STATE OF AGRICULTURE
The Walker School
Environmental Science
Focus
    Cultivation of crops


    State of arable land


    Pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland

Agricultural Products
    Foods


    Fibers


    Fuels


    Raw materials


    Pharmaceuticals


    Illegal drug...
Traditional Food Systems
    Croplands       77%


    Rangelands      16%


    Ocean Fisheries 7%

Cropland              Forest

                                    Food Production in
Irrigated farm land   Barren land
Ran...
Improvements in Agriculture
    Increased use of farm

    machinery
    Inorganic chemical

    fertilizers
    Irrigat...
Environmental Concerns
    Soil Erosion


    Pollution


    Lack of Water for

    Irrigation
    Overgrazing by

  ...
WHAT PLANTS AND ANIMALS
FEED THE WORLD?
Available Materials: Types of Plants


                               30,000 known species
                           
  ...
Why So Few Plants

                  Indigestible
              

                  Poisonous
              

          ...
12 Major Species of Plant

                 Cereals: wheat, corn, rice,
             

                 barley, sorghum, ...
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR TYPES OF
FOOD PRODUCTION?
Agricultural Types
    Industrialized Agriculture


    Plantation Agriculture


    Traditional Intensive Agriculture
...
Location of World Food Production




                              Plantation agriculture   Intensive traditional agricul...
Cash Crops of Plantation Agriculture

    Bananas


    Coffee


    Soybeans


    Sugarcane


    Cocoa


    Veget...
HOW HAVE GREEN REVOLUTIONS
INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION?
Steps Toward a Green Revolution
    Develop and plant

    monocultures
    Produce high yields by

    using large amou...
Figure 13-6
                  Page 282




First green revolution   Second green revolution   Major international agricult...
WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF
FOOD PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.?
Agricultural Facts for the U.S.
    Bigger than the automotive, steel, and housing

    industries combined
    Generates...
Energy Use in Production

             Grow                                   Transport
                                 ...
Land

   Labor


   Capital



  Fossil fuel
  energy


                        Industrialized agriculture
               ...
Land



Labor
Capital


           Shifting cultivation in tropical
          forests in developing countries




Land



...
Food Processing Systems

   Imports




                 Wholesalers    Caterers




   Food/Farms   Manufacturers   Retai...
WHAT GROWING TECHNIQUES ARE
USED IN TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE?
Traditional Intensive Agriculture in Vietnam
Interplanting Strategies
    Polyculturing


    Intercropping


    Agroforestry (Alley


    Cropping)



           ...
Advantages of Polyculturing
    Less need for fertilizers

    and water because of
    varying root depths
    More prot...
WHAT OTHER METHODS
REDUCE SOIL EROSION?
Soil Conservation




                    Table 6-2, p. 190
Terracing
Contour Farming
Strip Cropping
Agroforestry
Gully Reclamation
Plants That Deplete Soil Nutrients
     Corn
 

     Tobacco
 

     Cotton
 




Crop Rotation Example:
Corn  Soybean...
HOW CAN WE MAINTAIN AND
RESTORE SOIL FERTILITY?
Extent of Fertilizer use in United States
Organic Fertilizers
    Animal Manure


    Green Manure


    Compost


    Spores of Mushrooms


    Crop Rotation

HOW MUCH HAS FOOD
PRODUCTION INCREASED?
Rice Production
Corn Production
Wheat Production
Food Production
    Enough is produced to feed the current population


    Poor distribution infrastructures and politic...
HOW SERIOUS ARE
UNDERNUTRITION AND
MALNUTRITION?
Decreased           High death
                                       resistance            rate for
Poverty           Mal...
Problems of Chronic Undernutrition

     Mental Retardation


     Stunted Growth


     Susceptible to Infection

    ...
Diseases Resulting from Undernutrition


      Diarrhea               Measles
Disease Resulting from Malnutrition


      Kwashiorkor            Marasmus
Precautions (A $5 - $10 Fix)
    Immunizing Children


    Encouraging Breast Feeding


    Preventing Dehydration


  ...
HOW SERIOUS ARE
MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES?
Major Micronutrient Deficiencies
    Vitamin A


    Iron


    Iodine

Some Micronutrient Deficiencies

        Iron Deficiency:

        •Causes Fatigues
        •Makes Infection More Likely
 ...
Micronutrient Fixes: GMO’s
    Spliced gene into rice to make it rich in beta-


    carotene (Vitamin A)
HOW SERIOUS IS
OVERNUTRITION?
Being Overweight
    Overweight


     4.5-14    kg (10-30 lbs)
    Obese


     14   kg (30 lbs +)



Health Problems...
WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL
AFFECTS OF PRODUCING FOOD?
AGRICULTURAL FIXES?
Agricultural Fixes
    Genetically Modified


    Foods
    New Foods


    More Efficient


    Agriculture
    Improv...
A Limited Solution

                     Depletion of Aquifers
                 

                     Erosion
          ...
Urban Gardens
    Reduces stresses on soil and biodiversity in non-urban

    areas
    Provide food and jobs for low-inc...
Microlivestocks (Edible Insects)
    Blank Ant Larva (tacos in

    Mexico)
    Giant Water Bugs

    (vegetable dip in ...
HOW MUCH FOOD IS
WASTED?
Food Waste (70%)
Average U.S. family of 4 wastes around 640 lbs per year!


