National Action Plan that the government published in June 2008 pushed strongly for solar energy research and development. Currently we have good subsidies in place to promote solar thermal heating, which are panels placed on top of buildings to heat water so you do not need a geyser. Many new housing complexes that are coming up in suburbs of cities require solar thermal heating from the developers. On a more mass scale there is investments being promised by a host of Indian companies. Signet Solar hopes to invest $ 2 billion over 10 years to set up 3 Indian plants to reach 1 gW production. TATA BP solar will invest 100 million on R&D and solar power generation. A Reliance 1 GW solar PV manufactoring plant for $3 billion is currently in planning stages.
  • Quote: Image:
  • With advanced industry development and high levels of energy efficiency, concentrated solar power could meet up to 7% of the world’s power needs by 2030 and fully one quarter by 2050* Large scale commercially viable concentrating solar power in areas best suited (ie with the most sun) specifically Australia, parts of India, China as well as the Middle East, Northern Africa and southern Europe – will employ as a many as 2 million people and produce a combined solar power capacity if more than 830 GW - by 2050. It would create more than $US14.4 billion investment in 2010 and save more than 148 million tonnes of carbon pollution annually by 2020, rising to 2.1 billion in 2050. The principle exists and is operational in California. In March a Californian start up company eSolar announced a licence deal for its solar power technology for the construction of up to 1 gigawatt of solar farms in India over the next decade. The Indian government is currently trailing a feed in tariff for solar power of up to 10 rupees per kWh (kilo watt hour). This is Desertec's sketch of a possible infrastructure for sustainable power supply to Europe and the Mediterranean. MENA refers to the "Middle East and North Africa," and "Concentrating Solar Power" refers to solar thermal energy. This is just one of the viable options available to replace the burning of fossil fuels and to radically reduce the globes carbon pollution. Source: *Concentrating Solar Power Global outlook 09 3 rd joint report from IEA, Estela & Greenpeace report A consortium of German firms is planning a massive solar energy project in the North Africa desert. The aim is to provide electricity for German households. The venture is expected to cost 400 billion euros (552 billion dollars) and start providing the first electricity in 10 years. Some 15 firms and institutions have expressed interest ion joining the consortium, among them Siemens, Deutsche Bank, insurer Munich Re, and utilities giants RWE and E.ON. It has been reported that the main players will meet in July 13 and continue to seek support for solar power stations in Sahara for plants would supply power to Europe, Africa.
  • Image -
  • Slide 1: Indian Climate Change Story Talking Point: The Climate Project is an international organisaton made up of over 2,500 personally trained individuals under Al Gore. It has chapters in the UK, Australia, Canada, Spain and since March of 2009, India. In India we have over 100 civic leaders who have been trained, and are committed to spreading the message of Climate Change in our country. However, because Mr. Gore’s presentation is geared to developed nations, we have had to change the approach to climate change education at home. Instead we focus on the India-specific issues as well as developmental needs of the country. Apollo 17 Photo taken 7 December, 1972
  • Talking Point: We are going to highlight the five main symptoms of Climate Change. These are happening all over the world, but we will show Indian examples of them.
  • Description: Photos of the Pindari Glacier in the Himalayas. Talking Point: This photo shows how much of it has disappeared in the last sixty years.
  • SOURCE: Description: Sattelite image which depicts rate of recession of Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas. Background: The Himalayan Glaciers, which regulate the water supply to the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Mekong, Thanlwin, Yangtze and Yellow Rivers are believed to be retreating at a rate of 10 to 15 metres (33-49 feet) each year. (BBC News) The Gangotri is especially troubling because it is the main glacier that feeds the Ganges River. This is why scientists say that the Ganges could dry up as early as 2035. According to bodies such as TERI and the IPCC, there is a very good chance that after 2035, the Gangotri Glacier would have receded to a point that it will no longer be able to feed the Ganges.
  • Description: Snow Leopard in the Himalayas
  • Talking Point: We have our own “polar bear” scenario in India. The Himalayas are home to a rich biodiversity and strong ecosystem. The rapid rate at which the glaciers are melting means that we are destroying their habitat and species loss is drastically on the rise. Do we need to start calling the snow leopard a rock leopard?
  • Description: Ariel view of Himalayan range. Talking Point: This is a very scary reality because in India and most of South Asia, we depend on the Himalayas. Their snow peak mountaintops control our weather patterns, and their glaciers feed our rivers which are the lifeline of our country. It is also our only last source of fresh water as groundwater levels are depleting even faster than the glaciers.
  • Source: The Ganges River data comes from the 2007 UN Report on Climate Change Issues.
  • Talking point: There is a difference between sea based ice and land based ice. Greenland and Antarctica have meters of ice over them which rest on the land, so they are examples of land-based ice. When this ice melts off into the oceans it adds to the sea levels and causes them to rise. If Greenland were to melt (which is highly likely in the next century) we could have sea levels rise to as much as 7 meters.
  • Description: Indian Wetlands. Talking Point: Satellite imagery shows scientists that there is a decrease of 20% in Sunderban mangroves in the last 40 years. According to a WWF India report, islands are disappearing at rapid rates. In 2000 there were 102 islands, but in 2002 there were only 100. Some parts of the Sunderbans have lost up to 2.5 km of their lands to the sea. On average, islands have lost 48% of their land. WWF India reports that the sea levels in West Bengal are rising at 5 mm per year.
  • Talking Point: An important factor that is significantly affecting the corals is ocean acidity. Because carbon dioxide is a soluble gas, it is rapidly absorbed by seawater, and anthropogenic carbon dioxide has accumulated in the world's oceans. The limestone or calcium carbonate, structures of coral reefs are constructed by coral animals from the calcium and carbonate dissolved in seawater. The increasing acidity of the ocean is reducing the amount of carbonate available in seawater, and it of concern that these changes in the chemistry of the ocean are reducing coral cover. Climate change and ocean acidity have some grave irreversible impacts on the reefs. One of the most direct effects is that the rate of coral mortality greatly increases. Based on surveys in the 1960s and early 1970s and recent studies of relatively “pristine” reefs, it appears that historically, coral cover has reduced by 50-60%. It also affects the reproductive ability of the corals. Due to this, the population of reefs significantly decreases over a period of time. (In addition to this, the loss of zooxanthellae causes a drastic reduction in the productivity of the coral since zooxanthellae controls primary production.) This makes the corals weaker as they are less calcified than usual and this in turn reduces its chances of survival. If temperatures continue to rise then the future of the coral reefs looks very bleak. Even under moderate greenhouse scenarios, present and future increases in sea temperature are likely to have severe effects on the world’s coral reefs within 20-30 years. Most coral reef systems are predicted to experiencing near-annual bleaching events by the year 2040. Some coral reefs (e.g. Caribbean, South-east Asian) may even reach this point by 2020.
