Interactions Between Plates and Climate
Location of Colliding Mountain Ultimately
Movement Continents Plates Shape and Affects
between and Ocean Create Size Affect Global
Plates Basins Mountains Atmospheric Climate
Mineral Formation Processes
Precipitation (salts, metals)
Crystallization from Magma Plutons (ores)
Changes in Temperature and Pressure (ores)
Fluid Inclusions (ores)
Greatest Copper Deposits
The greatest known deposit of copper is in
porphyries formed by volcanic activity in the Chile's
Chile's copper mines provide over 30% of the
world's mine production of recoverable copper.
Escondida Copper Mine is today the world's
largest producing mine with 750,000 metric tons of
production which was 5.6% of the world's
production in 2000.
Escondida Copper Mine, Chili
The Escondida copper-
gold-silver mine is
located in the arid,
Desert of Chile about
160km southeast the
port of Antofagasta, at
an elevation of 3,050m
above sea level.
Copper is the Oldest Minded Mineral
Copper is mankind's oldest metal, dating back more
than 10,000 years.
A copper pendant discovered in what is now
northern Iraq goes back to about 8700 BC.
Archeologists have recovered a portion of a water
plumbing system from the Pyramid of Cheops in
Egypt. The copper tubing used was found in
serviceable condition after more than 5,000 years.
Copper was mined in Ancient Rome
Copper was named for
the island of Cyprus,
where the Romans
obtained their supply.
Copper in Early America
When Columbus sailed to the Americas, his ships,
Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria, had copper skins
below the water line. The copper sheathing
extended hull life and protected against barnacles
and other kinds of biofouling.
Paul Revere, produced the bronze cannon, spikes
and pumps for the famous ship, Old Ironsides.
Revere was one of the earliest American
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