SUSTAINING WILD SPECIES
The Walker School
Environmental Science
WHAT ARE THREE TYPES
OF SPECIES EXTINCTION?
Extinction Types
   Local Extinction
   Ecological Extinction
   Biological Extinction
WHAT ARE ENDANGERED AND
THREATENED SPECIES?
Some Stats About Species
   1.4-1.8 million catalogued
   5-100 million thought to exist
   99.9% of all that existed a...
Prematurely Extinct Species
Characteristics of Species Prone to
Extinction
   Low reproductive rate
   Specialized niche
   Narrow distribution
  ...
Some Endangered Species
Virus May Be the Cause of Bee Disappearance
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14241569
HOW DO BIOLOGISTS ESTIMATE
EXTINCTION RATES?
Problems Measuring Extinctions
   Extinction typically takes a long time.
   Not all species have been identified.
   N...
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN)
http://www.iucn.org/
IUCN Red List Database
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Red List Categories
http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/categories_criteria2001.html
Discovery Questions
   What is the difference between a threatened and
    endangered species?
   How many species are c...
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
http://www.worldwildlife.org/
WildFinder Database
http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildfinder/
Problems Estimating Extinction Rates

   Assumptions about the earth’s total number of
    species
   The proportion of ...
WHAT IS AN EXTINCTION
EVENT?
Extinction-Level Events (ELE)
   Caused by global environmental disruptions that
    result in large percentages of marin...
Major Extinction Periods and Causes
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-extinction-events.htm
Determining Species Extinction
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5015201
WHAT EFFECTS ARE HUMAN
ACTIVITIES HAVING ON
EXTINCTION RATES?
Humans and Extinction Rates
   .0001% before humans
   0.1 – 1% now, probably conservative
   At this rate 1 million sp...
Current Mass Extinction
http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200603/s1596740.htm
Species Endangered from Human Activities
WHY PRESERVE WILD SPECIES
AND ECOSYSTEMS?
We Should Care
   Humans probably won’t eradicate all species.
   Providing for opportunistic species, such as weeds,
  ...
Research Value
   Drugs to combat cancer and other diseases.
   Help us to learn how nature works.
Instrumental Value
   Food crops
   Fuelwood
   Lumber
   Paper
   Medicine
   Genetic Information
Recreational Value
   Watching Wildlife
   Nature Photography
   Bird Watching
   Eco-Toursim
WHY SHOULD WE CARE
ABOUT BATS?
Ecological Roles of Bats

                      70% feed on crop-
                       damaging nocturnal
             ...
Vulnerable to Extinction
   They reproduce slowly
   They live in huge colonies in caves and abandoned
    mines, which ...
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF HABITAT
LOSS AND DEGRADATION?
Primary Causes of Habitat Depletion (HIPPO)

   Habitat Destruction
   Invasive Species
   Population Growth
   Pestic...
Basic and Secondary Causes
Three Greatest Contributors to Terrestrial Species Loss


                                 Deforestation in
             ...
Greatest Cause of Marine Biodiversity Loss


                                 Commercial
                                ...
Contributors to Habitat Loss in U.S.

   Invasive Species
   Commercial
    Development
   Fire Suppression
   Agricul...
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF HABITAT
FRAGMENTATION?
Habitat Fragmentation
   Divides populations into isolated groups
   More vulnerable to predators, invasive species, and...
Global Habitat Fragmentation
Vulnerable Species
   Those that are rare
   Those that need to roam over large areas
   Those that have a low reproduc...
4 Species Threatened by Habitat
Fragmentation
HOW DO HUMAN ACTIVITIES
AFFECT BIRD SPECIES?
Bird Statistics
   9,800 know bird species
   70% are declining in number
   1/6th are threatened with extinction
10 Most Threatened Bird Species
http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/mar2006/2006-03-27-01.asp
National Audubon Society
http://www.audubon.org/
Major Threats to Birds
   Habitat Loss and Fragmentation
   Nonnative Species
   Some are Loved to Death
   Drowned by...
Movie: Winged Migration
Ecological Role of Birds
   Indicator Species
   Control Rodent Populations
   Control Insect Populations
   Pollinate...
Birds as Indicator Species
   Live in every climate
   Respond quickly to environmental change in their
    habitat
   ...
Environmental Issue: Ivory-Billed Woodpecker


