Water Resources

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Water Resources

  1. 1. WATER RESOURCES The Walker School Environmental Science
  2. 2. Importance of Water Keeps Us Alive  Moderates Climate  Sculpts the Land  Dilutes Solid Wastes  Removes Pollutants 
  3. 3. Distribution of Earth’s Water 1.36 billion km3 of water on Earth 
  4. 4. Pacific Institute Monitors World’s Water http://www.worldwater.org/data.html
  5. 5. USGS Water Monitoring http://water.usgs.gov/
  6. 6. Real Time Water Data http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/rt
  7. 7. Samples Hydrograph Fig. 15-19, p. 475
  8. 8. Properties of Water Strong Forces of Attraction  Exists as Liquid Over Wide Temperature Range  Changes Temperature Slowly  Evaporation Takes Large Amounts of Energy  Can Dissolve a Variety of Compounds  Filters UV Radiation  Expands When Frozen 
  9. 9. Hydrologic Cycle Water Characteristics •Flow •Viscosity •Infiltration Capacity •Gradiant Fig. 15-3, p. 460
  10. 10. WHAT IS SURFACE WATER?
  11. 11. Surface Water is RunOff Streams  Lakes  Wetlands  Reservoirs 
  12. 12. World Drainage Basin An area which a stream or river and its tributaries  carry all surface runoff.
  13. 13. Ocean Drainage Basins The Atlantic Ocean drains approximately 47% of all land  in the world. The Pacific Ocean drains just over 13% of the land in the  world. The Arctic Ocean basin drains most of Western and  Northern Canada east of the Continental Divide. The Indian Ocean drains around 13% of the Earth's land.  The Southern Ocean drains Antarctica. 
  14. 14. Watershed A watershed or drainage basin is a region from which  water drains into a stream, lake, reservoir, wetland or other body of water
  15. 15. River Basins The three largest river  basins (by area), in order of largest to smallest, include the Amazon basin, the Congo basin, and the Mississippi basin. The three rivers that drain  the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, Congo , and Ganges Rivers.
  16. 16. Mississippian Drainage Basin Secondary Tributary Primary River Confluenc e Point Fig. 15-22b, p. 480
  17. 17. Endorheic Drainage Basins Inland basins that do not  drain into an ocean; 18% of all land drains to  endorheic lakes or seas. The largest of these consists  of much of the interior of Asia, and drains into the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea. Evaporation is the primary  means of water loss Aral Sea Drainage Basin Water is typically more  saline than the oceans.
  18. 18. Types of Drainage Systems 1. Dendritic Drainage 2. Rectangular Drainage 3. Trellis Drainage 4. Radial Drainage 5. Deranged Drainage Fig. 15-23, p. 481
  19. 19. Drainage Patterns and Geology Dentritic Drainage Erosion Deposits Rectangular Drainage Regional Joint Systems Folded Sedimentary Rock Trellis Drainage Volcanoes Radial Drainage Swamps and Lakes Deranged Drainage
  20. 20. Tennessee Drainage Basin Check Google Watershed is part of Alabama,  Earth and Identify Georgia, Mississippi, North the Type of Carolina, and Tennessee Drainage Basin The Tennessee River is formed at  the confluence of the Holston and French Broad Rivers Georgia The river has been dammed  numerous times, primarily by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) projects. Tennessee
  21. 21. Stream Piracy Occurs when headward erosion breaches a divide  and diverts some or all of the drainage of another stream system. The Hadhramawt Plateau of South Yemen exhibits a complex dendritic drainage pattern and excellent examples of quot;stream piracy”. B A. - Wadi Hadhramawt opens into the sand-filled Ramlat Sabatayn in the southwest corner of the Rub-al-Khali (The A Empty Quarter), B - yet drainage is toward the sea.
  22. 22. • Deliver nutrients to the sea sustain coastal fisheries • Deposit silt that maintains deltas • Purify water • Renew and nourish wetlands • Provide habitats for aquatic life • Conserve species diversity
  23. 23. WHAT IS GROUND WATER?
