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PLATE TECTONICS:
A UNIFYING THEORY
Geology
The Walker School
Earth’s crust is about 5% of it’s mass.
Oceanic Crust
                5 to 8 km thick.

                Composed mainly of basalt
                and gabbro.

   ...
Continental Crust

                    Composed of many
                    rock types.

                    Can be as old...
Cratons are the oldest parts of the
continents.
Crust is made of 10 Major Plates




                               Fig. 1-11, p. 17
Activity Along Plates
   Volcanism
   Earthquakes
   Mountain Building
   Basin Formation
Plate Activity




                 Fig. 1-12, p. 18
Composite Satellite Image of
Himalayan Peaks
Interactions Between Plates and Climate



           Location of   Colliding    Mountain      Ultimately
Movement   Conti...
WHAT IS CONTINENTAL
DRIFT?
Alferd Wagner Proposed the Theory
of Continental Drift




                                Fig. 2-2, p. 35
Evidence for Continental Drift
   Shorelines of Continents
   Similar Rock Sequences
   Similar Mountain Ranges
   Mat...
Shorelines of Continents




                           Fig. 2-3, p. 36
Similar Rock Sequences




                         Fig. 2-4, p. 37
Trends of Mountain Ranges
Glacial Evidence from Striations




                                   Fig. 2-5, p. 38
Fossil Evidence




                  Fig. 2-6, p. 39
TYPES OF PLATE
BOUNDARIES
Types of Plate Boundaries




                            Table 2-1, p. 47
DIVERGENT PLATE
BOUNDARIES
Mid-Atlantic Ridge




                     Fig. 2-10, p. 43
Earth’s Magnetic Field Recorded in
Oceanic Crust




                               Fig. 2-11, p. 44
Age of the World’s Oceans



                 Red:
                 48
                 MYA
                        Yello
...
Sediments Increase Away from
Ridges Toward Continents




                               Fig. 2-13, p. 45
Divergent
Plates Form
Oceans



              Fig. 2-15, p. 48
East African
Rift Valley
Formed from
Divergent
Plates


               Fig. 2-16a, p. 49
Red Sea: Example of Adv. Rifting




                              Fig. 2-16b, p. 49
Indicators of Rifting
   Faults                                      Lava Flows

   Dikes (Vertical Intrusions of Magma...
Pillow Lavas
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsJn8izcKtg
Example of Paleo-Rifting in the United States
Hudson River Valley: Palisades, NJ




                                     ...
CONVERGENT PLATE
BOUNDARIES
Oceanic Plate Boundaries




                           Fig. 2-18a, p. 53
Oceanic-Continent
Plate Boundaries




                    Fig. 2-18b, p. 53
Continental-Continental




                          Fig. 2-18c, p. 53
Indicators of Convergence
   Melange
   Ophiolites
TRANSFORM FAULTS
Most transform faults connect two oceanic
ridges.




                                     Fig. 2-20a, p. 56
A transform fault can connect a ridge and
a trench.




                                      Fig. 2-20b, p. 56
A transform fault can link two ridges.




                                         Fig. 2-20c, p. 56
San Andres Fault




                   Fig. 2-21, p. 57
HOT SPOTS: AN
INTRAPLATE FEATURE
Mantle Plumb remains stationary while
plates move.




                                        Fig. 2-22, p. 58
PLATE MOVEMENT
Plates, Zones, and Movements




                               Fig. 2-14, p. 46
Methods for determining movement.
   Measuring age of sediment.
   Dating magnetic anomalies on the seafloor.
   Satell...
Supercontinent Cycle
DRIVING MECHANISM OF
PLATE TECTONICS
Fig. 1-10, p. 16
Model I: Thermal convection cells are
restricted to the asthenosphere.




                                        Fig. 2-...
Model II: Thermal convection cells involve
the entire mantle.




                                        Fig. 2-24b, p. 60
DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL
RESOURCES
Mineral Deposits Associated with
Plate Boundaries




                               Fig. 2-26, p. 62
Fig. 2-25, p. 61
Mineral Formation Processes
   Sedimentation (coal)
   Precipitation (salts, metals)
   Crystallization from Magma Plut...
Greatest Copper Deposits
   The greatest known deposit of copper is in
    porphyries formed by volcanic activity in the ...
Escondida Copper Mine, Chili
   The Escondida copper-
    gold-silver mine is
    located in the arid,
    northern Ataca...
Copper is the Oldest Minded Mineral

   Copper is mankind's oldest metal, dating back more
    than 10,000 years.
   A c...
Copper was mined in Ancient Rome
   Copper was named for
    the island of Cyprus,
    where the Romans
    obtained thei...
Copper in Early America
   When Columbus sailed to the Americas, his ships,
    Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria, had copper s...
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Transcript of "Plate Tectonics"