  • Talking Point: We are going to highlight the five main symptoms of Climate Change. These are happening all over the world, but we will show Indian examples of them.
  • Description: Data from a report done by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in Pune, which studied rainfall patterns in India from 1813-2006, most of this decrease in rainfall began in the mid-1960s. Talking Point: It is also important to note that significant portions of the country felt an increase in rainfall in the last 50 years. This goes to show that although the overall trend is in rainfall reduction, what the graph really shows is a shift in rainfall patterns. If you break this graph up into the monsoon months (June-September) and then reassess rainfall patterns you will find a movement of the monsoon towards beginning sooner (increase in June rainfall in 55% of the country) while the other three months suffer decrease in rainfall trends (with July being at 85%, August at 58% and September at 69% of the country effected).
  • Description: A photo taken by Sanctuary Asia photo contest awardee Sudipto Das. A hungry boy is sitting on cracked earth- a common sight in many parts of our country now. Talking Point: Due to lack of rains, Maharashtra declared a drought situation on July 9 th 2000. By mid-monsoon season only 20% of the dams were full. Farmers were going bankrupt and committing suicide. Andra Pradhesh also suffers badly from drought, as do many of our northern states. This is because warmer temperatures lead to more evaporation of water from the land.
  • Description: A hungry famer who has lost his land. Talking Point: Although this trend is nothing novel (the 1990s saw a huge surge in farmer suicides), the amount of indebted households in India have risen as changing weather patterns adding to the challenge of the farmers. These shifts are due to our warming Earth, to such a drastic effect that experts from Yale and World Bank predict up to 17% reduction in farming income just because of climate change.
  • Description: Satellite images of Super Cyclones that have been hitting the Bay of Bengal in the last few years. These never existed before, so Super Cyclone is a new terminology for the region! Talking Point: The new phenomena of Super Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal pose a huge threat to the security of the mangroves, according to WWF India.
  • The 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report concluded that the poorest countries would be hardest hit, with reductions in crop yields in most tropical and sub-tropical regions due to decreased water availability, and new or changed insect pest incidence. In Africa and Latin America many rain-fed crops are near their maximum temperature tolerance, so that yields are likely to fall sharply for even small climate changes; falls in agricultural productivity of up to 30% over the 21st century are projected. Primary Source: Cline, W. R. 2007. Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country. Washington D.C., USA: Peterson Institute. Secondary Source: UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change, UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library , (Accessed 9 September 2008)
  • Source: This information is from DTE Aug 16 addition. Refugee data is from FAO/GIEWS Global Watch 21 st Dec 2007. It is sourced from the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Bangladesh. Talking Point: Super Cyclone Sidr hit the Bay of Bengal on November 15, 2007. It is the second among 3 super cyclones to hit the Bay of Bengal which is a record as super cyclones never existed here before. These are a very costly and destructive new phenomenon for the residents living there as well. Background: The devastation it has caused was long lasting because it destroyed future yields of crops as well from the Boro Paddy crop. The 12 lakh tonnes which were completely destroyed are from the Aman paddy crop.
  • Talking Point: We are going to highlight the five main symptoms of Climate Change. These are happening all over the world, but we will show Indian examples of them.
  • UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Freshwater availability: groundwater and river flow, UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library , (Accessed 8 September 2008). India will face an acute shortage of fresh water - including rainwater and groundwater - in the next 35 to 40 years, says a new Planning Commission study. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and other states Water tables falling by 1-3 meters per year in some parts. In some states extraction is double the recharge. In thePunjab, India's breadbasket, water table falling by nearly 1 meter per year.
  • Description: This is a slide that was created by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. It has been presented by our Chairperson, Pavan Sukhdev at some of his lectures. The data is also used for his GIST organisation analysis reports. Talking Point: This shows how quickly we will lose our flora and fauna in India due to our lack of respect for the environment. It literally looks as though India will be bleeding soon.
  • Talking Point: We are going to highlight the five main symptoms of Climate Change. These are happening all over the world, but we will show Indian examples of them.
  • The transmission of many infectious diseases is affected by climatic factors. Infective agents and their vector organisms are sensitive to factors such as temperature, surface water, humidity, wind, soil moisture, and changes in and forest distribution. This applies particularly to vector-borne diseases (VBD) like malaria. It is therefore projected that climate change and altered weather patters would affect the range (both altitude and latitude), intensity, and seasonality of many vector-borne and other infectioius diseases. In general, increased warmth and moisture would enhance transmission of VBDs. Source: UNEP These organisms are sensitive to temperature, rainfall patterns, and are therefore potentially sensitive to changes in climate. Many vector-borne diseases that are likely to be affected by climate change have been ranked by WHO as the most important tropical diseases in the world. The human impact of these diseases is enormous. They affect productivity and cause a vicious spiral of poverty and disability. The distribution and seasonality of many of these diseases may be influenced by climate change. Increases in temperature would tend to accelerate vector life cycles and would also decrease the incubation period of the parasite or virus. Bhutan and Nepal, both of which have reported Dengue for the first time. Aedes Egypti, the dengue causing mosquito, was previously found normally at a height of 500 metres above sea level. Of late, these have been sighted at an altitude of 2200 meters in Darjeeling and 4000 meters in Nepal. Chikungunya, which resurfaced in India after 31 years in 2006, has been reported for the first time from Italy.
  • Description: Down To Earth Magazine August 16 Issue. The data was sourced from Municipal Corporation Greater Mumbai Annual Report. Talking Point: The issues with unsafe drinking water have reached such levels that even the wealthy cannot hide from them. Contamination of municipal water is mainly due to the fact that the pipes are over 100 years old and easily allow sewage to seep in. Climate change plays a role because the current sewage system is definitely not able to handle the heavier monsoon rainfalls and leads to further pollution of the pipes. The World Health Organization believes that dehydration and diarrhea kills 1.8 million people every year. The WHO is also reporting that climate change induced stress to water supplies has lead to 2.4% of the deaths from water-borne diseases.
  • Estimate deaths per million for 2000 from indoor smoke from solid fuels
  • Source: Government of India (2008) National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation measures: Drought Proofing Crop Improvement Water Harvesting and Conservation Forestry - afforestation programme Coastal Regions - Zoning restrictions, consturcution of infrastructure and cyclone shelters. Planting mangroves and trees Health - control of vector borne diseases and provision of medical relief Risk Financing - Crop Insurance Scheme - insure crop failure, Credit Support Mechanism - extend credit to farmers during crop failure Disaster Managment
  • Description: Graph on green house gas emissions per person. Talking Point: As we mentioned before we have a much lower impact on the environment per person. This shows all the greenhouse gases that we contribute. Beyond carbon they include methane and others. If we are just looking at carbon though, we call it our “carbon footprint.” Meaning, how much does our lifestyle impact our atmosphere in terms of quantity of carbon dioxide emissions it results in.
