The Extremes of Earth

              Outdoor Culture and Technology
                          The Walker School
          ...
Is the Earth a Sphere?
Geoid – Not Quite Round, Not Quite Elliptical
Forces Involved in Geoid Formation
   Uneven cooling in early history
   Orpheus impact and creation of the moon
   Geo...
What Are Some General Statistics
              About the Earth?
General Earth Statistics
   Average distance from Sun:
    149.6 million kilometers
   Revolution Period: 365.26 days
 ...
Areas of the Earth
   The circumference of
    the Earth
    at the equator is 24,902
    mi / 40,076 km.
   The total a...
What are the Major Parts of the
 Earth’s Life Support System?
Ecospheres
   Magnetosphere
   Exosphere
   Atmosphere
   Biosphere
   Hydrosphere
   Cryosphere
   Lithosphere
  ...
Layers of the Atmosphere
Crust             35 km (21 mi.) avg., 1,200˚C

                                                          Sections of
    ...
Reykjanes
                                                                                        Ridge        EURASIAN
  ...
Thickness of Earth’s Crust (km) - USGS
Surface Area of the World’s Continents
                               57,308,738 Sq. Miles
         The World             ...
Highest Continent – Antarctica
   Antarctica is a land of extremes. It is the coldest, windiest, and highest
    continen...
What Are the Major Climate Zones of
                        the Earth?
Tropic of
 Cancer

Equator


Tropic of
Capricorn




                                                                     ...
© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
                  Freshwater Systems




 Ecological Services            Economic Se...
Global Desert Distribution
10 Largest Deserts
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_deserts_by_area
Hottest Place on Earth
   El Azizia in Libya recorded
    a temperature of 136
    degrees Fahrenheit (57.8
    Celsius) ...
Desert Motocross
Human Impacts on Deserts

            Large desert cities

            Soil destruction by vehicles
            and urban ...
Global Grassland Distribution




   Polar Tundra   Alpine Tundra   Temperate Grassland   Tropical Savanna
Largest Grasslands

   The Great Steppe, Russia

   The Mongolian-Manchurian
    grassland covers an area of
    887,300...
Trekking and Hunting
Human Impacts on Grasslands

    Conversion of savanna and temperate
    grassland to cropland


    Release of CO2 to atm...
Global Forest Distribution




 Temperate coniferous forests   Temperate deciduous forests   Tropical rain forests
Remaining Forests
   There are still around 1,350 million hectares of ancient
    forest around the world that remain und...
Trophy Hunting
Human Impacts on Forests