  1. 1. PLATE TECTONICS: A UNIFYING THEORY Geology The Walker School
  2. 2. Earth’s crust is about 5% of it’s mass.
  3. 3. Oceanic Crust 5 to 8 km thick. Composed mainly of basalt and gabbro. Not older than 180 million years. Covered with dead organism and sediment, about 1 km thick. Little variability in composition.
  4. 4. Continental Crust Composed of many rock types. Can be as old as 4 billion years. Varies in thickness from 20 to 80 km. Makes up about 41% of Earth’s surface.
  5. 5. Cratons are the oldest parts of the continents.
  6. 6. Crust is made of 10 Major Plates Fig. 1-11, p. 17
  7. 7. Activity Along Plates  Volcanism  Earthquakes  Mountain Building  Basin Formation
  8. 8. Plate Activity Fig. 1-12, p. 18
  9. 9. Composite Satellite Image of Himalayan Peaks
  10. 10. Interactions Between Plates and Climate Location of Colliding Mountain Ultimately Movement Continents Plates Shape and Affects between and Ocean Create Size Affect Global Plates Basins Mountains Atmospheric Climate Circulation
  11. 11. WHAT IS CONTINENTAL DRIFT?
  12. 12. Alferd Wagner Proposed the Theory of Continental Drift Fig. 2-2, p. 35
  13. 13. Evidence for Continental Drift  Shorelines of Continents  Similar Rock Sequences  Similar Mountain Ranges  Matching Glacial Deposits  Similarity in Extinct Plants and Animals
  14. 14. Shorelines of Continents Fig. 2-3, p. 36
  15. 15. Similar Rock Sequences Fig. 2-4, p. 37
  16. 16. Trends of Mountain Ranges
  17. 17. Glacial Evidence from Striations Fig. 2-5, p. 38
  18. 18. Fossil Evidence Fig. 2-6, p. 39
  19. 19. TYPES OF PLATE BOUNDARIES
  20. 20. Types of Plate Boundaries Table 2-1, p. 47
  21. 21. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
  22. 22. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Fig. 2-10, p. 43
  23. 23. Earth’s Magnetic Field Recorded in Oceanic Crust Fig. 2-11, p. 44
  24. 24. Age of the World’s Oceans Red: 48 MYA Yello w: 68 MYA Green: 155 MYA Fig. 2-12, p. 45
  25. 25. Sediments Increase Away from Ridges Toward Continents Fig. 2-13, p. 45
  26. 26. Divergent Plates Form Oceans Fig. 2-15, p. 48
  27. 27. East African Rift Valley Formed from Divergent Plates Fig. 2-16a, p. 49
  28. 28. Red Sea: Example of Adv. Rifting Fig. 2-16b, p. 49
  29. 29. Indicators of Rifting  Faults  Lava Flows  Dikes (Vertical Intrusions of Magma)  Thick Sedimentary Sequences  Sills (Horizontal Intrusions of Magma)  Pillow Lava
  30. 30. Pillow Lavas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsJn8izcKtg
  31. 31. Example of Paleo-Rifting in the United States Hudson River Valley: Palisades, NJ Fig. 2-17, p. 52
  32. 32. CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
  33. 33. Oceanic Plate Boundaries Fig. 2-18a, p. 53
  34. 34. Oceanic-Continent Plate Boundaries Fig. 2-18b, p. 53
  35. 35. Continental-Continental Fig. 2-18c, p. 53
  36. 36. Indicators of Convergence  Melange  Ophiolites
  37. 37. TRANSFORM FAULTS
  38. 38. Most transform faults connect two oceanic ridges. Fig. 2-20a, p. 56
  39. 39. A transform fault can connect a ridge and a trench. Fig. 2-20b, p. 56
  40. 40. A transform fault can link two ridges. Fig. 2-20c, p. 56
  41. 41. San Andres Fault Fig. 2-21, p. 57
  42. 42. HOT SPOTS: AN INTRAPLATE FEATURE
  43. 43. Mantle Plumb remains stationary while plates move. Fig. 2-22, p. 58
  44. 44. PLATE MOVEMENT
  45. 45. Plates, Zones, and Movements Fig. 2-14, p. 46
  46. 46. Methods for determining movement.  Measuring age of sediment.  Dating magnetic anomalies on the seafloor.  Satellite-Laser ranging techniques.  Hotspots
  47. 47. Supercontinent Cycle
  48. 48. DRIVING MECHANISM OF PLATE TECTONICS
  49. 49. Fig. 1-10, p. 16
  50. 50. Model I: Thermal convection cells are restricted to the asthenosphere. Fig. 2-24a, p. 60
  51. 51. Model II: Thermal convection cells involve the entire mantle. Fig. 2-24b, p. 60
  52. 52. DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
  53. 53. Mineral Deposits Associated with Plate Boundaries Fig. 2-26, p. 62
  54. 54. Fig. 2-25, p. 61
  55. 55. Mineral Formation Processes  Sedimentation (coal)  Precipitation (salts, metals)  Crystallization from Magma Plutons (ores)  Changes in Temperature and Pressure (ores)  Fluid Inclusions (ores)
  56. 56. Greatest Copper Deposits  The greatest known deposit of copper is in porphyries formed by volcanic activity in the Chile's Andean Mountains.  Chile's copper mines provide over 30% of the world's mine production of recoverable copper.  Escondida Copper Mine is today the world's largest producing mine with 750,000 metric tons of production which was 5.6% of the world's production in 2000.
  57. 57. Escondida Copper Mine, Chili  The Escondida copper- gold-silver mine is located in the arid, northern Atacama Desert of Chile about 160km southeast the port of Antofagasta, at an elevation of 3,050m above sea level.
  58. 58. Copper is the Oldest Minded Mineral  Copper is mankind's oldest metal, dating back more than 10,000 years.  A copper pendant discovered in what is now northern Iraq goes back to about 8700 BC.  Archeologists have recovered a portion of a water plumbing system from the Pyramid of Cheops in Egypt. The copper tubing used was found in serviceable condition after more than 5,000 years.
  59. 59. Copper was mined in Ancient Rome  Copper was named for the island of Cyprus, where the Romans obtained their supply.
  60. 60. Copper in Early America  When Columbus sailed to the Americas, his ships, Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria, had copper skins below the water line. The copper sheathing extended hull life and protected against barnacles and other kinds of biofouling.  Paul Revere, produced the bronze cannon, spikes and pumps for the famous ship, Old Ironsides. Revere was one of the earliest American coppersmiths.
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