Pest Management

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Pest Management

  1. 1. PESTICIDES AND PEST CONTROL The Walker School Mr. Thomas Cooper
  2. 2. HOW DOES NATURE KEEP PEST POPULATIONS UNDER CONTROL?
  3. 3. Natural Methods  Predators  Parasites  Diseases
  4. 4. WHAT ARE BIOCIDES?
  5. 5. Biocide Categories  Broad-Spectrum Agents  Narrow-Spectrum Agents
  6. 6. Categories  Disinfectants  Preservatives  Pest Control  Embalming
  7. 7. Pesticide Variables  Chemical Composition  Amount of Active Ingredient  Persistence
  8. 8. WHAT WAS THE FIRST GENERATION OF PESTICIDES AND REPELLENTS?
  9. 9. First Generation – Natural Botanicals  Before 500 B.C. – Sulfur, Arsenic, Lead, Mercury  1600 A.D. – Nicotine Sulfate  1800 A.D. – Pyrethrum, Rotenone  1939 A.D. - DDT
  10. 10. WHAT IS THE SECOND GENERATION OF PESTICIDES?
  11. 11. Types of Pesticides
  12. 12. DDT http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT
  13. 13. Rachel Carson & Silent Spring  Birds  Toxins  Bioaccumulation
  14. 14. Reasons for the Initial DDT Ban  A broad-spectrum chemical that kills many beneficial organisms  A persistent chemical that remains in the environment for 15 years, or more.  Reduced populations of many birds.  Some preliminary evidence that it caused cancer.  Became less effective over time.
  15. 15. THE DIRTY DOZEN
  16. 16. Persistent Organic Pollutants http://www.ienearth.org/pops_2002.html
  17. 17. PESTICIDE USE IN THE U.S.
  18. 18. Insecticide Use in U.S. (2002) http://www.croplifefoundation.org/cpri_npud2002.htm
  19. 19. National Pesticide Use Database http://www.ncfap.org/database/default.htm
  20. 20. WHAT ARE THE PROS OF PESTICIDES?
  21. 21. Pros of Bioicides  controls organisms which are considered harmful  prevents sickness in humans that could be caused by moldy food or diseased produce  clears roadside weeds, trees and brush  kills invasive weeds in parks and wilderness areas, which may cause environmental damage  controls algae and aquatic plants that interfere with activities like swimming and fishing  used in grocery stores and food storage facilities to manage rodents and insects that infest food such as grain
  22. 22. The Ideal Biocide  Affects only the target organism  Does not cause genetic resistance in the target organism  Disappears or breaks down into harmless chemicals after doing it’s job  Is more cost effective then doing nothing
  23. 23. WHAT ARE THE CONS OF PESTICIDES?
  24. 24. Cons of Biocides  Accelerates the development of genetic resistance  Kills beneficial species as well as the target species  95% + end up in the atmosphere, surface water, ground water, bottom sediments, food and non- target organisms
  25. 25. Effects to Wildlife  Reduces pollination of vital crops  Kills many pollinators, birds and fish  Accelerates the loss of threatened and endangered species
  26. 26. Effects to Humans – Linked To…  Cancer  Childhood Leukemia  Birth Defects  Behavioral Disorders
  27. 27. HOW ARE PESTICIDES REGULATED IN THE UNITED STATES?
  28. 28. FIFRA (1947, 1972) http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws/fifra.html
  29. 29. Food Quality Protection Act (1996)
  30. 30. Facts  Many American’s frequently use biocides in the home.  Many of the 165 approved ingredients in biocides are know carcinogens  Laws regulating biocides are inadequate.
  31. 31. WHAT ARE OTHER WAYS TO CONTROL PESTS?
  32. 32. Alternative Methods  Cultivation Practices  Genetic Engineering  Biological Pest Control  Insect Birth Control  Expose Foods to Gamma Radiation
  33. 33. Biological Pest Control
  34. 34. Introduce Hormone Disrupters to Reduce Insect Populations MH Pupa MH MH JH Larva MH Eggs JH JH
  35. 35. IS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT THE ANSWER?
  36. 36. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm

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