  • By 2030 we need to move to the red point.
  • Talking Point: Any ideas?
  • Talking Point: True we have good train and bus public transport systems in place. But are they adequate for our population? Is it something that is practical and convenient for all?
  • Description: Rag Picker at Dharavi Slums. Talking Point: India has one of the highest rates of recycling in the world. If you visit Dharavi slums you will see how advanced the business is, with each neighborhood taking on a different material to recycle. However, is this a humane way of dealing with our waste?
  • Description: Gulabjamun in front of soaking vegetables. Talking Point: Vegetarianism is a main part of the Indian diet. We do know that meat eaters have a much higher carbon footprint due to the land needs of grazing the animal and other transportation-related impacts from the industry. Cows also let out a lot of methane which contributes to greenhouse gas levels. However, as India’s wealth increases we are moving more towards a non veg diet. What is more important to note is that Indians tend to source their vegetable produce locally rather than have it shipped from other parts of the country. This is a key in keeping our impact low.
  • Description: Woman washing dishes from a single tub of water. Talking Point: Do we conserve water because it is in our culture to do so? Or rather because we don’t have enough water to go around? Water scarcity is one of the biggest problems in India right now, and it is only going to get worse.
  • Description: A tiny light in the corner symbolizes the absence of substantial energy. Talking Point: The reality is that we are hiding behind our poor. How can many sectors of our society waste or over-consume electricity or water if they do not have access to it? If we go back to the graph and measure the carbon footprint of the person in this room it will be somewhere closer to Russia or even Europe. Any of us who travel abroad frequently would go over US levels as well! Our lifestyles have little to do with the number. It is the high rates of abject poverty in our country who make us look green.
  • Description: Great quotes from Mahatma Gandhi which sum up everything that we have been doing over the last century.
  • The consensus within the scientific community is that in order to avoid catastrophic impacts of climate change we need to keep the earth’s average temperature rise within 2 degrees celsius. In order for us to achieve this target, our global emissions in 2050 should be 50% of our 1990 emissions. In per capita terms, this amounts to approximately 2 tonnes per person
  • Hague Negotiations broke down and the Bush administration explicitly rejected the protocol shortly after. Bonn US did not participate in the negotiations but acted as observers Emissions trading; Joint Implementation; and the Clean Development Mechanism - which allow industrialized countries to fund emissions reduction activities in developing countries as an alternative to domestic emission reductions. Credit was agreed to for broad activities that absorb carbon from the atmosphere or store it. Discussed broad outlines of consequences for failing to meet emissions targets. Three new funds were agreed upon to provide assistance for needs associated with climate change
  • “ India has already declared that even as it pursues its social and economic development objectives, it will not allow its per capita GHG emissions to exceed the average per capita emissions of the developed countries. This effectively puts a cap on our emissions, which will be lower if our developed country partners choose to be more ambitious in reducing their own emissions.” - shyam Saran For instance, let us consider the Obama administration’s proposed target to reduce US’s emissions by 80% by 2050. This target will amount to a per capita reduction from 20 tonnes (at present) to 4 tonnes per year (by 2050). India can then state, in line with its targets that it will always keep its per capita emissions below 4 tonnes pending further iteration by the US.
  • Description: According to the UNICEF, the average annual rate of urbanization in India (1990-2006) is 2.6 %. Talking Point: For the first time in our history, India will become a predominantly urbanized country. We have many tier II and tier III cities that are just being built up, and this can be a great opportunity for us. If we develop sustainable practices like proper infrastructure, expansive public transport systems, and green architecture, we can ensure that our cities will have a much lower impact on the environment than other developed nations’.
  • Description: This data has come from CSE. This focuses on Public Transport. Talking Point: We are overloading our cities with traffic congestion. All our new cities should focus on public transport systems as they are being built. Otherwise we are (literally) not going anywhere!
  • SPEAKER NOTES & TOP-8 FAQs: Biofuel production has been a controversial topic because of concerns about forest destruction and competition with food production. But there are ways to do it right, and produce significant social & environmental benefits One sustainable approach is highlighted in the following case study from CleanStar, an award-winning social enterprise working on promoting biofuel production from “earth to engine”, with a focus on grassroots technology applications [focus on Inputs] CleanStar’s approach focuses on leveraging existing resources in rural areas that are not used to their full potential , to plant a mix of oilseed-bearing trees [focus on processing & oil] Once mature, these BioFuel trees start producing seeds that are rich in oil. Crushing these seeds in a simple oil press extracts the oil, which is then filtered and stored. This oil is more viscous than Diesel, but can be used directly in modified Diesel engines by mixing in a tiny amount of fuel additives. The process of modifying engines is relatively straightforward and inexpensive using the patented technology supplied by CleanStar. After modification, the genset or vehicle is a “flex-fuel” system that can run 100% on tree oil or 100% on diesel, or any combination thereof depending on fuel availability. [focus on processing & seedcake] The material l eftover after crushing seeds, the “seedcake”, and other waste biomass from the trees is processed into low-carbon substitutes for Coal, Natural Gas, and Fertilizer 7. CleanStar’s approach has several advantages over low-carbon energy production systems: [run through green callout boxes starting from left top, highlighting: ] It creates many new jobs in rural areas (unlike solar, wind, etc.) Avoids competition with food production (by using idle land) Promotes better Natural Resource Mgmt Avoids mono culture by using many species Is more productive than soya oil [continue with right top] Reduces carbon emissions by 85% compared to Diesel IMMEDIATELY after switch Engine conversion allow use of EXISTING vehicles (don’t need expensive new hybrid/electric/hydrogen vehicles), and by-passes need to set up large centralised factories to convert plant oil into BioDiesel (can have local energy production & consumption) generates many useful by-products CleanStar has developed and tested this model in central Maharashtra (Beed district) and is now scaling it up with partners across India, southern Africa and Latin America. ___________________________ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS [A.] HOW MUCH DOES IT COST / WHAT ARE THE ECONOMICS? In India (where fossil diesel is heavily subsidized) this model is generally cost-neutral in comparison to Diesel (excluding any subsidies, carbon value, etc.). In the long term, we expect oil to be available more cheaply than diesel, providing a cost savings to people who switch to green fuel. Much depends on site-specific factors that affect production, processing, and energy distribution costs. Some of CleanStar’s projects anticipate