           Landless poor migrating uphill
           to survive

           Timber extraction

 ...
Last of the Wild Places
http://www.wcs.org/sw-high_tech_tools/landscapeecology/humanfootprint/lastofthewild
What are some records for extreme
                        weather?
World Record for Temperature Change
   Spearfish in South
    Dakota holds the
    world record, going
    from -18.9 C t...
Tornado Alley
 Tornadoes are spawned because of hot and cold air
 masses fighting it out. 90% of the world’s tornados occu...
What Is the Highest Mountain on
                        Earth?
Major Mountains of the World
World’s Tallest Mountains
Composite Satellite Image of Peaks
Tallest Mountain in United States
   Mount McKinley, in
    Alaska, is the tallest
    mountain in the United
    States....
How Many Volcanoes Exist on
                    Earth?
Earth’s Volcanoes
   There are about 1,500 active volcanoes on the Earth's surface
    - the majority following along the...
Most Active Volcanos By Region
   North America
   South America
   Antarctica
   Europe – Mt. Vesuvius
   Asia
Kilimanjaro
   Kilimanjaro is the tallest free-
    standing mountain rise in the
    world,rising 4,600 m
    (15,100 ft...
Largest Visible Volcano
   Mauna Loa is the
    largest volcano on
    earth. It is an active
    shield volcano, with a
...
Yellowstone Caldara
   Caldara is 60 x 85
    km and has an
    estimated 125,000
    km2 of eruptible
    magma
Toba Caldara – Sumatra, Indonesia
Last Super Volcano Erruption – 75,000 years ago
What Is the Maximum Depression of
                      the Earth?
Maximum Depression –
Dead Sea at 408 m
What is the Largest Meteorite to Hit
                        the Earth?
Largest Visible Asteroid Impact
   200 Visible Craters
   Sedona, Arizona is a mystical region with a crater site
    th...
What Is the Size of the Earth’s
               Ocean Basins?
Largest Ocean - Pacific
The Areas and Depths of Oceans
Ocean and   Area in    % of the     Depth,   Depth,      Locations of the
  seas      milli...
Geostrophic Gyres
Gulf Stream Measurements
   Named in honour of the
    pioneering oceanographer Harald
    Sverdrup
   A unit of measure...
Vendee Globe – Polar Circumnavigation
http://www.vendeeglobe.org/en/
Largest Tides - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia
   Change of17 meters
   100 billion tons of water in
    6 hours
Largest Organism on Earth
   Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) – 30m (90 feet)
Ocean Biographic Information System Database
http://www.iobis.org/
Deepest Spot - Mariana Trench -10.924 m
Deepest Dive
http://www.cdnn.info/news/industry/i060807.html
World’s Longest Mountain Range
   Mid-Atlantic Ridge at
    nearly 10,000 km
Largest Seamount
   Lōʻihi has yet to build to
    the surface of the ocean,
    although it is now over
    3,000 m (10,...
Largest Wave; Seamount Produced
   Surfer, Tow-In Surfing at The Cortez Bank,
    100 miles off San Diego, CA
Largest Reef - Great Barrier Reef
Coral Reef Sites
The Great Blue Hole, Belize
http://www.ambergriscaye.com/pages/town/greatbluehole.html
Largest Wave, Reef Produced
   Laird Hamilton
   Tow-In Surfing
   Teahupoo Reef, Fiji
What Is the Longest River?
Nile
   6671 Km
10 Largest Rivers
         Nile             6671      Africa
       Amazon             6280   South America
Mississipi Mis...
River Structure
Rain and snow     Lake   Glacier   Rapids
                                       Waterfall
               ...
Steepest River Descent
   Yarlung Tsangpo River
    in southeastern Tibet
Hydrology Measurements
   Cusec is a measure of flow rate and is informal shorthand
    for cubic foot per second (28.317...
Kayaking Records
http://freespace.virgin.net/thamesweirs.com/profile.htm
Largest Discharge
   Amazon River - 1/6 of all water discharged by all the
    world’s rivers 4 million ft3/s
Where Is the World’s Tallest
                 Waterfall?
World’s Largest Waterfalls
http://www.world-waterfalls.com/database.php?s=N&t=W&orderby=avevolume&sortLimit=5000
Iguazu Falls (Devil’s Throat)
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303
Devil’s Throat, YouTube.com
http://video.yahoo.com/video/play?ei=UTF-8&gid=239380&vid=316549&b=2
10 Tallest Waterfalls
http://www.world-waterfalls.com/database.php?s=N&t=H&orderby=height&sortLimit=300
What Is the Largest Lake?
Caspian Sea – 371,000 Km²



   Adjacent Countries
10 Largest Lakes

    Caspian Sea       371.000       Asia
    Lake Superior     82.100    North America
      Victoria   ...
Lake Stratification
Largest Concentration of Freshwater Lakes
Oneida County, N. Wisconsin
Pro Wakeboarding
http://www.wakeboardworld.com
What Is the Largest Island?
World’s Largest Island
Greenland – 2,130,800 km2
10 Largest Islands
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_by_area
World’s Smallest Island – Bishop Rock
   It lies at the
    most south-
    westerly part
    of the United
    Kingdom
World’s Remotest Inhabited Island –
Tristan da Cunha
   It is in the South
    Atlantic, 2575 km
    (1600 miles) south o...
Mountain Biking – New Zealand
What Is the Largest Glacier on
                       Earth?
World's Largest Glacier
   Lambert Glacier
   It covers more than
    386,102 mi²
Thickest Ice Sheet – Antarctica
    4.8 Km
    (3 miles)
Glacier Surfing
http://www.surfersvillage.com/surfing/28775/news.htm
Glacier Surfing, Alaska
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lLC5q6fAiUw&feature=related
Where are the world’s largest caves?
Largest Cave System
Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA
Deepest Cave
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0505/feature4/multimedia.html

   Krubera Cave, in the Republic of Geo...
Base Jumping, Cave of Swallows
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvIDNEt-Fmk
How Many Species Have Been
                 Identified?
Most of the World’s Biomass
   About 1.7 million species have been identified.
   Microbes make up roughly ½ of the eart...
Longest Living Organism
   250-million-year-old bacteria
    were found in ancient sea salt
    beneath Carlsbad, New Mex...
Longest Migration Route
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/08/060808-bird-migration.html
What Is the Current Population of
                      the Earth?
Current Population - 6,446,131,400
World Population Clock
http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html
10 Most Populated Cities
  1    Tōkyō              Tokyo         Japan         34,200,000

