Food Resources Part I - Agriculture
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Food Resources Part I - Agriculture

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farming practices, alternative foods, irrigation

farming practices, alternative foods, irrigation

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  • 1. STATE OF AGRICULTURE The Walker School Environmental Science
  • 2. Focus Cultivation of crops  State of arable land  Pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland 
  • 3. Agricultural Products Foods  Fibers  Fuels  Raw materials  Pharmaceuticals  Illegal drugs  Poppy field in Afghanistan. Ornamental or exotic  products
  • 4. Traditional Food Systems Croplands 77%  Rangelands 16%  Ocean Fisheries 7% 
  • 5. Cropland Forest Food Production in Irrigated farm land Barren land Rangeland Wetland U.S. Pasture Urban area
  • 6. Improvements in Agriculture Increased use of farm  machinery Inorganic chemical  fertilizers Irrigation  Pesticides  High-yield varieties of  crops Aquaculture ponds 
  • 7. Environmental Concerns Soil Erosion  Pollution  Lack of Water for  Irrigation Overgrazing by  Livestock Overfishing  Loss of Ecological  Services Effects of overgrazing on grasslands.
  • 8. WHAT PLANTS AND ANIMALS FEED THE WORLD?
  • 9. Available Materials: Types of Plants 30,000 known species  of flowering plants Only 10,000 are eaten  by humans (1% of total biomass) 12 account for over  80% of the worlds crops
  • 10. Why So Few Plants Indigestible  Poisonous  Low Nutritional Value  Tedious to Prepare  Difficult to Gather 
  • 11. 12 Major Species of Plant Cereals: wheat, corn, rice,  barley, sorghum, and soybeans Roots: potatoes, manioc and  sweet potatoes Sugars: sugar cane, sugar  beets, and bananas
  • 12. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR TYPES OF FOOD PRODUCTION?
  • 13. Agricultural Types Industrialized Agriculture  Plantation Agriculture  Traditional Intensive Agriculture  Shifting Cultivation  Traditional Subsistence Agriculture  Nomadic Herding 
  • 14. Location of World Food Production Plantation agriculture Intensive traditional agriculture Industrialized agriculture Nomadic herding No agriculture Shifting cultivation
  • 15. Cash Crops of Plantation Agriculture Bananas  Coffee  Soybeans  Sugarcane  Cocoa  Vegetables  Drugs 
  • 16. HOW HAVE GREEN REVOLUTIONS INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION?
  • 17. Steps Toward a Green Revolution Develop and plant  monocultures Produce high yields by  using large amounts of fertilizer, pesticides, and water Increase the number of  crops grown per year on A monoculture of leaf lettuce. a plot of land through multicroping
  • 18. Figure 13-6 Page 282 First green revolution Second green revolution Major international agricultural (developed countries) (developing countries) research centers and seed banks 1950 - 1970 1967
  • 19. WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF FOOD PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.?
  • 20. Agricultural Facts for the U.S. Bigger than the automotive, steel, and housing  industries combined Generates about 18% of the countries GNP  Produces 17% of the world’s grain  U.S. consumers spend 2% of their income on food  Accounts for 17% of U.S. energy use 
  • 21. Energy Use in Production Grow Transport   Store Refrigerate   Process Cook   Package  17% of total commercial 4% 2% 6% 5% energy use Crops Livestock Food processing Food distribution and preparation Food production
  • 22. Land Labor Capital Fossil fuel energy Industrialized agriculture in developed countries Land Labor Capital Fossil fuel energy Intensive traditional agriculture in developing countries
  • 23. Land Labor Capital Shifting cultivation in tropical forests in developing countries Land Labor Capital Nomadic herding in developing countries
  • 24. Food Processing Systems Imports Wholesalers Caterers Food/Farms Manufacturers Retailers Consumers Exports
  • 25. WHAT GROWING TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE?
  • 26. Traditional Intensive Agriculture in Vietnam