as high as 26% Internal Rate of Return to financiers of a fully integrated (earth-to-engine) project, however this is over 10-year period. [B.] WHAT TYPES OF TREES ARE USED? There are over 300 oil-producing tree species in India alone, and many more worldwide. The accumulation of oils in seeds is a natural survival mechanism that has evolved to enable tree seeds to germinate and grow in very harsh, infertile conditions. Some trees grow faster and better than others, and produce a greater amount of seeds that are also easier to harvest and crush into oil. In India, such trees include Pongamia pinnata (Karanj in Hindi), Jatropha curcas, Moringa, Mahua, and Neem. [C.] HOW LONG DO THE TREES TAKE TO PRODUCE SEEDS? Anywhere from 3-6 years depending on the tree, although Jatropha is a little faster, producing seeds within 2nd year of planting. [D.] ISN’T JATROPHA POISONOUS/CARCINOGENIC? Many of these trees contain unpleasant tasting substances in their leaves and seeds to make them unpalatable to cattle – this is how the trees have managed to survive and grow in harsh conditions where every plant is a potential target for hungry goats & humans. This is a defence mechanism that has evolved naturally. It does not pose any danger to the soil, other plants, or to humans and cattle as long as they don’t eat tree products (unlikely as taste is really bitter). Much more dangerous things are cultivated on commercial scale in rural India, e.g. Castor, whose seeds contains Ricin, one of the most toxic substances found in nature... There is no scientific evidence to suggest any cancer-causing properties in any of these trees (unlike diesel, which is known to have carcinogens – see disclaimers at any refilling station). In many parts of the world, many of these trees have traditional medicinal uses. [E.] WON’T USE OF STRAIGHT OIL DAMAGE NEWER DIESEL ENGINES? Yes, direct use of plant oil in UNMODIFIED engines normally causes all sorts of problems. CleanStar’s approach gets around these problems by using additives and a conversion kit. This patented technology solution has been used in over 500 systems in the UK for the last 3 years, passing very rigorous tests for performance, engine damage, and emissions levels. CleanStar has made this advanced technology available & affordable for application in developing countries for the first time. [F.] HOW IS CLEANSTAR’s APPROACH DIFFERENT FROM ‘JATROPHA BIODIESEL’? (1) It doesn’t promote cultivation of just Jatropha, but rather a mix of trees at the same time (2) It doesn’t produce “Biodiesel”, but rather uses the raw material of biodiesel (the “tree oil”) directly as a fuel. [G.] WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OVER BIODIESEL? This solution is simpler , cheaper and greener than biodiesel: (1) No need for a big, expensive, centralised biodiesel refinery that typically adds 10-15% cost to finished product and shifts value chain power from small-scale growers to big industrialists (2) Lower overall carbon footprint: oil does not have to be trucked to/from the factory, and energy loss in processing into biodiesel is avoided. (3) Cleaner to make: biodiesel processing requires the use of several chemicals (methanol) and catalysts (4) Higher energy content: per liter, raw oil has more energy than biodiesel, which is manifested in slightly higher mileage [H.] WHERE CAN THIS MODEL BE REPLICATED? Most of the semi-arid tropical developing countries in the world, where: - suitable land exists (land is too degraded for food production, but not too rocky/saline/sloping to be completely uncultivable) - some rainwater supply is available (not a total desert) - labor is available (not completely abandoned places) - climate is not too cold (continuous frost will kill the trees) Many places fit the description: - Much of central & southern India (particularly rainshadow areas) - East & South-Eastern Africa (e.g. Kenya, Tanz, Moz) - West Africa (lower Sahel) - Central America, and northern South America (below 1500 m altitude) - Deforested/degraded lands in South East Asia - Warmer parts of China - Parts of Northern Australia (deforested, over-grazed land) - and many micro-climatic zones around the world
  • Today approx 1.6t In 2030 approx 5 t Green – approx 3 t
  • Dedicated Railway Freight Corridors   A tonne-km of goods traffic carried by trucks use four times as much diesel as when it is moved by rails even when railways run on diesel. In 2006-07 the total goods movement by road and rail was 1250 billion tonne kilometers (btkm). The railways share has come down from more than 80 % in the 1950s to around 38-40 percent around which it has stabilized over the past few years. By 2020 our freight movement would be around 3000btkm. If railways share increases by 10 percentage points, then 300 btkm of freight traffic would move from road to rails. The amount of diesel saved per year would be 6 to 10 million tonnes. This would mean a reduction of 18 to 30 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year.       Efficiency of Coal Based Power Plants   On September 30 th 2009 India’s installed capacity of coal based power plants was 80000 MW out of a total capacity of 152000 MW. The energy efficiency of coal use is around 30.5 per cent. The state of the art plants in Germany run with efficiency of 46 %. Since the ambient air temperature in India is higher than in Germany, we cannot get the same efficiency, but we can surely get around 40%. We can ensure that all our new plants attain an efficiency of at least 38%. We will need to add at least 80000 MW, if not more, of coal based power plants by 2020. This will give us an average efficiency of coal use in power plants of about 34.5 % as the new plants would generate more than the old ones. This will reduce our coal consumption by more than 70 million tonnes per year and our CO2 emissions by more than 110 million tonnes per year.    Improve Four Wheel Vehicles’ Fuel Efficiency   In 2006 there were in India around 17 million four wheel motor vehicles, cars, buses and trucks. The fuel consumption of these vehicles was around 30 mt. The number of vehicles is growing rapidly and by 2020 if the acceleration continues we may have around 70 million vehicles. Consuming at the same rate and efficiency, the fuel consumption would be more than 125 mt in 2020. A 20 percent increase in efficiency will save 25 mt of petrol and diesel and reduce emissions of CO2 by 75 mt.    Increase Number of Buses   In 2008 a little more than 100000 buses served some 1150 million people in India providing public transport. Some 500 billion passenger kilo metres (pkm) were provided by these buses, which consumed some 1.85 mt of diesel. With a projected population of about 1400 million in 2020 and the same bus/person ratio we can expect 125000 buses consuming 2.25 mt of diesel and serving 600 billion pkm. Doubling the availability of buses per person we can attract more people to travel by bus rather than private vehicles. If we can double the travel by bus to 1200 billion pkm, and if we assume that travel by private vehicle would consume 0.025 litres per pkm, the net saving of petroleum products (petrol saved – additional diesel consumed by buses) would be 19 mt per year and reduction in emission of CO2 of some 55 mt per year.  50 Million Solar Water Heaters   Pillai and Bannerjee of IIT –B has estimated a saving of 1300 kwhr per year with a water heater of 2 square meters collector area. 50 million water heaters will save 65 billion units of electricity per year at the consumer end and some 95 billion units of generation. This will save some 65 mt of coal per year. The saving in CO2 emissions would be around 100 mt per year.        India can offer to take these commitments provided we are compensated for the additional expenditure involved and provided the Annex 1 countries accept deep cuts. By deep cuts I mean 30% reduction by 2020, 50 % by 2030 and 80% by 2050 over their 1990 emissions. 
