Milestones in Astronomy


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Milestones in Astronomy

  1. 1. Astronomy The Walker School
  2. 2. Aristarchus lived from 310 B.C to  approximately 230 B.C. He made his discovery on the Greek  island of Samos. He was the first to propose the idea  of a heliocentric solar system, or a solar system that revolves around the sun, instead of the earth. For his works, he was greatly  influenced by Pythagorean Philolaus. Archimedes’ book, The Sand  Reckoner advances on Aristarchus’ theory by stating the stars are much farther from the earth than he once thought.
  3. 3. Born in Egypt after AD 85, died  in Egypt in AD 165 Wrote several treatises, The  Almagest is the only surviving astronomical treatise. Contains tables that Ptolemy  used to predict the future positions of the planets, as well as a star catalogue, appropriated from Hipparchus’s star catalogue. (so Hipparchus aided him) Estimated that the sun was a  distance of 1210 Earth radii away from the earth.
  4. 4. 1473-1543  A native of Poland, Copernicus  was the first astronomer to figure that the Earth was not the center of the universe, by using “scientifically-based heliocentric cosmology” Helped to kick-off the Scientific  Revolution. Galileo improved Copernicus’  studies. Helped us today with universal  placement, his work jumpstarted tons of scientists’ work with astronomy.
  5. 5. 1564-1642  He was famous for making the  telescope, trying to prove Copernicus’ theories, and for discovering the moons of Jupiter. This helped the reasoning that the earth is not the center of the universe. Galileo was impeded by the  Catholic church, because what he suggested was against the teachings of the Vatican. His work was not accepted  until 1741.
  6. 6. Hans Lippershey lived from 1570 to  1619. He made his great innovations in the  Netherlands from the town of Middelburg. Lippershey is famous for creating the  first practical telescope. With the telescope, astronomers  were able to observe the stars more closely than with the naked eye. Lippershey was apparently inspired  to create the telescope when he noticed children playing with lenses. The children, by placing one lens in front of the other, were able to see objects more closely. Galileo would improve on  Lippershey’s telescope and after that, Niccolo Zucchi would eventually create the first reflecting telescope. Today’s telescopes can now work in wavelengths such as gamma rays or radio waves.
  7. 7. 1546-1601  Tycho was famous for  discovering as well as naming what is known as a supernova. This was helpful because he found an anomaly in the parallax measurements. He was assisted by Johannes Kepler. Later, much of his theories  were discredited, but what was not is considered to be a major help in the scientific revolution.
  8. 8. Johannes Kepler lived from 1571 to  1630. He got much of his education from  the University of Linz in Austria, where he made many of his discoveries. His contribution to astronomy was  proposing his laws of planetary motion, which helps to detect the movement of planets in the solar system. The law helped us find out how earth Solar System  and the other planets moved around the sun. His observation to the Great Comet of  1577 enhanced his interest in astronomy. He learned very much from Ptolemaic and Copernican system of planetary motion. His knowledge of heliocentrism helped him develop his theories as well. Isaac Newton used this law to deduce  his laws of gravitational motion, which explains the gravitational attraction between bodies of mass.
  9. 9. April 14, 1629 - July 8, 1695  Netherlands  Huygens discovered the first of  Saturn's moons, Titan. He also observed and sketched the Orion Nebula  Proposed Saturn's ring is solid  He used a 50 power refracting telescope that he designed Saturn himself  On May 3, 1661, he observed planet Mercury transit over the Sun, using the telescope of telescope maker Richard Reeves in London together with astronomer Thomas Streete and Richard Reeves
  10. 10. 1642-1727  Englishman who was responsible  for describing universal gravitation & the 3 laws of motion (among other discoveries)  By combining Kepler’s laws of planetary motion with his own theory of gravitation, Newton proved that the movements of objects in Earth and of celestial bodies are under the control of the same set of natural laws.  Important to understanding our place in the universe mainly with placement and gravity. How we know our literal “placement” is much in thanks to Newton. Newton’s Telescope
  11. 11. 1656-1742  Englishman remembered for his own  discovery, Halley’s Comet. Influenced by John Flamsteed, the  astronomer royal, at Oxford University, who catalogued Northern stars. Wanted to “compile a catalogue” of his  own, of stars in the Southern Hemisphere Traveled to St. Helena Island and  recorded the celestial points of stars and comets. Ended up succeeding Flamsteed as  astronomer royal. Helped us today with placement of  stars, like with latitude and longitude, and Halley’s Comet is a reoccurring celestial body which can be seen every 75 or 76 years. Halley’s Comet
  12. 12. James Bradley lived from March  1693 to July 1762. He made his discoveries in the  United Kingdom. He was taught from the University of Oxford. His famous discovery was  discovering the aberration of light. Aberration of light helps to detect movement of solar objects. This eventually enabled Bradley to  measure the speed of light and helps monitor the earth’s movement around the sun. Bradley was actually studying  stellar parallax, which is meant to help determine distances of objects. When he could not find the parallax he anticipated, he figured out it was from aberration of light. Bradley’s theory helped him explain  the shifting of the earth’s axis.
  13. 13. November 7, 1728-February  14, 1779 He was an English explorer,  navigator, and cartographer. Cook applied himself to the  study of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation, and astronomy, all skills he would need one day to command his own ship. Cook participated in the  Transit of Venus and helped to measure it on a South Pacific island. The transit was an effort to determine the distance from Earth to the sun.