                  National Public Radio Broadcasts
                   Audi...
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
DELIBERATELY INTRODUCED
SPECIES?
Role of Introduced Species
   Provide food crops
   Provide livestock
   Provide lumber and ornamentals
   Control pests
Some
 Deliberately
 Introduced
 Species
Estimated 50,000
in U.S.
Problems of Introduced Species
   Biggest cause of animal and plant extinctions
   They threaten 1,260 endangered and th...
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF
ACCIDENTALLY INTRODUCED
SPECIES?
Modes of Transmission
   Stowaways on aircraft
   In the ballast water of tankers
   Hitchhikers on imported products
Argentina Fire Ant

                  Wiped out 90% of native ant
                   population
                  Painfu...
WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE
THE THREAT FROM NONNATIVE
SPECIES?
Reducing the Threat
   Identify major characteristics that allow species to
    become successful invaders
   Identify t...
Characteristics of Successful Invader Species

   High reproductive rate
   Short maturation time
   Pioneer species
 ...
EXPLODING DEER POPULATIONS:
SHOULD WE PUT BAMBI ON
BIRTH CONTROL?
Deadly Dear

                 Deer kill more than 200
                  people each year, more
                  each yea...
HOW SERIOUS IS THE ILLEGAL
TAKING OR KILLING OF WILD
SPECIES?
S.E. Asia’s Illegal Wildlife Trade
http://www.npr.org/programs/re/archivesdate/2003/nov/wildlife/index.html
Profit of Poaching

                Mountain Gorilla - $150,000
                Panda Pelt – $100,000
                C...
Endangered Species from Pet Trade
http://www.gotpetsonline.com/cgi-bin/Eware/view_ads.cgi
The Rising Demand for Bushmeat

                Increase in African
                 population
                Increase...
WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF
CLIMATE CHANGE AND
POLLUTION?
Water use and pollution
                                      and soil nutrient loss        Freshwater
              Food ...
Wildlife Fund and Climate Change
http://www.worldwildlife.org/climate/
HOW CAN INTERNATIONAL
TREATIES HELP PROTECT
ENDANGERED SPECIES?
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
http://www.cites.org/



Roughly 5,000
species of animals
...
HOW CAN NATIONAL LAWS
HELP PROTECT ENDANGERED
SPECIES?
http://www.fws.gov/endangered/esa.html


   Most wide reaching act passed by the U.S.
   National Marine Fisheries Servi...
ESA List
http://www.fws.gov/Endangered/
WHAT ARE CRITICAL HABITAT
DESIGNATIONS AND RECOVERY
PLANS?
Biodiversity Hotspots
http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/Pages/default.aspx
Top 6 Hotspots in United State

 Hawaii
 San Francisco Bay area

 Southern Appalachians

 Death Valley

 Southern Cal...
SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT
COMPENSATE LANDOWNERS WHEN
ENDANGERED SPECIES DECREASE THE
ECONOMIC VALUE OF THEIR LAND?
Eminent Domain
   Part of the 5th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
   Gives the government the right to force citizen...
Richard Pombo and the Endangered Species Act
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4971014
Problems w/ Endangered Species Act

   Act not doing too well, only 10 have been removed
   Problems determining what is...
HOW CAN PRIVATE LANDOWNERS
BE ENCOURAGED TO PROTECT
ENDANGERED SPECIES?
Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs)