  • Talking Point: CERE case study. One of the successful models of solar energy and alternative energy is the Barefoot College in Tilonia, Rajasthan. The entire college campus is totally self-sufficient with a 40 kilowatt solar energy unit meeting all its energy needs. The College was established to train rural, illiterate youth and women as barefoot solar engineers in order to introduce solar technology to their villages. The College has trained 392 rural youth and women from across the country as barefoot solar engineers and to-date Barefoot Solar Engineers have done yeoman service for India such as installing solar photovoltaic (SPV) home lighting systems in 350 villages and hamlets covering a total number of 12000 households, electrifying 300 adult education centres and 870 schools across the country, manufacturing and maintaining 3530 solar lanterns, providing three hours of light in the bleakest winter to 1530 families in 28 remote and inaccessible villages in Ladakh through 40 KWs of solar panels and saving approximately hundred thousand litres of kerosene in Leh and Kargil districts through solar energy initiatives. The Barefoot College has rightly won many awards, including the Ashden Award, for practicing and promoting the use of solar energy. Other examples of energy conservation in schools are the presentation convent in Delhi and Rishi valley school in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Anokhi
  • Anokhi
  • CAR Avoid cars or buy a small car; drive sensibly LIVING ROOM Switch to CFL bulbs. They use 75% less energy and last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs 2. Switch off computer monitor 3. Switch off appliances instead of leaving them on standby mode. 4. Switch off lights when not needed 5. Use indoor plants to offset your carbon dioxide. 6. Stop using incandescent bubs 7. Watch TV with your family and not alone! Kitchen 1. Allow hot food to cool before putting it in the fridge 2. Use the gas flame appropriately 3. Thaw before you heat/cook food 4. Partialy thaw food before cooking 5. Buy local food Bathroom Save water - use a smaller flush or put something heavy inside your flush. 2. Turn off the geyser and/or get solar water heater 3. Take a bucket bath Bedroom 1. Use natural fabrics 2. Using a ceiling fan will allow you to set the thermostat higher because they cool the room 3. Use minimal lighting, as it also brings down the temperature of the room 4. Don’t use the AC, if you do, set it at a higher temperature. On cool evenings leave your windows open instead of switching on the AC.
  • Areca Palm: Works well in the day time Great for living areas One needs about 4 shoulder high plants/person Needs to be put outdoors once every 3-4 months The leaves of the plant need to be wiped everyday in Delhi and perhaps once a month in a cleaner city The soil used should be of vermi manure or use hydroponics Mother-in-law’s Tongue Converts CO2 into O2 at night One requires about 6-8 such waist high plants per person in the bedroom Leaves need to be wiped in the same way as the Areca Palm The soil used should be of vermi manure or use hydroponics Money Plant Excellent for removing Formaldehyde and other VOC’s Best grown using hydroponics
  • Also, compared to other buildings in Delhi, the incidence of eye irritation reduced by 52%, lower respiratory symptoms by 34%, headaches by 24%, upper respiratory symptoms by 20%, lung impairment by 10-12% and Asthma by 9%. As a result of fewer sick days — employee productivity also increased Source: Study published on September 8, 2008 by The Govt. of India, Central Pollution Control Board and Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India
  • Talking Point: Educators are a crucial role in this because you influence children.
  • TCP-India - IIM Bangalore

    1. 6. A factory on the outskirts of Mumbai We are changing the makeup of our atmosphere
    2. 7. Photo: Valmik Thappar/Sanctuary Photolibrary Our deforestation activities account for about 20% of our carbon dioxide emissions. Photo: Kalyan Varma/Sanctuary Photolibrary
    3. 8. Vehicular Emissions are a major contributor to Global Warming
    4. 16. The fraction of CO 2 remaining in the air, after emission by fossil fuel burning, declines rapidly at first, but 1/3 remains in the air after a century and 1/5 after a millennium ( Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 , 2287-2312, 2007). CO2 stays in the air for a long time
    5. 17. <ul><li>What happens to our Earth when the average temperature goes up? </li></ul>
    6. 18. National power demand changes over the course of a day: POWER USAGE Data: UK National Power Usage 14-21/10/2009 Source: The National Grid Demand is highest during the evening – this is peak load. Average demand is much lower – this is base load.
    7. 19. Coal is a dominant provider of baseload power Source: CEA (2008), IEA 2007 Total GigaWatts of Installed Power Capacity Majority of our increase is planned to come from coal 70%+ coal based 49% coal based 54%
    8. 20. India’s Solar Energy Potential Source: NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center (2008) Kilowatt-hours per square meter per day
    9. 21. Proposed solar programs will reduce carbon emissions by 23 million metric tons per year by 2030.
    10. 24. Profitable Green Solutions - Mumbai <ul><ul><li>Closure of 25-year-old dumping ground measuring 19.6 hectares at the Gorai creek has earned BMC Rs 27 crore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMC has traded an estimated 31,033 tonnes of carbon credits a year, purchased by the Asian Development Bank at a cost of 12 Euros per carbon credit till 2014. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result is the management of methane gas that is 21 times more potent than carbon, which BMC will capture and use to generate electricity . </li></ul></ul>
    11. 25. Indian Impacts of Climate Change
    12. 26. <ul><li>Glaciers Melt & Sea Level Rise </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable Weather Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity & Agricultural Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases Flourish </li></ul>Impacts of Climate Change On India
    13. 27. Northwestern Himalayas have become 1.4°C warmer in the last 100 years, a far higher level of warming than the 0.5°C – 1.1°C for the rest of the globe
    14. 28. Indian glaciers have already started melting…. 1936 2006 Pindari Glacier, Himalayas
    15. 29. At very rapid rates…
    16. 30. And our animal species Photo: International Snow Leopard Trust
    17. 31. begin to lose their homes… Sanctuary
    18. 32. The Himalayan glaciers are very important to humans because… They are the source of 7 major Asian rivers. They provide water to 40% of the world’s population Photo: Nikhil Devasar/Sanctuary Photolibrary
    19. 33. The melting of the Himalayan glaciers will adversely impact rivers systems in two ways: 1. First increase the volume of water in rivers, leading to widespread flooding 2. Then a drying out of the rivers as the glaciers completely disappear.