  2    Ciudad de México   Mexic...
Tallest Building
Buildering (or Urban Free Climbing)




          Alain-Robert-
          Spiderman
Spiderman Climbs Building
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2TJ3tU8mbo&feature=related
What Was the First U.S. National
                          Park?
Yellowstone National Park
   National Park Service Act of 1916
56 Major National Parks Today
http://www.nps.gov/
Not Only a Place for Extreme Sports
Scientific Studies in Our Parks
   Biology                          Seismology
   B...
Earth's Extreme Places
Earth's Extreme Places
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Earth's Extreme Places

  1. 1. The Extremes of Earth Outdoor Culture and Technology The Walker School Mr. Thomas Cooper
  2. 2. Is the Earth a Sphere?
  3. 3. Geoid – Not Quite Round, Not Quite Elliptical
  4. 4. Forces Involved in Geoid Formation  Uneven cooling in early history  Orpheus impact and creation of the moon  Geothermal convection in the asthensophere  Plate Tectnonics (plate movements)  Isotasy (mountain building)
  5. 5. What Are Some General Statistics About the Earth?
  6. 6. General Earth Statistics  Average distance from Sun: 149.6 million kilometers  Revolution Period: 365.26 days  Rotation Period: 23 hours 56 minutes, 4 seconds  Rotational Speed 1,057 mi/hr  Axis Inclination: 23°27‘  Equatorial Diameter: 12.756 Km  Average Temperature: 22 °C
  7. 7. Areas of the Earth  The circumference of the Earth at the equator is 24,902 mi / 40,076 km.  The total area of Earth is 510.300.000 Km²  The total area of the oceans are 360.700.000 Km²  The total area of land is 149.600.000 Km²
  8. 8. What are the Major Parts of the Earth’s Life Support System?
  9. 9. Ecospheres  Magnetosphere  Exosphere  Atmosphere  Biosphere  Hydrosphere  Cryosphere  Lithosphere  Asthensophere  Core
  10. 10. Layers of the Atmosphere
  11. 11. Crust 35 km (21 mi.) avg., 1,200˚C Sections of the Earth Low-velocity zone 100 km (60 mi.) 200 km (120 mi.) Crust Mantle Solid Lithosphere 10 to 65km 2,900km 100 km Asthenosphere (1,800 mi.) (depth unknown) 3,700˚C Outer core (liquid) 200 km Core 5,200 km (3,100 mi.), 4,300˚C Inner core (solid)
  12. 12. Reykjanes Ridge EURASIAN EURASIAN PLATE PLATE Mid- Atlantic ANATOLIAN Ocean PLATE JUAN DE Ridge NORTH FUCA PLATE AMERICAN CHINA CARIBBEAN PLATE PLATE SUBPLATE Transform PHILIPPINE ARABIAN fault PLATE PLATE PACIFIC Mid- PLATE COCOS AFRICAN Indian PLATE PLATE Transform SOUTH Ocean fault AMERICAN Carlsberg Ridge PLATE Ridge East Pacific SOMALIAN INDIAN-AUSTRLIAN PLATE Rise SUBPLATE Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge Transform Southwest Indian fault Ocean Ridge ANTARCTIC PLATE Plate motion Divergent ( ) and Plate motion Convergent at convergent transform fault ( ) at divergent plate boundaries plate boundaries boundaries plate boundaries
  13. 13. Thickness of Earth’s Crust (km) - USGS
  14. 14. Surface Area of the World’s Continents 57,308,738 Sq. Miles The World (148,429,000 Sq. Km) 100% 17,212,000 Sq. Miles Asia (plus the Middle East) (44,579,000 Sq. Km) 30.00% 11,608,000 Sq. Miles Africa (30,065,000 Sq. Km) 20.30% 9,365,000 Sq. Miles North America (24,256,000 Sq. Km) 16.30% 6,880,000 Sq. Miles South America (17,819,000 Sq. Km) 12.00% 5,100,000 Sq. Miles Antarctica (13,209,000 Sq. Km) 8.90% 3,837,000 Sq. Miles Europe (9,938,000 Sq. Km) 6.70% 2,968,000 Sq. Miles Australia (plus Oceania) (7,687,000 Sq. Km) 5.20%
  15. 15. Highest Continent – Antarctica  Antarctica is a land of extremes. It is the coldest, windiest, and highest continent anywhere on earth. With an average elevation about 7,544ft/2,300 meters above sea level it is the highest continent.
  16. 16. What Are the Major Climate Zones of the Earth?
  17. 17. Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Semidesert, Arctic tundra (polar grasslands) Desert arid grassland Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous Tropical rain forest, Mountains forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest) tropical evergreen forest (complex zonation) Temperate deciduous forest Tropical deciduous forest Ice Temperate grassland Tropical scrub forest Dry woodlands and Tropical savanna, shrublands (chaparral) thorn forest