   Protecting critical nesting sites
   Maintaining travel corridors for endangered s...
SHOULD THE ENDANGERED
SPECIES ACT BE WEAKENED?
House Approves Revised Endangered Species Act
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4930486
Efforts to Weaker the ESA
   Make protection of endangered species on private
    land voluntary.
   Have governments co...
SHOULD THE ENDANGERED
SPECIES ACT BE STRENGTHENED?
Efforts to Strengthen the ESA
   Find out what species and ecosystem the country has.
   Locate and protect the most end...
HOW CAN WILDLIFE REFUGES AND
OTHER PROTECTED AREAS HELP
PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES?
America’s National Wildlife Refuge System
http://www.fws.gov/refuges/
Bird Migratory Routes
National Refuges help to protect wetlands along bird migration routes
Texas Coast Welcomes Whooping Cranes
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6881350
CAN GENE BANKS, BOTANICAL
GARDENS, AND FARMS HELP SAVE
MOST ENDANGERED SPECIES?
Gene Banks, Zoos, Aquariums and Botanical
Gardens

   100 gene banks currently store seed from the 14 plants and
    prov...
Seed Banks Move to Save Threatened Species
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10338057
CAN ZOOS AND AQUARIUMS
HELP PROTECT MOST
ENDANGERED SPECIES?
Preserving Endangered Species
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1382676
Conservation Techniques in Zoos and Game
Parks

   Egg Pulling
   Captive Breeding
   Artificial Insemination
   Surgi...
Problems with Zoos

             Some activists interpret zoos as human
              domination over equal creatures
   ...
WHAT IS RECONCILIATION
ECOLOGY?
Reconciliation Ecology
   Science of inventing, establishing, and maintaining
    new habitats to conserve species divers...
Reconciliation Ecology In Action

                    Neighbors banding together
                     to replace monocult...
HOW CAN WE DO TO
PRESERVE SPECIES?
Sustaining Wild Species
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Sustaining Wild Species

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Covers species extinctions, habitat loss, invasive species, population growth