  14. 14. Born in 1730, died 1817,  lived in France First catalogue of deep  sky objects (nebulae, star cluster)—Messier objects Joseph Nicolas Delisle, a  fellow astronomer, advised Messier to keep records of all his findings. It was also improved on  when various scientists increased his lists to include 100+ objects.
  15. 15. 15 November 1738-25  August 1822 He lived in England and  made his discoveries in England He first discovered  Uranus on March 13, 1781 and also built some telescopes which he made more than 400 Uranus telescopes with the help of his sister Caroline He discovered one of the  planets in our universe and found that there are other forms of invisible 40 foot light other than visible telescope light.
  16. 16. 1746-1826  He discovered the  asteroid Cerces, which is the largest asteroid in the belt. He also published a star catalogue. This also helped with the parallax measurements, which was improved upon by Fredrick Bessel.
  17. 17. 1749-1827  Frenchman who described  the “nebular hypothesis” of the solar system Worked a lot with  connecting math and physics with astronomy One of the scientists that  noticed the existence of black holes as well as the idea of gravitational collapse
  18. 18. July 22, 1784- March 17, 1846  Kulenkamp and  Bremen(Lilienthal Observatory) Credited with being the first  to use parallax in calculating the distance to a star Believed that parallax would  give the first accurate measurement of interstellar distances There was a race between a  few astronomers that were trying to prove parallax
  19. 19. 28th of December, 1798-  23 November 1844 Worked as a scientific  and practical astronomer First person to measure  the distance to Alpha Centuri Also studied parallax, but  was beaten to the punch by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel who published a parallax of 10.4 light year
  20. 20. 1803-1853  Lived and worked in Prague  Discovered the Doppler  effect Published his most notable  work on the colored light of the binary stars and some other stars of the heavens and with that principle, he observed the frequency of a wave and used that concept explaining the color of binary stars
  21. 21. 1818-1889  Famous for discovering  a comet in Massachusetts, which was named after her. She was impeded by  another astronomer who claimed to have discovered the comet first, but Maria was chosen over the other.
  22. 22. March 24, 1835-  January 7, 1893  Worked at Vienna Academy of Sciences  Discovered the Physical Power Law, which states the total radiation from a blackbody  Was aided by John Tyndall
  23. 23. 12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887  Lived and worked in Germany  Kirchhoff is perhaps best known for  being the first to explain the dark lines in the sun's spectrum as caused by absorption of particular wavelengths as the light passes through gases in the sun's atmosphere He created the laws of spectroscopy.  His method allows us to chart and analyze the chemical properties of matter and gases by looking at the bands in their optical spectrum Used the study spectroscopy  His students used the texts which he  wrote which contributed to the strong development of theoretical physics in Germany in the forty years after his death.
  24. 24. •1824-1907  •Developing the Kelvin scale  of absolute temperature measurement •Important work in the  mathematical analysis of electricity and thermodynamics Cambridge, England;  Glasgow, Scotland Considered the ideas which  gave rise to the second law of thermodynamics which then lead to his speculation about the heat death of the universe
  25. 25. February 22, 1857- January 1,  1894  He lived in Germany and made most of his discoveries in Germany  In 1885, Hertz became a full professor at the University of Karlsruhe where he discovered electromagnetic waves. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect VHF or UHF radio waves.
  26. 26. July 4, 1868-  December 12, 1921 She lived in  Massachusetts She noted  thousands of variable stars in images of the Magellanic Clouds It helped find the  patterns of the stars in our universe Magellanic Clouds
  27. 27. January 13, 1864 –August 30, 1928  Laboratory of Hermann von  Helmholtz Discovered Wien’s Displacement  Law Relates the maximum emission of a  blackbody to its temperature Planck was a colleague that aided  Wilhelm
  28. 28. November 20, 1889 – September  28, 1953 Mount Wilson Observatory, near  Pasadena, California Using the Hooker Telescope,  Hubble identified Cepheid variables in several spiral nebulae, including the Andromeda Galaxy Demonstrated the existence of  other galaxies besides the Milky Way He used the Hooker Telescope,  then the world's largest telescope, to aid him in his discoveries Gérard de Vaucouleurs created a  modified version of the Hubble sequence
  29. 29. Born November 11, 1875 in  Mulberry, IN Died November 8, 1969 in Flagstaff,  AZ Spent his entire career at the Lowell  Observatory in Flagstaff, where he was named director in 1926 1st to discover shift of spectral lines  in galaxies Hired Clyde Tombaugh, and  supervised the work that discovered Pluto Has a Lunar crater, Martian crater,  and an asteroid named after him. The new science of spectroscopy  helped him see the spectral lines of the galaxies shift
  30. 30. • April 23, 1858-  october 4, 1947  • Founder of the quantum theory
  31. 31. March 14, 1879 - April  18, 1955 Studied in Switzerland  The maximum speed  limit of light affects measurements of time and space Helped determine how  light travels through space Worked alone 
  32. 32. February 4, 1906 – January 17,  1997 Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff,  Arizona Tombaugh is best known for  discovering the dwarf planet Pluto in 1930 Gave Pluto the status of being a  planet Tombaugh used a 13-inch  astrograph to take photographs of the sky In 1930, soon after Pluto's  discovery the first astronomer to suggest that Pluto was part of a trans-Neptunian population was Frederick C. Leonard.