    20. 34. Larger glaciers are melting all over the world. When ice melts off of the Antarctic or Greenland, it results in rising sea levels . Photo: Roger J. Braithwaite, University of Manchester School of Geology
    21. 35. We are already seeing the beginning… The Sunderbans mangroves have decreased by 20% in the last 40 years… Photo: Dr. Anish Andheria/Sanctuary Photolibrary
    22. 36. OCEAN ACIDITY AND MARINE BIODIVERSITY Source: IPCC AR4, 2007 Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, 2007 The Encyclopedia of Earth, 2008 TEEB Climate Issues Update, 2009 <ul><li>About one third of anthropogenic carbon dioxide dissolves in the sea. As a result, today’s oceans are 30% more acidic than at pre-industrial times. </li></ul><ul><li>Corals cannot reproduce as effectively in a more acidic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on surveys in the 1960s, early 1970s and recent studies of relatively ‘pristine’ reefs, it appears that historically, coral cover has reduced by 50-60%. </li></ul><ul><li>Coral reefs provide a habitat for vast coastal ecosystems. Half a billion people rely directly on these systems for food. </li></ul>
    23. 37. <ul><li>Glaciers Melt & Sea Level Rise </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable Weather Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity & Agricultural Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases Flourish </li></ul>
    24. 38. Orissa Between 1950 and 1990 there has been an increase in temperature of 1°C Between 1993 and 2006 there has been an increase in temperature of 0.12°C In March and April 2009 over 70 people died on account of sunstroke 1991 to 2000 has been the warmest decade in the last 140 years for India West Bengal Temperatures reached 49°C in the Purulia district, four degrees above normal for the time of year In Kolkatta the maximum temperature shot to 41°C, five degrees above normal for the time of year Nine people died this summer on account of sunstroke Mumbai Water consumption increased by 20% owing to the unusual heat wave this summer Mumbai is supplied 3,350 mld, but the sudden increase in water consumption has taken demand closer to the 5000 mld mark
    25. 39. Recent Rainfall Tendency (1813-2006) <ul><li>Over the last 30 years there has been A decrease in annual rainfall in 68% of our country. </li></ul>Annual data Blue – Increasing Trend Red – Decreasing Trend Green – No change Grey – No Data UN Water Development Report Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Warmer temperatures also change our Monsoon weather patterns…
    26. 40. But these changes are unpredictable. Sometimes it means droughts even during monsoons.
    27. 41. Mumbai, India <ul><li>July 26, 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>94 centimeters of rain in 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water levels reached seven feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death toll in Mumbai & Surrounding areas reached 1,000 </li></ul></ul>Source: 8/1/2005
    28. 42. Changing rainfall patterns are detrimental to our farmers…
    29. 43. <ul><li>Global warming raises ocean temperatures, which leads to increase in storm intensity. </li></ul>
    30. 44. For the first time in history, India’s coasts are seeing Super Cyclones. Bay of Bengal NARGIS, April 2008 – Category 4 Arabian Sea GONU, June 2007 – Category 5
    31. 45. Projected changes in agricultural productivity in 2080 due to climate change, incorporating the effects of carbon Source: Peterson Institute / UNEP / GRID-Arendal, 2007 Climate Change and Food Security
    32. 46. These storms are causing massive destruction. Super Cyclone Sidr CATEGORY 5 November 15, 2007 US $ 4.4 billion in damages 12 lakh tonnes of rice paddy devastated- this accounts for 40% of the country’s output 8.9 Million environmental refugees left homeless
    33. 47. <ul><li>Glaciers Melt & Sea Level Rise </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable Weather Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity & Agricultural Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases Flourish </li></ul>
    34. 48. Agriculture is the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. “ Around 46 % of the India’s geographical area is used for Agricultural Activities.” Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2007 and employed 60% of the country's population. Agriculture: core to employment & security
    35. 49. India already suffers from water scarcity
    36. 50. Climatic changes will reduce agricultural yields significantly <ul><li>India may lose up to 17% of its farming income from increases in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Mendolsohn, </li></ul><ul><li>Yale University Study, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat yields would fall by 5-10% with every increase of 1 degree celsius </li></ul><ul><li>Dr R.K. Pachauri, 2008 </li></ul>
    37. 51. Animals and fauna across India predicted to disappear rapidly Effect of fragmentation, forest degradation and climate change on mean species abundance of India. 2030 2008 Source: GIST India, NEAA (2008) RED means 0% species present
    38. 52. <ul><li>Glaciers Melt & Sea Level Rise </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable Weather Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity & Agricultural Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases Flourish </li></ul>
    39. 53. Vectors for Emerging Infectious Diseases
    40. 54. Vector-borne Diseases Filariasis Schistosomiasis Dengue Leishmaniasis Malaria Year 2000: Baseline Scenario Year 2080: CC Scenario Transmission Window (months): 4 - 6 7 - 9 10 - 12 N.A Martens et al, 1999
    41. 55. Health effects disproportionately Impacting the poor
    42. 56. Climate Change leads to water borne diseases <ul><li>Extreme climate conditions enable the water borne Cholera Bacteria to spread more easily. </li></ul>
    43. 57. Black Carbon: An Unknown Quantity In Promoting Climate Change… <ul><li>Soot from burning fossil fuels and bio fuels causes smog and has mixed Climate Change impacts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces penetration of sunlight onto the Earth’s surface, thereby reducing surface temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapping greater heat in the upper atmosphere thereby increasing temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blackening glaciers and poles thereby reducing there reflective properties and increasing melt rates </li></ul></ul>… but a known quantity in human casualties Source: Venkatramen, Habib et al (2006), J. Hansen (2008), photos by Vaydehi K (
    44. 58. Estimated Deaths per Million due to Indoor Smoke from Solid Fuels
    45. 59. Adaptation <ul><ul><ul><li>India spends approximately 2.5% of its GDP on climate variability adaptation measures. This figure is likely to rise. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought Proofing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crop Improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Harvesting and Conservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Financing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Management </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 60. <ul><li>These consequences of global warming disproportionally affect India’s poor . </li></ul>
    47. 61. The average Indian produces very little carbon dioxide compared with International levels Total Greenhouse Emissions (per person)
    48. 62. Historical picture shows an even greater divide in responsibility Source: James Hansen, 2008, ‘Tipping Points Near’
    49. 63. Human development indicators correlate strongly with increased electricity consumption India USA Greece Italy Japan Norway Iceland South Africa UK Electricity consumption (annual kw hrs/person, 2004) Human Development Index (2007)
    50. 64. But beyond a certain level, energy usage does not correlate with further development Electricity consumption (annual kw hrs/person, 2004) Human Development Index (2007) Band of non-achievement India USA Greece Italy Japan Norway Iceland South Africa UK Cold/Dark/ Low density Warm/ High Density
    51. 65. India can push for a more efficient electricity target… India Electricity consumption (annual kw hrs/person, 2004) Human Development Index (2007) … but that is still over 5 times current Indian Consumption levels Can India get here?
    52. 66. Why is Ind i a currently a low carbon economy ?
    53. 67. Is it because we carpool? Dhiren Thakar
    54. 68. We recycle? Sanctuary Asia
    55. 69. We eat less meat?
    56. 70. We conserve water?
    57. 71. Or is it because over 400 million Indians are living in the dark?