  18. 18. © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Freshwater Systems Ecological Services Economic Services • Climate moderation • Food • Nutrient cycling • Drinking water • Waste treatment • Irrigation water and dilution • Hydroelectricity • Flood control • Transportation • Groundwater corridors recharge • Recreation • Habitats for aquatic and terrestrial • Employment species • Genetic resources and biodiversity • Scientific information
  19. 19. Global Desert Distribution
  20. 20. 10 Largest Deserts http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_deserts_by_area
  21. 21. Hottest Place on Earth  El Azizia in Libya recorded a temperature of 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) on Sept. 13, 1922 - - the hottest ever measured.
  22. 22. Desert Motocross
  23. 23. Human Impacts on Deserts Large desert cities Soil destruction by vehicles and urban development Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of underground water supplies Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Storage of toxic and radioactive Wastes Large arrays of solar cells and solar collectors used to produce electricity
  24. 24. Global Grassland Distribution Polar Tundra Alpine Tundra Temperate Grassland Tropical Savanna
  25. 25. Largest Grasslands  The Great Steppe, Russia  The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland covers an area of 887,300 square kilometers (342,600 square miles)  Tall-grass Prairies in South Dakota, US
  26. 26. Trekking and Hunting
  27. 27. Human Impacts on Grasslands Conversion of savanna and temperate grassland to cropland Release of CO2 to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock Damage to fragile arctic tundra by oil production, air and water pollution, and vehicles
  28. 28. Global Forest Distribution Temperate coniferous forests Temperate deciduous forests Tropical rain forests
  29. 29. Remaining Forests  There are still around 1,350 million hectares of ancient forest around the world that remain undisturbed by large scale industrial activities. This sounds like a lot, after all, that's an area bigger than all of China. But in fact this is only seven percent of the Earth's land surface.
  30. 30. Trophy Hunting
  31. 31. Human Impacts on Forests Landless poor migrating uphill to survive Timber extraction Mineral resource extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism (such as hiking and skiing) Air pollution from industrial and urban centers Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion
  32. 32. Last of the Wild Places http://www.wcs.org/sw-high_tech_tools/landscapeecology/humanfootprint/lastofthewild
  33. 33. What are some records for extreme weather?
  34. 34. World Record for Temperature Change  Spearfish in South Dakota holds the world record, going from -18.9 C to 3.3 C above in two minutes.
  35. 35. Tornado Alley Tornadoes are spawned because of hot and cold air masses fighting it out. 90% of the world’s tornados occur in N. America, most between the Rockies and the Mississippi River.
  36. 36. What Is the Highest Mountain on Earth?
  37. 37. Major Mountains of the World
  38. 38. World’s Tallest Mountains
  39. 39. Composite Satellite Image of Peaks
  40. 40. Tallest Mountain in United States  Mount McKinley, in Alaska, is the tallest mountain in the United States. at a height of approximately 20,320 feet (6,194 m). It is the centerpiece of Denali National Park.
  41. 41. How Many Volcanoes Exist on Earth?
  42. 42. Earth’s Volcanoes  There are about 1,500 active volcanoes on the Earth's surface - the majority following along the Pacific 'Ring of Fire' – and around 50 of these erupt each year.
  43. 43. Most Active Volcanos By Region  North America  South America  Antarctica  Europe – Mt. Vesuvius  Asia
  44. 44. Kilimanjaro  Kilimanjaro is the tallest free- standing mountain rise in the world,rising 4,600 m (15,100 ft) from its base, and includes the highest peak in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,340 ft).
  45. 45. Largest Visible Volcano  Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on earth. It is an active shield volcano, with a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km³)