  • 27. Interplanting Strategies Polyculturing  Intercropping  Agroforestry (Alley  Cropping) Intercropping in Ghana, Africa.
  • 28. Advantages of Polyculturing Less need for fertilizers  and water because of varying root depths More protection from  wind and water erosion Little need for insecticides  because multiple habitats are created for natural A polyculture tank holding plants, predators of crop-eating rainbow trout, and crayfish. insects
  • 29. WHAT OTHER METHODS REDUCE SOIL EROSION?
  • 30. Soil Conservation Table 6-2, p. 190
  • 31. Terracing
  • 32. Contour Farming
  • 33. Strip Cropping
  • 34. Agroforestry
  • 35. Gully Reclamation
  • 36. Plants That Deplete Soil Nutrients Corn  Tobacco  Cotton  Crop Rotation Example: Corn  Soybeans  Oats  Alfalfa
  • 37. HOW CAN WE MAINTAIN AND RESTORE SOIL FERTILITY?
  • 38. Extent of Fertilizer use in United States
  • 39. Organic Fertilizers Animal Manure  Green Manure  Compost  Spores of Mushrooms  Crop Rotation 
  • 40. HOW MUCH HAS FOOD PRODUCTION INCREASED?
  • 41. Rice Production
  • 42. Corn Production
  • 43. Wheat Production
  • 44. Food Production Enough is produced to feed the current population  Poor distribution infrastructures and political  corruption create situation were 1 out 6 people in developing nations do not have enough food
  • 45. HOW SERIOUS ARE UNDERNUTRITION AND MALNUTRITION?
  • 46. Decreased High death resistance rate for Poverty Malnutrition to disease children Decreased Decreased Shortened Decreased ability ability life energy to learn to work expectancy Feedback loop
  • 47. Problems of Chronic Undernutrition Mental Retardation  Stunted Growth  Susceptible to Infection  Diseases Susceptible Parties: •Infants •Nursing Mothers •Elderly
  • 48. Diseases Resulting from Undernutrition Diarrhea Measles
  • 49. Disease Resulting from Malnutrition Kwashiorkor Marasmus
  • 50. Precautions (A $5 - $10 Fix) Immunizing Children  Encouraging Breast Feeding  Preventing Dehydration  Preventing Blindness  Providing Family Planning  Increasing Education for Women 
  • 51. HOW SERIOUS ARE MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES?
  • 52. Major Micronutrient Deficiencies Vitamin A  Iron  Iodine 
  • 53. Some Micronutrient Deficiencies Iron Deficiency: •Causes Fatigues •Makes Infection More Likely •Increase Chances of Mother Dying in Child Birth Vitamin A Deficiency: Goiter on neck. •Allergies Iodine Deficiency: •Impaired growth •Night blindness •Stunted Growth •Decreased immune system function •Mental Retardation •Cancer susceptibility •Goiter
  • 54. Micronutrient Fixes: GMO’s Spliced gene into rice to make it rich in beta-  carotene (Vitamin A)
  • 55. HOW SERIOUS IS OVERNUTRITION?
  • 56. Being Overweight Overweight   4.5-14 kg (10-30 lbs) Obese   14 kg (30 lbs +) Health Problems: •Lower Productivity •Lower Quality of Life •Greater Susceptibility to Disease •Lower Life Expectancy
  • 57. WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL AFFECTS OF PRODUCING FOOD?
  • 58. AGRICULTURAL FIXES?
  • 59. Agricultural Fixes Genetically Modified  Foods New Foods  More Efficient  Agriculture Improved Irrigation 
  • 60. A Limited Solution Depletion of Aquifers  Erosion  Groundwater Contamination  Salinization  Waterlogging  Reduction of Wildlife  Habitats Increase Carbon Dioxide in  Atmosphere Accelerate Global Warming 
  • 61. Urban Gardens Reduces stresses on soil and biodiversity in non-urban  areas Provide food and jobs for low-income urban residents  Lead to conflict over how urban land should be used  Urban soils need to be checked for toxic pollutants (Pb,  Hg)
  • 62. Microlivestocks (Edible Insects) Blank Ant Larva (tacos in  Mexico) Giant Water Bugs  (vegetable dip in Thailand) Emperor Moth Caterpillars  (South Africa) Cockroaches (Kalahari  Desert) Butterflies (Bali)  Ants (Bogota)  http://www.slashfood.com/2005/10/27/scorpion- lollipops-and-the-future-of-microlivestock/
  • 63. HOW MUCH FOOD IS WASTED?
  • 64. Food Waste (70%) Average U.S. family of 4 wastes around 640 lbs per year! Spoilage  Inefficient Processing  Inefficient Preparation  Plate Waste 