    58. 72. Indian Poor vs Indian Rich–CO 2 Emission India’s average per capita CO 2 emission – 1.67 Tonnes <ul><li>India’s Upper Class (Income more than Rs. 30,000 a month) </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita -4.97 Tonnes a year </li></ul><ul><li>India’s Poor (Income less than Rs. 3,000 a month) </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita -1.11 Tonnes a year </li></ul>Source: Greenpeace- Hiding Behind The Poor, 2008
    59. 73. The Power To Change &quot;Speed is irrelevant if you are going in the wrong direction.&quot; “ There is a sufficiency in the world for man's need but not for man's greed”
    60. 74. Is it Possible to be Rich and Efficient? <ul><li>Source: Peter Corless (2005) Analysis of top 40 largest national economies (GDP) by plotting GDP per capita vs. 'energy efficiency' </li></ul>
    61. 75. <ul><li>Making the links </li></ul><ul><li>Idea of being part of a Civil Society is to be able not only to co-exist peaceful, but also to be able to work together with members of that society towards its betterment. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will be divided into two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Aim - Network within your group and try to strike a deal with people whereby you get something you want that will help you combat climate change and you give someone something that they want that also helps combat climate change- You can strike a deal with more than one person. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1 - House wife agrees to volunteer for 5 hours a week for tree-planting NGO. A wet waste recycling consultant agrees to help her setup a recycling system in her building society. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is that everybody benefits when everybody co-operates </li></ul>
    62. 76. The Global Scientific Consensus <ul><li>To avoid catastrophic impacts of climate change we need to keep the earth’s average temperature rise within 2 degrees celsius. </li></ul><ul><li>For this, our global emissions in 2050 should be 50% of our 1990 emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>In per capita terms, this amounts to approximately 2 tonnes per person.  </li></ul>
    63. 77. Global Target for Per Capita Emissions 5.5t World Average 2005 2 t World Average 2050 A Global Challenge- Cut Emissions By 66%
    64. 78. The Road to Copenhagen – Meeting The Global Challenge Rio 1992 Kyoto 1997 Hague 2000 Bali 2007 Bonn 2001 Copenhagen 2009 UNFCCC international environmental treaty produced. No mandatory limits on GHG emission and no enforcement provision An international framework for climate change mitigation beyond 2012 is to be agreed upon. Meeting to be held in December Most industrialized nations agreed to legally binding reductions in GHG emissions of an average of 6 to 8% below 1990 levels between the years 2008-2012. Neither the Clinton nor the Bush administration sent the protocol to Congress for ratification. Agreement on a timelined negotiation on the post 2012 framework (a successor to the Kyoto Protocol) was achieved <ul><li>Emissions trading; Joint Implementation; and the Clean Development Mechanism - allowing industrialized countries to fund emissions reduction activities in developing countries as an alternative to domestic emission reductions. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit was agreed for carbon sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>Broad outlines of consequences for failing to meet emissions targets were discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Three new funds were set up to provide assistance for needs associated with climate change </li></ul><ul><li>US did not participate in the negotiations but acted as observers </li></ul>Kyoto Protocol negotiations broke down and the Bush administration explicitly rejected the protocol shortly after.
    65. 79. India’s Position: Copenhagen <ul><li>Founded on the principle of equity - each individual has equal right to the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Will keep per capita emissions below developed country average (thus pressure to lower emissions on developed countries). </li></ul><ul><li>Will not set aggregate global targets as is waiting for developed nations to sign on to much bolder interim targets which also take in account historical responsibilities  </li></ul>
    66. 80. Getting to 2 Tonnes – Some Low Hanging Fruit Source: Mckinsey (2009)
    67. 81. Many initiatives can be incorporated into our development rather than retrofitted Source: Mckinsey (2009)
    68. 82. Others hold strong mitigation potential today Source: Mckinsey (2009)
    69. 83. Source: Central Electricity Authority, Planning Wing, July 2009 R.E.S- Renewable Energy Sources
    70. 84. Urbanization in India: A chance to incorporate latest thinking Source: UNICEF % of Indian population living in urban areas India is one of the least urbanized countries in the world
    71. 85. Green Buildings WORLDWIDE, BUILDINGS ACCOUNT FOR… 17% 25% 33% 40% fresh water withdrawals wood harvest CO 2 emissions material & energy use Source: U.S Green Building Council, 2008 INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY MATERIAL USE SITE LOCATION & PLANNING ENERGY EFFICIENCY WATER MANAGEMENT
    72. 86. Private vehicles in India account for 67.6% of motorized vehicles in India. They carry 37% of the commuters and take up 67.1% of the road width. Buses are 24.4% of the vehicles, 61% of the commuters and 38% of the road width. CO2 emissions from cars has increased by 73% and from two wheelers by 61% in Delhi alone Chance to build proper public transport in our new cities from the start Source: Down To Earth Magazine, 2008 (CSE Publication)
    73. 87. Use regulation to manage vehicle emissions Source: ICCT (2008) Indian average Diesel cars 38 mpg Indian average Petrol cars 34 mpg
    74. 88. Case Study: CleanStar’s bioenergy production system for meeting rural energy needs with low-carbon fuels BioGas & BioFertilizer “ Biofuel” trees & local species Inedible oilseeds Inedible seedcake Harvested rainwater Rural communities Research on under-utilized crops & trees BioCoal or BioChar Decentralized oil processing Other biomass Fruit husks, leaves, pruned material Degraded & idle land Filtered tree oil Food, fodder & fibre for local use Conversion kit Diesel Gensets & Vehicles Diesel alternative LEVERAGE UNDERUTILIZED RURAL RESOURCES PROMOTE COMMUNITY-BASED AGRO-FORESTRY & PROCESSING PRODUCE LOW-CARBON ENERGY ALTERNATIVES Help the poor help the planet… © 2009 Copyright CleanStar Increase employment & climate change resilience Trees grow on land that can-not be used for food crops Better soil and water mgmt enhances local ecosystem Focused R&D has improved oil production to ~ 5 times that of soya on per acre basis Immediate 85% reduction in earth-to-engine CO2 emissions from existing diesel systems Mix of multi-purpose trees avoids mono-culture & adds biodiversity Fuel additives Engine conversion avoids need for big central biodiesel refinery Bio-based byproducts help meet other rural energy needs, sequester carbon, and organically improve soil fertility Pongamia, Jatropha, Neem, Moringa, & many others
    75. 89. Profitable Green Solutions - Mumbai <ul><ul><li>Closure of 25-year-old dumping ground measuring 19.6 hectares at the Gorai creek has earned BMC Rs 27 crore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMC has traded an estimated 31,033 tonnes of carbon credits a year, purchased by the Asian Development Bank at a cost of 12 Euros per carbon credit till 2014. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result is the management of methane gas that is 21 times more potent than carbon, which BMC will capture and use to generate electricity . </li></ul></ul>