  46. 46. Yellowstone Caldara  Caldara is 60 x 85 km and has an estimated 125,000 km2 of eruptible magma
  47. 47. Toba Caldara – Sumatra, Indonesia Last Super Volcano Erruption – 75,000 years ago
  48. 48. What Is the Maximum Depression of the Earth?
  49. 49. Maximum Depression – Dead Sea at 408 m
  50. 50. What is the Largest Meteorite to Hit the Earth?
  51. 51. Largest Visible Asteroid Impact  200 Visible Craters  Sedona, Arizona is a mystical region with a crater site that is 550 ft deep
  52. 52. What Is the Size of the Earth’s Ocean Basins?
  53. 53. Largest Ocean - Pacific
  54. 54. The Areas and Depths of Oceans Ocean and Area in % of the Depth, Depth, Locations of the seas million area of the meters meters greatest depths of 2 km World the Ocean Ocean mean greatest Pacific 178.8 49.5 3 976 11 022 Marianas Trench Atlantic 91.7 25.4 3 597 8 742 Puerto Rico Trench Indian 76.2 21 3 711 7 729 Sunda Trench Arctic 14.7 4.1 1 225 5 608 Greenland Sea (Molloy Deep) World 361.3 100 3 711 11 022 Marianas Trench Ocean
  55. 55. Geostrophic Gyres
  56. 56. Gulf Stream Measurements  Named in honour of the pioneering oceanographer Harald Sverdrup  A unit of measure of volume transport used almost exclusively in oceanography to measure the transport of ocean currents.  It is equivalent to 106 cubic meters per second (0.001 km³/s, or about 264 million U.S. gallons per second).  Its symbol is Sv. Note that the sverdrup is not an SI unit, and that its symbol conflicts with the sievert's.
  57. 57. Vendee Globe – Polar Circumnavigation http://www.vendeeglobe.org/en/
  58. 58. Largest Tides - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia  Change of17 meters  100 billion tons of water in 6 hours
  59. 59. Largest Organism on Earth  Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) – 30m (90 feet)
  60. 60. Ocean Biographic Information System Database http://www.iobis.org/
  61. 61. Deepest Spot - Mariana Trench -10.924 m
  62. 62. Deepest Dive http://www.cdnn.info/news/industry/i060807.html
  63. 63. World’s Longest Mountain Range  Mid-Atlantic Ridge at nearly 10,000 km
  64. 64. Largest Seamount  Lōʻihi has yet to build to the surface of the ocean, although it is now over 3,000 m (10,000 ft) high (taller than Mount St. Helens)
  65. 65. Largest Wave; Seamount Produced  Surfer, Tow-In Surfing at The Cortez Bank, 100 miles off San Diego, CA
  66. 66. Largest Reef - Great Barrier Reef
  67. 67. Coral Reef Sites
  68. 68. The Great Blue Hole, Belize http://www.ambergriscaye.com/pages/town/greatbluehole.html
  69. 69. Largest Wave, Reef Produced  Laird Hamilton  Tow-In Surfing  Teahupoo Reef, Fiji
  70. 70. What Is the Longest River?
  71. 71. Nile  6671 Km
  72. 72. 10 Largest Rivers Nile 6671 Africa Amazon 6280 South America Mississipi Missouri-Red Rock 5970 North America Chang Jiang 5800 Asia Ob (with Irtys) 5410 Asia Huang He 4845 Asia Rio Paraná 4700 South America Mekong 4500 Asia Amur (with Silka) 4416 Asia Irtys 4400 Asia
  73. 73. River Structure Rain and snow Lake Glacier Rapids Waterfall Tributary Flood plain Oxbow lake Salt marsh Delta Ocean Deposited sediment Source Zone Transition Zone Water Floodplain Zone Sediment
  74. 74. Steepest River Descent  Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeastern Tibet
  75. 75. Hydrology Measurements  Cusec is a measure of flow rate and is informal shorthand for cubic foot per second (28.317 liters per second). In the United States it is generally applied to water flow, particularly in rivers. Other informal synonyms are cfs and second-feet.
  76. 76. Kayaking Records http://freespace.virgin.net/thamesweirs.com/profile.htm
  77. 77. Largest Discharge  Amazon River - 1/6 of all water discharged by all the world’s rivers 4 million ft3/s
  78. 78. Where Is the World’s Tallest Waterfall?
  79. 79. World’s Largest Waterfalls http://www.world-waterfalls.com/database.php?s=N&t=W&orderby=avevolume&sortLimit=5000
  80. 80. Iguazu Falls (Devil’s Throat) http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303
  81. 81. Devil’s Throat, YouTube.com http://video.yahoo.com/video/play?ei=UTF-8&gid=239380&vid=316549&b=2
  82. 82. 10 Tallest Waterfalls http://www.world-waterfalls.com/database.php?s=N&t=H&orderby=height&sortLimit=300
