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Ch 21powerpoint


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  • 1. Climate
  • 2. Agree or Disagree?  1. ____ Climate is the average weather pattern of an area.  2. ____ There are three latitude zones: tropical, temperate and polar.
  • 3. What is CLIMATE  Climate is a yearlong average of weather patterns over an area.
  • 4. Factors That Affect Climate Latitude Elevation Topography Water bodies Global Winds Vegetation
  • 5. Latitude  As latitude increases, the intensity of solar energy decreases.  Three zones  Tropical  Temperate  Polar
  • 6. The Zones Tropical Zone  The region between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5ºN) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5ºS)  WARM YEAR ROUND
  • 7. The Zones Temperate Zone  The region between 23.5º and 66.5º North or South of the equator.  HOT summers  COLD winters
  • 8. The Zones Polar Zone  The region from 66.5º north and south of the equator to the poles.  Very cold temperature year round.
  • 9. Factors That Affect Climate Elevation  The higher the elevation is, the colder the climate.  The elevation of an area also determines the amount of precipitation it receives.
  • 10. Factors that Affect Climate Topography  Topography features such as mountains play an important role in the amount of precipitation that falls over an areas.  Mountain can cause a rain shadow event
  • 11. Factors—Water Bodies  Large bodies of water such as lakes and oceans have an important effect on the temperature of an area because the temperature of the water body influences the temperature of the air above.
  • 12. Factors Atmospheric Circulation  Global winds distribute heat and moisture around Earth.  Warm air moves to the poles and cold air moves to the equator Vegetation  Affect both temperature and the precipitation patterns in an area.
  • 13. Agree or Disagree?  3. ____ Climate is the average weather pattern of an area.  4. ____ There are three latitude zones: tropical, temperate and polar.
  • 14. Climatographs
  • 15. Climatographs
  • 16. Climatographs
  • 17. Climatographs
  • 18. Climatographs
  • 19. Climatographs
  • 20. Agree or Disagree?  5. ____ There are no processes that can change climate.  6. ____The Greenhouse effect is the natural warming of Earth’s lower atmosphere and surface.  7. ____ Global warming is the result of increased greenhouse gases, like CO2, being released by humans.
  • 21. Worlds Climates  Most commonly used system for classification of climates    Uses mean monthly and annual values of temperature and precipitation to classify climates. Five principal groups       Köppen Climate Classification Systems Humid Tropical Dry Humid mid-latitude Polar Highland Climates 101
  • 22. Humid Tropical Climates  Climates without winters.  Every month there is a mean temperature above 18ºC.  Amount of Precipitation can exceed 200 cm.  Two Types  Wet Tropical  Tropical Wet and Dry
  • 23. Humid Tropical Climates Wet Tropical  High temperatures  High annual precipitation Tropical Wet and Dry  High Temperatures  High annual precipitation  Experience distinct periods of low precipitation.  Ex: Savannas
  • 24. Humid Mid-Latitude Climates  Mild winters with an average temperature in the coldest month that is below 18ºC but above -3ºC  Severe winters have an average temperature in the coldest month that is below -3ºC.  Types Humid Mid-latitude With Mild Winters (3 types)  Humid Mid-latitude With Severe Winters (2 types) 
  • 25. Humid Mid-Latitude With Mild Winters  Humid Subtropical Climates  Between 25º and 40º latitude on the eastern side of the continent.  Summer= hot, sultry  Winter= mild  Marine West Coast Climates  Between 40º and 65º N or S on the coastal area  Summer= cool  Winter= mild  Northern California to southern Alaska
  • 26. Humid Mid-Latitude With Mild Winters  Dry-Summer  Between Subtropical Climates 30º and 45º latitude  Strong winter rainfall  Only found in California
  • 27. Humid Mid-Latitude With Severe Winters  Humid Continental Climates  Absent in Southern Hemisphere  Between 40º and 50º N latitude  Winters: severe  Summers: warm and greater precipitation  Subarctic  Winters Climates are long and bitterly cold  Summers are warm and very short.  The highest annual temperature range on Earth
  • 28. Dry Climates A dry climate is one in which the yearly precipitation is not as great as the potential loss of water by evaporation.  Two Types Arid or desert  Semi arid or steppe—transition zone that surrounds the desert and separates if from humid climates 
  • 29. Polar Climate  Polar climates are those in which the mean temperature of the warmest month is below 10ºC  Little precipitation falls  Winters=extremely cold  Summer=cool  Two types Tundra  Ice Cap 
  • 30. Polar Climates  Tundra Treeless region found almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere.  Plant life of mosses, shrubs and flowering herbs grow.   Ice Cap Monthly mean temps. below 0ºC  Covered with permanent ice and snow 
  • 31. Highland Climate  Highland climates are cooler and wetter than nearby areas at lower elevations
  • 32. Coastal Area Climates  The oceans heat up slowly but retain the heat for a longer period of time.  Sea Breezes blow inland bringing rain and cools the land in the summer.  In the winter, the coastal climates are warmer and generally wet and mild.