  24. 24. Importance of Ground Water Aesthetic Value: beautiful caves, caverns and  deposits Economic Value: source of fresh water for  agriculture, industry and domestics use. Bequeath Value: need to conserve water for future  generations. Ecological Services: supports ecosystems, filters  chemical pollutants, filters microscopic organisms
  25. 25. Groundwater Water located beneath the  ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. Includes soil moisture,  permafrost (frozen soil), immobile water in very low permeability bedrock, and deep geothermal or oil formation water. The study of the distribution  and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology.
  26. 26. Aquifers A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is  called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. Ogallala Aquifer is one of the largest in the world.
  27. 27. Confined vs. Unconfined The upper level of this saturated layer of an unconfined aquifer is called the water table or phreatic surface.
  28. 28. Water Table The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock  become completely saturated with water is called the water table.
  29. 29. Zones of the Water Table
  30. 30. Groundwater Movement Gravity
  31. 31. HOW MUCH OF THE WORLD’S RELIABLE WATER SUPPLY ARE WE WITHDRAWING?
  32. 32. Global Water Withdrawal 78% of Global Water  Supply Withdrawn Each Year 18% is for Irrigation;  40% is for World Food  Production 20% for Industry 
  33. 33. National Water Footprints
  34. 34. U.S. Water Withdrawal & Use United States China Agriculture Agriculture 87% 41% Power cooling 38% Public 6% Industry 7% Industry 11% Public 10%
  35. 35. Global Water Withdrawal Global withdrawal has increased 9x in the  last 100 years Humans now withdraw about 34% the  worlds reliable runoff Rates are predicted to double in the next  20 years and exceed demand in a number of regions
  36. 36. Projected World Water Availability
  37. 37. 5,500 5,000 Water use (cubic kilometers per year) Total use 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 Agricultural use 1,500 Industrial use 1,000 Domestic use 500 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year
  38. 38. Water Usage by Production
  39. 39. Average annual precipitation (centimeters) Less than 41 81-22 More than 122 41-81
  40. 40. Acute shortage Serious Water Problems Shortage 1. Flooding 2. Urban Shortages Adequate supply 3. Pollution Metropolitan regions with population greater than 1 million
  41. 41. Groundwater Withdrawl Agriculture  Industry 
  42. 42. Wells and Cones of Depression A cone of depression forms when water is withdrawn from a well. The cone will grow in depth and circumference, lowering the water table and making nearby shallow wells go dry.
  43. 43. Saltwater Intrusion
  44. 44. Subsidence of Cities
  45. 45. Contamination of Groundwater
  46. 46. WHAT CAUSES FRESHWATER SHORTAGES?
  47. 47. Causes of Fresh Water Shortages Dry Climate  Drought  Desiccation  Water Stress 
  48. 48. Stress on World’s Major River Basins Europe North America Asia Africa South Australia America Stress High None
  49. 49. World Water Hotspots http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/world/03/world_forum/water/html/default.st m
  50. 50. World Water Facts http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/science/nature/4787758.stm One billion people without access  to clean drinking water 2.6 billion without adequate  sanitation Rapid urbanization increasing  pressure on water resources 30-40% of water 'lost' through  illegal tapping and leaks
  51. 51. Populations w/o Access to Safe Drinking Water
  52. 52. Populations w/o Access to Sanitation Services
  53. 53. Movie: Running Dry
  54. 54. What We Can Do Build Dams and Reservoirs to Store Runoff  Bring in Surface Water from Other Areas  Withdraw Ground Water  Convert Salt Water to Fresh Water  Waste Less Water  Import Food to Reduce Water Use 
  55. 55. Problems With Privatized Water They have more incentive to  sell as much water as they can rather than to conserve it. The poor will continue to be  left out because of a lack of money to pay water bills.
  56. 56. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LARGE DAMS AND RESERVOIRS?