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Sustaining Wild Species

  1. 1. SUSTAINING WILD SPECIES The Walker School Environmental Science
  2. 2. WHAT ARE THREE TYPES OF SPECIES EXTINCTION?
  3. 3. Extinction Types  Local Extinction  Ecological Extinction  Biological Extinction
  4. 4. WHAT ARE ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES?
  5. 5. Some Stats About Species  1.4-1.8 million catalogued  5-100 million thought to exist  99.9% of all that existed are now extinct
  6. 6. Prematurely Extinct Species
  7. 7. Characteristics of Species Prone to Extinction  Low reproductive rate  Specialized niche  Narrow distribution  Feeds at high tropic levels  Fixed migratory patterns  Rare  Commercially valuable  Large territories
  8. 8. Some Endangered Species
  9. 9. Virus May Be the Cause of Bee Disappearance http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14241569
  10. 10. HOW DO BIOLOGISTS ESTIMATE EXTINCTION RATES?
  11. 11. Problems Measuring Extinctions  Extinction typically takes a long time.  Not all species have been identified.  Not much is know about identified species.
  12. 12. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) http://www.iucn.org/
  13. 13. IUCN Red List Database http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  14. 14. Red List Categories http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/categories_criteria2001.html
  15. 15. Discovery Questions  What is the difference between a threatened and endangered species?  How many species are currently threatened?  What criteria does the IUCN use to establish an organism’s status?  Which species meet each of these criteria in your area?  What factors contribute to a particular species status?
  16. 16. World Wildlife Fund (WWF) http://www.worldwildlife.org/
  17. 17. WildFinder Database http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildfinder/
  18. 18. Problems Estimating Extinction Rates  Assumptions about the earth’s total number of species  The proportion of species found in each ecosystem  The rate at which ecosystems are being damaged  The reliability of the method used to make these estimates
  19. 19. WHAT IS AN EXTINCTION EVENT?
  20. 20. Extinction-Level Events (ELE)  Caused by global environmental disruptions that result in large percentages of marine and terrestrial species dying out.
  21. 21. Major Extinction Periods and Causes http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-extinction-events.htm
  22. 22. Determining Species Extinction http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5015201
  23. 23. WHAT EFFECTS ARE HUMAN ACTIVITIES HAVING ON EXTINCTION RATES?
  24. 24. Humans and Extinction Rates  .0001% before humans  0.1 – 1% now, probably conservative  At this rate 1 million species would be lost in 200 years  20% of species might be gone by 2030  Most ecologists consider humans to be an extinction crisis
  25. 25. Current Mass Extinction http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200603/s1596740.htm
  26. 26. Species Endangered from Human Activities
  27. 27. WHY PRESERVE WILD SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS?
  28. 28. We Should Care  Humans probably won’t eradicate all species.  Providing for opportunistic species, such as weeds, rats and cockroaches
  29. 29. Research Value  Drugs to combat cancer and other diseases.  Help us to learn how nature works.
  30. 30. Instrumental Value  Food crops  Fuelwood  Lumber  Paper  Medicine  Genetic Information
  31. 31. Recreational Value  Watching Wildlife  Nature Photography  Bird Watching  Eco-Toursim
  32. 32. WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT BATS?
  33. 33. Ecological Roles of Bats  70% feed on crop- damaging nocturnal insects  The pollinate flowers on many tropical islands  Fruit eating bats distribute seeds  They are a keystone species and help to maintain plant biodiversity
  34. 34. Vulnerable to Extinction  They reproduce slowly  They live in huge colonies in caves and abandoned mines, which people sometimes block  About ¼ of bat species are listed as endangered
  35. 35. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF HABITAT LOSS AND DEGRADATION?
  36. 36. Primary Causes of Habitat Depletion (HIPPO)  Habitat Destruction  Invasive Species  Population Growth  Pesticides/Pollution  Overharvesting
  37. 37. Basic and Secondary Causes
  38. 38. Three Greatest Contributors to Terrestrial Species Loss  Deforestation in Tropical Forests  Destruction of Wetlands  Plowing of Grasslands
  39. 39. Greatest Cause of Marine Biodiversity Loss  Commercial Fishing  Sports Fishing  Solid Waste Disposal
  40. 40. Contributors to Habitat Loss in U.S.  Invasive Species  Commercial Development  Fire Suppression  Agriculture  Livestock Grazing  Pesticides/Pollution  Water Development  Outdoor Recreation
  41. 41. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF HABITAT FRAGMENTATION?
  42. 42. Habitat Fragmentation  Divides populations into isolated groups  More vulnerable to predators, invasive species, and catastrophic events  Creates barriers that can hinder species from dispersing and colonizing new areas
  43. 43. Global Habitat Fragmentation