                                            Sp...
Food Resources Part I - Agriculture
Food Resources Part I - Agriculture
Food Resources Part I - Agriculture
Food Resources Part I - Agriculture
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Food Resources Part I - Agriculture

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farming practices, alternative foods, irrigation

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Food Resources Part I - Agriculture

  1. 1. STATE OF AGRICULTURE The Walker School Environmental Science
  2. 2. Focus Cultivation of crops  State of arable land  Pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland 
  3. 3. Agricultural Products Foods  Fibers  Fuels  Raw materials  Pharmaceuticals  Illegal drugs  Poppy field in Afghanistan. Ornamental or exotic  products
  4. 4. Traditional Food Systems Croplands 77%  Rangelands 16%  Ocean Fisheries 7% 
  5. 5. Cropland Forest Food Production in Irrigated farm land Barren land Rangeland Wetland U.S. Pasture Urban area
  6. 6. Improvements in Agriculture Increased use of farm  machinery Inorganic chemical  fertilizers Irrigation  Pesticides  High-yield varieties of  crops Aquaculture ponds 
  7. 7. Environmental Concerns Soil Erosion  Pollution  Lack of Water for  Irrigation Overgrazing by  Livestock Overfishing  Loss of Ecological  Services Effects of overgrazing on grasslands.
  8. 8. WHAT PLANTS AND ANIMALS FEED THE WORLD?
  9. 9. Available Materials: Types of Plants 30,000 known species  of flowering plants Only 10,000 are eaten  by humans (1% of total biomass) 12 account for over  80% of the worlds crops
  10. 10. Why So Few Plants Indigestible  Poisonous  Low Nutritional Value  Tedious to Prepare  Difficult to Gather 
  11. 11. 12 Major Species of Plant Cereals: wheat, corn, rice,  barley, sorghum, and soybeans Roots: potatoes, manioc and  sweet potatoes Sugars: sugar cane, sugar  beets, and bananas
  12. 12. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR TYPES OF FOOD PRODUCTION?
  13. 13. Agricultural Types Industrialized Agriculture  Plantation Agriculture  Traditional Intensive Agriculture  Shifting Cultivation  Traditional Subsistence Agriculture  Nomadic Herding 
  14. 14. Location of World Food Production Plantation agriculture Intensive traditional agriculture Industrialized agriculture Nomadic herding No agriculture Shifting cultivation
  15. 15. Cash Crops of Plantation Agriculture Bananas  Coffee  Soybeans  Sugarcane  Cocoa  Vegetables  Drugs 
  16. 16. HOW HAVE GREEN REVOLUTIONS INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION?
  17. 17. Steps Toward a Green Revolution Develop and plant  monocultures Produce high yields by  using large amounts of fertilizer, pesticides, and water Increase the number of  crops grown per year on A monoculture of leaf lettuce. a plot of land through multicroping
  18. 18. Figure 13-6 Page 282 First green revolution Second green revolution Major international agricultural (developed countries) (developing countries) research centers and seed banks 1950 - 1970 1967
  19. 19. WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF FOOD PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.?
  20. 20. Agricultural Facts for the U.S. Bigger than the automotive, steel, and housing  industries combined Generates about 18% of the countries GNP  Produces 17% of the world’s grain  U.S. consumers spend 2% of their income on food  Accounts for 17% of U.S. energy use 
  21. 21. Energy Use in Production Grow Transport   Store Refrigerate   Process Cook   Package  17% of total commercial 4% 2% 6% 5% energy use Crops Livestock Food processing Food distribution and preparation Food production
  22. 22. Land Labor Capital Fossil fuel energy Industrialized agriculture in developed countries Land Labor Capital Fossil fuel energy Intensive traditional agriculture in developing countries
  23. 23. Land Labor Capital Shifting cultivation in tropical forests in developing countries Land Labor Capital Nomadic herding in developing countries
  24. 24. Food Processing Systems Imports Wholesalers Caterers Food/Farms Manufacturers Retailers Consumers Exports
  25. 25. WHAT GROWING TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE?
  26. 26. Traditional Intensive Agriculture in Vietnam