    76. 90. <ul><li>Today India produces 1.6 Gt of carbon emissions per year </li></ul><ul><li>Business as usual, means that India will produce 5.5 Gt of carbon emission per year by </li></ul><ul><li>2030-31 (close to where China is today </li></ul><ul><li>If we aim green the Planning Commission believes we can reach 3.9 Gt per year </li></ul>
    77. 91. A Mitigation Strategy for India? <ul><li>Dedicated railway freight corridors to increase share of railways in freight traffic by 10 percentage points by 2020 20 mt </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the average efficiency of coal based power plants from 30.5% to 33.5% by 2020 100 m t </li></ul><ul><li>Improve fuel efficiency of four wheeled vehicle fleet by 20 percent by 2020 75 mt </li></ul><ul><li>Double the number of buses/person in urban areas by 2020 5 5 mt </li></ul><ul><li>Install solar water heaters in 50 million homes by 2020 100 mt </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 350 mt . This would be around 16% of our current emissions and 10 % of our projected emissions by 2020 assuming they will continue to increase at 4 % per year.  </li></ul>Parikh (2009)
    78. 92. Rishi Valley Barefoot College Presentation Convent
    79. 93. An important solution is raising awareness! This affects the choices we make
    80. 94. If you have to use a car, make it an efficient one Maruti is first Indian car company to publish its fuel efficiency standards Rated Fuel Economy of Maruti Suzuki Vehicles, 2009 Model Segment Fuel Km/L L/100km mpg US M800 A1 gasoline 16.1 6.2 37.9 Omni C gasoline 16.9 5.9 39.8 VERSA C gasoline 12.7 7.9 29.9 Alto A2 gasoline 18.1 5.5 42.6 Zen Estilo A2 gasoline 17.3 5.8 40.7 Wagon R A2 gasoline 17 5.9 40 A Star A2 gasoline 19.6 5.1 46.1 Swift diesel A2 diesel 21 4.8 49.4 Swift gasoline A2 gasoline 15.9 6.3 37.4 Dzire gasoline A3 gasoline 15.9 6.3 37.4 Dzire diesel A3 diesel 21 4.8 49.4 SX4 A3 gasoline 15 6.7 35.3 Gypsy MUV gasoline 11.3 8.6 26.6 Grand Vitara MUV gasoline 11.2 8.9 26.3
    81. 95. Buy 5 star rated appliances
    82. 96. Go vegetarian or at least reduce meat
    83. 97. Meat, especially beef, is very CO 2 intensive
    84. 98. What can you do in your home?
    85. 99. How to grow your own fresh air at home?
    86. 100. How has this worked? <ul><li>Has been tried and tested at at Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Building was rated the healthiest building in Delhi by Government of India </li></ul><ul><li>Study showed an increase in human productivity by over 20 % was observed </li></ul><ul><li>Found that by “growing” fresh air indoors the supply of external fresh air needed by air-conditioning can be reduced, while still meeting industry standard (ASHRAE) for healthy air </li></ul>
    87. 101. How do you calculate your carbon footprint?
    88. 102. Green Tips 1: WATER <ul><li>Take short showers! Continue to take a bucket shower if it is your habit. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your water heater on for 5-7 minutes only (and only when you really need warm water) as heating water takes a significant amount of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Study your water bill and set goals to reduce your water consumption by 5% more every month for the next 6 months. See how low you can go. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is a garden near your building, ask that the groundkeeper only water during the early morning or evening to avoid extra water needed to compensate evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fix a water leak as soon as you see one. </li></ul><ul><li>Look into rainwater harvesting for your buildings water resource needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash dishes in a tub instead of under a running tap. </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse the water used to wash veggies and fruits for watering your plants. </li></ul>
    89. 103. Green Tips 2: ENERGY <ul><li>Turn off lights and fans when you leave a room. </li></ul><ul><li>Completely shut down your TV and computer from the power point when you are not using it. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your building society to change the outdoor, building and hall lights to LEDs and CFLs. CFLs will save up to 66% in energy consumption. LEDs require even less energy! </li></ul><ul><li>Use task lighting; instead of brightly lighting an entire room, focus the light where you need it. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use the AC, if you do, set it at a higher temperature. On cool evenings leave your windows open instead of switching on the AC. </li></ul><ul><li>Read through your energy bill and find out the amount of electricity you are consuming. Then make a goal to reduce your consumption by 5% next month, 5% the following month, and see how much lower you can go. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement solar thermal heating in your building and you will actually start saving money very quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow hot food to cool off before putting it in the refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not put uncovered liquids in the refrigerator. The liquids give off vapours that add to the compressor workload. Check to make sure your refrigerator door seals when closes so that you don’t consume extra energy to keep things cool. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat the water in a kettle not in open pot. If you need two cups water for tea fill your kettle with only two cups. A lot of energy will be wasted heating up a full kettle full of water. </li></ul>
    90. 104. Green Tips 3: WASTE <ul><li>Only print if it is absolutely necessary and use use both sides of the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using disposable cups and plates </li></ul><ul><li>Always buy ice cream in a cone so as not to add to the garbage created from the spoon and cup. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep and reuse all your rubber bands, paper clips, boxes and packaging material. </li></ul><ul><li>Create innovative décor and cards from recycled materials for weddings and special occasions instead of high-energy consuming materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for birthday presents to be eco-friendly and wrapped in old newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ask for a plastic bag from a shopkeeper if the items are few enough to carry by hand. Reuse the plastic bags you already have. Carry a cloth bag for shopping. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not accept free promotional materials that are being handed out with lots of packaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat unprocessed and unpackaged food whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have a choice, look for items sold in glass jars or easily reusable materials rather than plastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Pack lunches in reusable lunch bags and washable containers instead of plastic wrap and bags. </li></ul><ul><li>When ordering food in, ask in advance for them not to include the napkins and plastic utensils. </li></ul><ul><li>Create the habit of taking only what you need in every situation. </li></ul>
    91. 105. Green Tips 4: AWARENESS <ul><li>Develop an awareness chart in your office or home where everyone can see a list of ways they can reduce their carbon footprint. </li></ul><ul><li>At the next family gathering, ask for ten minutes to give a presentation about global warming and what needs to be done to mitigate it. Use the statistics and tips you have learned in this diary to give them ways to get involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the internet for a Carbon Calculator website so you are conscious of your carbon footprint. </li></ul><ul><li>If you see anyone littering or wasting water or food, sit them down and explain to them how this adversely affects our climate. </li></ul>
    92. 106. Join us at contact us on [email_address] <ul><li>We need your help to find and spread solutions… </li></ul>