  44. 44. Vulnerable Species  Those that are rare  Those that need to roam over large areas  Those that have a low reproductive capacity  Those with specialized niches
  45. 45. 4 Species Threatened by Habitat Fragmentation
  46. 46. HOW DO HUMAN ACTIVITIES AFFECT BIRD SPECIES?
  47. 47. Bird Statistics  9,800 know bird species  70% are declining in number  1/6th are threatened with extinction
  48. 48. 10 Most Threatened Bird Species http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/mar2006/2006-03-27-01.asp
  49. 49. National Audubon Society http://www.audubon.org/
  50. 50. Major Threats to Birds  Habitat Loss and Fragmentation  Nonnative Species  Some are Loved to Death  Drowned by Fishing Nets  Caught in Power Lines, Skyscrapers and Communication Towers
  51. 51. Movie: Winged Migration
  52. 52. Ecological Role of Birds  Indicator Species  Control Rodent Populations  Control Insect Populations  Pollinate Flowering Plants  Scavenging Dead Animals
  53. 53. Birds as Indicator Species  Live in every climate  Respond quickly to environmental change in their habitat  Are easy to tack and count
  54. 54. Environmental Issue: Ivory-Billed Woodpecker National Public Radio Broadcasts  Audio Evidence of Ivory-Billed Woodpecker (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?s toryId=4814860)  Audubon Bird Count, Lost Woodpecker Rediscovered (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?s toryId=5067655)
  55. 55. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF DELIBERATELY INTRODUCED SPECIES?
  56. 56. Role of Introduced Species  Provide food crops  Provide livestock  Provide lumber and ornamentals  Control pests
  57. 57. Some Deliberately Introduced Species Estimated 50,000 in U.S.
  58. 58. Problems of Introduced Species  Biggest cause of animal and plant extinctions  They threaten 1,260 endangered and threatened species in the U.S.  And 95% in Hawaii
  59. 59. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ACCIDENTALLY INTRODUCED SPECIES?
  60. 60. Modes of Transmission  Stowaways on aircraft  In the ballast water of tankers  Hitchhikers on imported products
  61. 61. Argentina Fire Ant  Wiped out 90% of native ant population  Painful stings can kill deer fawns, birds, and pets  Damage crops, such as corn soybeans, potatoes  Disrupted phone service and electrical power
  62. 62. WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE THE THREAT FROM NONNATIVE SPECIES?
  63. 63. Reducing the Threat  Identify major characteristics that allow species to become successful invaders  Identify the types of ecosystems that are vulnerable to invaders  Inspect imported goods that may be infected
  64. 64. Characteristics of Successful Invader Species  High reproductive rate  Short maturation time  Pioneer species  Long lived  High dispersal rate  Release of growth-inhibiting chemical  Generalists  High genetic variability
  65. 65. EXPLODING DEER POPULATIONS: SHOULD WE PUT BAMBI ON BIRTH CONTROL?
  66. 66. Deadly Dear  Deer kill more than 200 people each year, more each year in the U.S. than any other wild species  Collisions occur more than 1.5 million times each year
  67. 67. HOW SERIOUS IS THE ILLEGAL TAKING OR KILLING OF WILD SPECIES?
  68. 68. S.E. Asia’s Illegal Wildlife Trade http://www.npr.org/programs/re/archivesdate/2003/nov/wildlife/index.html
  69. 69. Profit of Poaching  Mountain Gorilla - $150,000  Panda Pelt – $100,000  Chimpanzee - $50,000  Amazon Macaw - $30,000  Rhinoceros Horn - $28,000 (per kg)
  70. 70. Endangered Species from Pet Trade http://www.gotpetsonline.com/cgi-bin/Eware/view_ads.cgi
  71. 71. The Rising Demand for Bushmeat  Increase in African population  Increase in logging road and access to remote areas  Increase demand by high- end restaurants  Source of income for poor people
  72. 72. WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND POLLUTION?
  73. 73. Water use and pollution and soil nutrient loss Freshwater Food supply supply and and demand Water availability demand Changes in Deforestation Changes in water supply and precipitation Erosion, temperature and temperature pollution, and CO2, CH4, changes in N2O emissions water flow Habitat change and fragmentation Forest product Climate change of habitat supply and demand CO2 emission Changes in Loss and transpiration fragmentation Loss and and albedo Loss of habitat fragmentation of crop of habitat genetic Habitat diversity Reduced change resistance to change Biodiversity loss
  74. 74. Wildlife Fund and Climate Change http://www.worldwildlife.org/climate/
  75. 75. HOW CAN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES HELP PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES?
  76. 76. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) http://www.cites.org/ Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over- exploitation through international trade.
  77. 77. HOW CAN NATIONAL LAWS HELP PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES?
  78. 78. http://www.fws.gov/endangered/esa.html  Most wide reaching act passed by the U.S.  National Marine Fisheries Services monitors ocean species.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services monitors all other wildlife species.  Act forbids federal agencies to carry out, fund or authorize projects that would endanger species or their habitat.  Forbids American to purchase endangered species  There are 1,260 species currently on the list.