  27. 27. Interplanting Strategies Polyculturing  Intercropping  Agroforestry (Alley  Cropping) Intercropping in Ghana, Africa.
  28. 28. Advantages of Polyculturing Less need for fertilizers  and water because of varying root depths More protection from  wind and water erosion Little need for insecticides  because multiple habitats are created for natural A polyculture tank holding plants, predators of crop-eating rainbow trout, and crayfish. insects
  29. 29. WHAT OTHER METHODS REDUCE SOIL EROSION?
  30. 30. Soil Conservation Table 6-2, p. 190
  31. 31. Terracing
  32. 32. Contour Farming
  33. 33. Strip Cropping
  34. 34. Agroforestry
  35. 35. Gully Reclamation
  36. 36. Plants That Deplete Soil Nutrients Corn  Tobacco  Cotton  Crop Rotation Example: Corn  Soybeans  Oats  Alfalfa
  37. 37. HOW CAN WE MAINTAIN AND RESTORE SOIL FERTILITY?
  38. 38. Extent of Fertilizer use in United States
  39. 39. Organic Fertilizers Animal Manure  Green Manure  Compost  Spores of Mushrooms  Crop Rotation 
  40. 40. HOW MUCH HAS FOOD PRODUCTION INCREASED?
  41. 41. Rice Production
  42. 42. Corn Production
  43. 43. Wheat Production
  44. 44. Food Production Enough is produced to feed the current population  Poor distribution infrastructures and political  corruption create situation were 1 out 6 people in developing nations do not have enough food
  45. 45. HOW SERIOUS ARE UNDERNUTRITION AND MALNUTRITION?
  46. 46. Decreased High death resistance rate for Poverty Malnutrition to disease children Decreased Decreased Shortened Decreased ability ability life energy to learn to work expectancy Feedback loop
  47. 47. Problems of Chronic Undernutrition Mental Retardation  Stunted Growth  Susceptible to Infection  Diseases Susceptible Parties: •Infants •Nursing Mothers •Elderly
  48. 48. Diseases Resulting from Undernutrition Diarrhea Measles
  49. 49. Disease Resulting from Malnutrition Kwashiorkor Marasmus
  50. 50. Precautions (A $5 - $10 Fix) Immunizing Children  Encouraging Breast Feeding  Preventing Dehydration  Preventing Blindness  Providing Family Planning  Increasing Education for Women 
  51. 51. HOW SERIOUS ARE MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES?
  52. 52. Major Micronutrient Deficiencies Vitamin A  Iron  Iodine 
  53. 53. Some Micronutrient Deficiencies Iron Deficiency: •Causes Fatigues •Makes Infection More Likely •Increase Chances of Mother Dying in Child Birth Vitamin A Deficiency: Goiter on neck. •Allergies Iodine Deficiency: •Impaired growth •Night blindness •Stunted Growth •Decreased immune system function •Mental Retardation •Cancer susceptibility •Goiter
  54. 54. Micronutrient Fixes: GMO’s Spliced gene into rice to make it rich in beta-  carotene (Vitamin A)
  55. 55. HOW SERIOUS IS OVERNUTRITION?
  56. 56. Being Overweight Overweight   4.5-14 kg (10-30 lbs) Obese   14 kg (30 lbs +) Health Problems: •Lower Productivity •Lower Quality of Life •Greater Susceptibility to Disease •Lower Life Expectancy
  57. 57. WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL AFFECTS OF PRODUCING FOOD?
  58. 58. AGRICULTURAL FIXES?
  59. 59. Agricultural Fixes Genetically Modified  Foods New Foods  More Efficient  Agriculture Improved Irrigation 
  60. 60. A Limited Solution Depletion of Aquifers  Erosion  Groundwater Contamination  Salinization  Waterlogging  Reduction of Wildlife  Habitats Increase Carbon Dioxide in  Atmosphere Accelerate Global Warming 
  61. 61. Urban Gardens Reduces stresses on soil and biodiversity in non-urban  areas Provide food and jobs for low-income urban residents  Lead to conflict over how urban land should be used  Urban soils need to be checked for toxic pollutants (Pb,  Hg)
  62. 62. Microlivestocks (Edible Insects) Blank Ant Larva (tacos in  Mexico) Giant Water Bugs  (vegetable dip in Thailand) Emperor Moth Caterpillars  (South Africa) Cockroaches (Kalahari  Desert) Butterflies (Bali)  Ants (Bogota)  http://www.slashfood.com/2005/10/27/scorpion- lollipops-and-the-future-of-microlivestock/
  63. 63. HOW MUCH FOOD IS WASTED?
  64. 64. Food Waste (70%) Average U.S. family of 4 wastes around 640 lbs per year! Spoilage  Inefficient Processing  Inefficient Preparation  Plate Waste 
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