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Pest Management

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  • 1. PESTICIDES AND PEST CONTROL The Walker School Mr. Thomas Cooper
  • 2. HOW DOES NATURE KEEP PEST POPULATIONS UNDER CONTROL?
  • 3. Natural Methods  Predators  Parasites  Diseases
  • 4. WHAT ARE BIOCIDES?
  • 5. Biocide Categories  Broad-Spectrum Agents  Narrow-Spectrum Agents
  • 6. Categories  Disinfectants  Preservatives  Pest Control  Embalming
  • 7. Pesticide Variables  Chemical Composition  Amount of Active Ingredient  Persistence
  • 8. WHAT WAS THE FIRST GENERATION OF PESTICIDES AND REPELLENTS?
  • 9. First Generation – Natural Botanicals  Before 500 B.C. – Sulfur, Arsenic, Lead, Mercury  1600 A.D. – Nicotine Sulfate  1800 A.D. – Pyrethrum, Rotenone  1939 A.D. - DDT
  • 10. WHAT IS THE SECOND GENERATION OF PESTICIDES?
  • 11. Types of Pesticides
  • 12. DDT http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT
  • 13. Rachel Carson & Silent Spring  Birds  Toxins  Bioaccumulation
  • 14. Reasons for the Initial DDT Ban  A broad-spectrum chemical that kills many beneficial organisms  A persistent chemical that remains in the environment for 15 years, or more.  Reduced populations of many birds.  Some preliminary evidence that it caused cancer.  Became less effective over time.
  • 15. THE DIRTY DOZEN
  • 16. Persistent Organic Pollutants http://www.ienearth.org/pops_2002.html
  • 17. PESTICIDE USE IN THE U.S.
  • 18. Insecticide Use in U.S. (2002) http://www.croplifefoundation.org/cpri_npud2002.htm
  • 19. National Pesticide Use Database http://www.ncfap.org/database/default.htm
  • 20. WHAT ARE THE PROS OF PESTICIDES?
  • 21. Pros of Bioicides  controls organisms which are considered harmful  prevents sickness in humans that could be caused by moldy food or diseased produce  clears roadside weeds, trees and brush  kills invasive weeds in parks and wilderness areas, which may cause environmental damage  controls algae and aquatic plants that interfere with activities like swimming and fishing  used in grocery stores and food storage facilities to manage rodents and insects that infest food such as grain
  • 22. The Ideal Biocide  Affects only the target organism  Does not cause genetic resistance in the target organism  Disappears or breaks down into harmless chemicals after doing it’s job  Is more cost effective then doing nothing
  • 23. WHAT ARE THE CONS OF PESTICIDES?
  • 24. Cons of Biocides  Accelerates the development of genetic resistance  Kills beneficial species as well as the target species  95% + end up in the atmosphere, surface water, ground water, bottom sediments, food and non- target organisms
  • 25. Effects to Wildlife  Reduces pollination of vital crops  Kills many pollinators, birds and fish  Accelerates the loss of threatened and endangered species
  • 26. Effects to Humans – Linked To…  Cancer  Childhood Leukemia  Birth Defects  Behavioral Disorders
  • 27. HOW ARE PESTICIDES REGULATED IN THE UNITED STATES?
  • 28. FIFRA (1947, 1972) http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws/fifra.html
  • 29. Food Quality Protection Act (1996)
  • 30. Facts  Many American’s frequently use biocides in the home.  Many of the 165 approved ingredients in biocides are know carcinogens  Laws regulating biocides are inadequate.
  • 31. WHAT ARE OTHER WAYS TO CONTROL PESTS?
  • 32. Alternative Methods  Cultivation Practices  Genetic Engineering  Biological Pest Control  Insect Birth Control  Expose Foods to Gamma Radiation
  • 33. Biological Pest Control
  • 34. Introduce Hormone Disrupters to Reduce Insect Populations MH Pupa MH MH JH Larva MH Eggs JH JH
  • 35. IS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT THE ANSWER?
  • 36. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm

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