  79. 79. ESA List http://www.fws.gov/Endangered/
  80. 80. WHAT ARE CRITICAL HABITAT DESIGNATIONS AND RECOVERY PLANS?
  81. 81. Biodiversity Hotspots http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/Pages/default.aspx
  82. 82. Top 6 Hotspots in United State  Hawaii  San Francisco Bay area  Southern Appalachians  Death Valley  Southern California  Florida Panhandle
  83. 83. SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT COMPENSATE LANDOWNERS WHEN ENDANGERED SPECIES DECREASE THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF THEIR LAND?
  84. 84. Eminent Domain  Part of the 5th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.  Gives the government the right to force citizen to sell their property needed for public good.
  85. 85. Richard Pombo and the Endangered Species Act http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4971014
  86. 86. Problems w/ Endangered Species Act  Act not doing too well, only 10 have been removed  Problems determining what is “critical habitat”; not enough empirical data  Tends to lower the value of the land  If governments gave everyone the market value of their land it would cripple the government
  87. 87. HOW CAN PRIVATE LANDOWNERS BE ENCOURAGED TO PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES?
  88. 88. Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs)  Protecting critical nesting sites  Maintaining travel corridors for endangered species  Paying to relocate species to another suitable habitat  Removing competitors and predators  Paying money to have the government buy suitable habitat elsewhere
  89. 89. SHOULD THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT BE WEAKENED?
  90. 90. House Approves Revised Endangered Species Act http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4930486
  91. 91. Efforts to Weaker the ESA  Make protection of endangered species on private land voluntary.  Have governments compensate landowners for their land.  Make it harder to list newly endangered species.  Eliminate the need to designate critical habitats.
  92. 92. SHOULD THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT BE STRENGTHENED?
  93. 93. Efforts to Strengthen the ESA  Find out what species and ecosystem the country has.  Locate and protect the most endangered ecosystems and species within such systems.  Put more emphasis on preventing species from becoming threatened and ecosystems from becoming degraded.  Provide private landowners who agree to help protect endangered ecosystems with significatn financial incentives.
  94. 94. HOW CAN WILDLIFE REFUGES AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS HELP PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES?
  95. 95. America’s National Wildlife Refuge System http://www.fws.gov/refuges/
  96. 96. Bird Migratory Routes National Refuges help to protect wetlands along bird migration routes
  97. 97. Texas Coast Welcomes Whooping Cranes http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6881350
  98. 98. CAN GENE BANKS, BOTANICAL GARDENS, AND FARMS HELP SAVE MOST ENDANGERED SPECIES?
  99. 99. Gene Banks, Zoos, Aquariums and Botanical Gardens  100 gene banks currently store seed from the 14 plants and provide 90% of the food we eat.  1,600 botanical gardens world-wide, which help to educate visitors about the need for plant conservation  201 accredited U.S. zoos provide sanctuaries for threatened or endangered species and help to educate people about animal conservation.
  100. 100. Seed Banks Move to Save Threatened Species http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10338057
  101. 101. CAN ZOOS AND AQUARIUMS HELP PROTECT MOST ENDANGERED SPECIES?
  102. 102. Preserving Endangered Species http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1382676
  103. 103. Conservation Techniques in Zoos and Game Parks  Egg Pulling  Captive Breeding  Artificial Insemination  Surgical Implantation of Eggs into Surrogate Mothers  Use of Incubators  Cross-Fostering of Endangered Species  Use of Computer Databases to Match Compatible DNA Strands for Breeding
  104. 104. Problems with Zoos  Some activists interpret zoos as human domination over equal creatures  Some criticize their educational value as being superficial and useless.  Some groups however do not fundamentally reject the existence of zoological gardens, but they point to the often unnatural and controversial conditions of keeping animals in captivity, particularly in small cages without any environmental enrichment.  Some activists say behavioral patterns such as pacing, rocking and swaying indicate suffering of animals in unsuitable enclosures.
  105. 105. WHAT IS RECONCILIATION ECOLOGY?
  106. 106. Reconciliation Ecology  Science of inventing, establishing, and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work and play.
  107. 107. Reconciliation Ecology In Action  Neighbors banding together to replace monoculture yards with diverse habitats for butterflies and birds.  Garden rooftops on buildings in cities.  Large parks in cities that have many different ecosystems.
  108. 108. HOW CAN WE DO TO PRESERVE SPECIES?
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