  83. 83. What Is the Largest Lake?
  84. 84. Caspian Sea – 371,000 Km² Adjacent Countries
  85. 85. 10 Largest Lakes Caspian Sea 371.000 Asia Lake Superior 82.100 North America Victoria 68.100 Africa Huron 59.600 North America Michigan 58.016 North America Tanganyika 32.893 Africa Great Bear Lake 31.792 North America Bajkal 31.500 Asia Malawi (or Nyasa) 30.800 Africa Great Slave Lake 28.438 North America
  86. 86. Lake Stratification
  87. 87. Largest Concentration of Freshwater Lakes Oneida County, N. Wisconsin
  88. 88. Pro Wakeboarding http://www.wakeboardworld.com
  89. 89. What Is the Largest Island?
  90. 90. World’s Largest Island Greenland – 2,130,800 km2
  91. 91. 10 Largest Islands http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_by_area
  92. 92. World’s Smallest Island – Bishop Rock  It lies at the most south- westerly part of the United Kingdom
  93. 93. World’s Remotest Inhabited Island – Tristan da Cunha  It is in the South Atlantic, 2575 km (1600 miles) south of St Helena, which is an island a few hundred kilometers (miles) off the coast of South Africa.
  94. 94. Mountain Biking – New Zealand
  95. 95. What Is the Largest Glacier on Earth?
  96. 96. World's Largest Glacier  Lambert Glacier  It covers more than 386,102 mi²
  97. 97. Thickest Ice Sheet – Antarctica  4.8 Km  (3 miles)
  98. 98. Glacier Surfing http://www.surfersvillage.com/surfing/28775/news.htm
  99. 99. Glacier Surfing, Alaska http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lLC5q6fAiUw&feature=related
  100. 100. Where are the world’s largest caves?
  101. 101. Largest Cave System Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA
  102. 102. Deepest Cave http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0505/feature4/multimedia.html  Krubera Cave, in the Republic of Georgia. It currently holds the world record at 5,610 feet (1,710 meters)
  103. 103. Base Jumping, Cave of Swallows http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvIDNEt-Fmk
  104. 104. How Many Species Have Been Identified?
  105. 105. Most of the World’s Biomass  About 1.7 million species have been identified.  Microbes make up roughly ½ of the earth’s biomass  Animals make up 1/1000th of the earth’s total biomass
  106. 106. Longest Living Organism  250-million-year-old bacteria were found in ancient sea salt beneath Carlsbad, New Mexico. The microscopic organisms were revived in a laboratory after being in 'suspended animation', encased in a hard- shelled spore, for an estimated 250 million years.  43,000 years old Kings Holly (Lomatia tasmanica) - found in the rainforests of Tasmania. Scientists estimated the age of the plant using a nearby fossil of an identical plant.
  107. 107. Longest Migration Route http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/08/060808-bird-migration.html
  108. 108. What Is the Current Population of the Earth?
  109. 109. Current Population - 6,446,131,400
  110. 110. World Population Clock http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html
  111. 111. 10 Most Populated Cities 1 Tōkyō Tokyo Japan 34,200,000 2 Ciudad de México Mexico City Mexico 22,800,000 3 Seoul (Sŏul) Seoul South Korea 22,300,000 4 New York New York USA 21,900,000 5 São Paulo Sao Paulo Brazil 20,200,000 6 Mumbai Bombay India 19,850,000 7 Delhi Delhi India 19,700,000 8 Shanghai Shanghai China 18,150,000 9 Los Angeles Los Angeles USA 18,000,000 10 Ōsaka Osaka Japan 16,800,000
  112. 112. Tallest Building
  113. 113. Buildering (or Urban Free Climbing) Alain-Robert- Spiderman
  114. 114. Spiderman Climbs Building http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2TJ3tU8mbo&feature=related
  115. 115. What Was the First U.S. National Park?
  116. 116. Yellowstone National Park  National Park Service Act of 1916
  117. 117. 56 Major National Parks Today http://www.nps.gov/
  118. 118. Not Only a Place for Extreme Sports Scientific Studies in Our Parks  Biology  Seismology  Biogeography  Volcanology  Limnology  Oceanography  Ichthyology  Hydrology  Astronomy  Glaciology  Meteorology  Demography  Climatology  Paleontology  Geology
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