  • 33. Agree or Disagree?  8. ____ There are no processes that can change climate.  9. ____The Greenhouse effect is the natural warming of Earth’s lower atmosphere and surface.  10. ____ Global warming is the result of increased greenhouse gases, like CO2, being released by humans.
  • 34. Natural Processes that Change Climate  Volcanic Eruption  Ocean Circulation  Solar Activity  Earth Motions  CO2 fluctuations  Ocean acidification
  • 35. Natural Processes that Change Climate  Volcanic Eruptions The presence of volcanic ash, dust, and aerosols in the air increase the amount of solar radiation that is reflected back into space.  This causes Earth’s lower atmosphere to cool.  Ocean Circulations Changes in ocean circulation also can result in short-term climate fluctuation  EX: El Niño
  • 36. Natural Processes that Change Climate Solar Activity  The formation of sunspots appears to correspond with warm periods in Europe and North America  Sunspot link Earth Motions  Geographic changes in Earth’s land and water bodies cause changes in climate  Changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit and the tilt of Earth’s axis affect global climates.
  • 37. Natural Processes that Change Climate  CO2 Fluctuations  Changes in plant growth rates  CO levels fall 2 during the growing season and rise in the winter
  • 38. Natural Processes that Change Climate  Ocean Acidification  Decrease in the ocean’s pH levels in the ocean. CO2 is absorbed by the ocean and forms carbonic acid.  Coral Reefs: High levels of CO negatively 2 affects corals making their shells.  50% of coral reefs have been destroyed  Ocean Acidification
  • 39. Human Impact on Climate Changes  The Greenhouse Effect Is a natural warming of both Earth’s lower atmosphere and Earth’s Surface.  Major Gases: Water vapor and Carbon dioxide  Makes life as we know it possible on Earth  Humans have added more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere in the past 200 years.  Greenhouse Effect clip  NASA's link 
  • 40. Human Impact on Climate Changes  Global Warming  As a result of increases in CO2 as well as other greenhouse gases, global temperatures have increased.  Affects multiple natural events like the weather and melting the polar ice caps. Global Warming clip  NASA Global Warming Facts 
  • 41. El Nino verses La Nina El Niño  Trade winds weaken  Warm ocean water replaces offshore cold water near South America  Irregular intervals of three to seven years  Wetter than average winters in NC   Explanation of El Nino Another look at El Nino La Niña Normal conditions between El Nino events When surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific are colder than average The southern US is usually warmer and dryer in climate
  • 42. El Nino Southern Oscillation: ENSO Occurs: three to seven years
  • 43. World Climate Poster • Each group will need a – Researcher, Presenter, Artist • Your group will need to research about the characteristics of your assigned climate region. – – – – Average temperature and precipitation Location on the Earth, latitude range and countries If possible describe the seasons in this climate region Examples of your region • Information should be organized on a poster, in the following format: – Large title (name of climate region) – Pictures of the environment (scenes, animals, plants, maps, drawings, etc.) – Everything in color