  57. 57. Trade-Offs of Dams
  58. 58. Dams Around the World 800,000 dams, total estimate  45,000 large dams  22,000 large dams on the world’s 227 largest  rivers
  59. 59. Drainage Basin of Colorado River IDAHO WYOMING Dam Aqueduct or canal Salt Lake City Grand Junction Upper Basin Denver Lower Basin UPPER BASIN UTAH COLORADO Lake Powell Grand Glen Las Vegas Canyon Canyon Dam NEW MEXICO Boulder City ARIZONA CALIFORNIA Albuquerque Los LOWER Palm Ang BASIN Springs eles Phoenix 0 100 mi. San Diego Yuma 0 150 km Mexicali Tucson All-American Gulf of MEXICO Canal California
  60. 60. Problems w/ River Water Usage from The Colorado River Supplies water to some of the driest land in the S.  West. Legal pacts have legislated more water usage to  U.S. and Mexico than the river can supply Low water threatens spawning fish  80% is used to irrigate crops and raise cattle 
  61. 61. Three Gorges Dam
  62. 62. Location of the Dam Beijing RUSSIA YELLOW SEA MONGOLIA CHINA Shanghai Wunan Jailing Yichang River Chongquing Yangtze CHINA Three River Reservoir Gorges EAST Dam CHINA NEPAL SEA BHUTAN BANGLADESH PACIFIC VIETNAM INDIA OCEAN BURMA LAOS
  63. 63. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF FLOODING?
  64. 64. Humans Increase Flood Damage Removing Water Absorbing Vegetation  Draining Wetlands that Absorb Floodwaters and  Reduce Living in Flood Plains 
  65. 65. Oxygen Protect Forests released by Diverse vegetation ecological habitat Evapotranspiration Trees reduce soil erosion from heavy rain and wind Agricultural land Steady river flow Leaf litter improves soil fertility Tree roots stabilize soil and aid water flow Vegetation releases water slowly and reduces flooding Forested Hillside
  66. 66. Tree plantation Evapotranspiration decreases Roads destabilize hillsides Ranching accelerates soil erosion by water and wind Winds remove fragile topsoil Agriculture land is flooded and silted up Gullies and landslides Heavy rain leaches nutrients from soil and erodes topsoil Rapid runoff causes flooding Silt from erosion blocks rivers and reservoirs and causes flooding downstream After Deforestation
  67. 67. Humans Modify Flood Plains Reservoir Dam Levee Flood Floodplain wall
  68. 68. Flood Plain Services Provide Natural Flood and Erosion control  Maintain High Water Quality  Recharge Groundwater 
  69. 69. Advantages to Living in a Floodplain Provide Fertile Soil for Farming  Provide Ample Water for Irrigation  Provide Flat Land for Crops, Buildings, Highways  and Railroads Availability of Nearby Rivers for Transportation  and Recreation
  70. 70. World’s Largest Floods http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1254/
  71. 71. Flood Frequency Curve Note: Meteorologists typically watch for 2, 5, 10, 20 and 100 years floods. Fig. 15-20b, p. 475
  72. 72. Flood Control Methods Dams and Reservoirs  Levees  Floodways  Floodwalls  Fig. 15-21a, p. 478
  73. 73. HOW USEFUL IS DESALINATION?
  74. 74. Desalination, An Old Technology
  75. 75. Desalination Plant
  76. 76. Desalination Process
  77. 77. Uses of Desalination Removing dissolved salts from ocean water or  from brackish ground water is called desalination Methods include distillation  Process is expensive because it takes large  amounts of energy Produces large quantities of wastewater 
  78. 78. CAN CLOUD SEEDING AND TOWING ICEBERGS IMPROVE WATER SUPPLIES?
  79. 79. Cloud Seeding Process
  80. 80. Cloud Seeding Not useful in very dry areas were it is mostly  needed Would introduce large amounts of cloud-seeding  chemical into the water system, possibly harming people, wildlife and agricultural productivity Many legal disputes over clouds ownership  between states
  81. 81. HOW CAN WE WASTE LESS WATER?
  82. 82. Reducing Water Waste 65-70% of water use by people is lost through  evaporation Decrease the burden of wastewater plants  Reduce the need for expensive dams and water transfer  project that destroy wildlife habitats and displace people Slow depletion of groundwater aquifers  Save energy and money 
  83. 83. Reducing Water Usage in Agriculture
  84. 84. • Redesign manufacturing processes • Landscape yards with plants that require little water • Use drip irrigation • Fix water leaks • Use water meters and charge for all municipal water use • Raise water prices • Require water conservation in water-short cities • Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and front- loading clothes washers • Collect and reuse household water to irrigate lawns and nonedible plants • Purify and reuse water for houses, apartments, and office buildings
  85. 85. Xerascaping
  86. 86. HOW CAN WE USE WATER MORE SUSTAINABLY?

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