Earth's Extreme Places

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Covers extreme places and extreme sports around the globe.

Covers extreme places and extreme sports around the globe.

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  • 1. The Extremes of Earth Outdoor Culture and Technology The Walker School Mr. Thomas Cooper
  • 2. Is the Earth a Sphere?
  • 3. Geoid – Not Quite Round, Not Quite Elliptical
  • 4. Forces Involved in Geoid Formation  Uneven cooling in early history  Orpheus impact and creation of the moon  Geothermal convection in the asthensophere  Plate Tectnonics (plate movements)  Isotasy (mountain building)
  • 5. What Are Some General Statistics About the Earth?
  • 6. General Earth Statistics  Average distance from Sun: 149.6 million kilometers  Revolution Period: 365.26 days  Rotation Period: 23 hours 56 minutes, 4 seconds  Rotational Speed 1,057 mi/hr  Axis Inclination: 23°27‘  Equatorial Diameter: 12.756 Km  Average Temperature: 22 °C
  • 7. Areas of the Earth  The circumference of the Earth at the equator is 24,902 mi / 40,076 km.  The total area of Earth is 510.300.000 Km²  The total area of the oceans are 360.700.000 Km²  The total area of land is 149.600.000 Km²
  • 8. What are the Major Parts of the Earth’s Life Support System?
  • 9. Ecospheres  Magnetosphere  Exosphere  Atmosphere  Biosphere  Hydrosphere  Cryosphere  Lithosphere  Asthensophere  Core
  • 10. Layers of the Atmosphere
  • 11. Crust 35 km (21 mi.) avg., 1,200˚C Sections of the Earth Low-velocity zone 100 km (60 mi.) 200 km (120 mi.) Crust Mantle Solid Lithosphere 10 to 65km 2,900km 100 km Asthenosphere (1,800 mi.) (depth unknown) 3,700˚C Outer core (liquid) 200 km Core 5,200 km (3,100 mi.), 4,300˚C Inner core (solid)
  • 12. Reykjanes Ridge EURASIAN EURASIAN PLATE PLATE Mid- Atlantic ANATOLIAN Ocean PLATE JUAN DE Ridge NORTH FUCA PLATE AMERICAN CHINA CARIBBEAN PLATE PLATE SUBPLATE Transform PHILIPPINE ARABIAN fault PLATE PLATE PACIFIC Mid- PLATE COCOS AFRICAN Indian PLATE PLATE Transform SOUTH Ocean fault AMERICAN Carlsberg Ridge PLATE Ridge East Pacific SOMALIAN INDIAN-AUSTRLIAN PLATE Rise SUBPLATE Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge Transform Southwest Indian fault Ocean Ridge ANTARCTIC PLATE Plate motion Divergent ( ) and Plate motion Convergent at convergent transform fault ( ) at divergent plate boundaries plate boundaries boundaries plate boundaries
  • 13. Thickness of Earth’s Crust (km) - USGS
  • 14. Surface Area of the World’s Continents 57,308,738 Sq. Miles The World (148,429,000 Sq. Km) 100% 17,212,000 Sq. Miles Asia (plus the Middle East) (44,579,000 Sq. Km) 30.00% 11,608,000 Sq. Miles Africa (30,065,000 Sq. Km) 20.30% 9,365,000 Sq. Miles North America (24,256,000 Sq. Km) 16.30% 6,880,000 Sq. Miles South America (17,819,000 Sq. Km) 12.00% 5,100,000 Sq. Miles Antarctica (13,209,000 Sq. Km) 8.90% 3,837,000 Sq. Miles Europe (9,938,000 Sq. Km) 6.70% 2,968,000 Sq. Miles Australia (plus Oceania) (7,687,000 Sq. Km) 5.20%
  • 15. Highest Continent – Antarctica  Antarctica is a land of extremes. It is the coldest, windiest, and highest continent anywhere on earth. With an average elevation about 7,544ft/2,300 meters above sea level it is the highest continent.
  • 16. What Are the Major Climate Zones of the Earth?
  • 17. Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Semidesert, Arctic tundra (polar grasslands) Desert arid grassland Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous Tropical rain forest, Mountains forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest) tropical evergreen forest (complex zonation) Temperate deciduous forest Tropical deciduous forest Ice Temperate grassland Tropical scrub forest Dry woodlands and Tropical savanna, shrublands (chaparral) thorn forest
  • 18. © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Freshwater Systems Ecological Services Economic Services • Climate moderation • Food • Nutrient cycling • Drinking water • Waste treatment • Irrigation water and dilution • Hydroelectricity • Flood control • Transportation • Groundwater corridors recharge • Recreation • Habitats for aquatic and terrestrial • Employment species • Genetic resources and biodiversity • Scientific information
  • 19. Global Desert Distribution
  • 20. 10 Largest Deserts http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_deserts_by_area
  • 21. Hottest Place on Earth  El Azizia in Libya recorded a temperature of 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) on Sept. 13, 1922 - - the hottest ever measured.
  • 22. Desert Motocross
  • 23. Human Impacts on Deserts Large desert cities Soil destruction by vehicles and urban development Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of underground water supplies Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Storage of toxic and radioactive Wastes Large arrays of solar cells and solar collectors used to produce electricity
  • 24. Global Grassland Distribution Polar Tundra Alpine Tundra Temperate Grassland Tropical Savanna
  • 25. Largest Grasslands  The Great Steppe, Russia  The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland covers an area of 887,300 square kilometers (342,600 square miles)  Tall-grass Prairies in South Dakota, US
  • 26. Trekking and Hunting
  • 27. Human Impacts on Grasslands Conversion of savanna and temperate grassland to cropland Release of CO2 to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock Damage to fragile arctic tundra by oil production, air and water pollution, and vehicles
  • 28. Global Forest Distribution Temperate coniferous forests Temperate deciduous forests Tropical rain forests
  • 29. Remaining Forests  There are still around 1,350 million hectares of ancient forest around the world that remain undisturbed by large scale industrial activities. This sounds like a lot, after all, that's an area bigger than all of China. But in fact this is only seven percent of the Earth's land surface.
  • 30. Trophy Hunting
  • 31. Human Impacts on Forests Landless poor migrating uphill to survive Timber extraction Mineral resource extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism (such as hiking and skiing) Air pollution from industrial and urban centers Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion
  • 32. Last of the Wild Places http://www.wcs.org/sw-high_tech_tools/landscapeecology/humanfootprint/lastofthewild
  • 33. What are some records for extreme weather?
  • 34. World Record for Temperature Change  Spearfish in South Dakota holds the world record, going from -18.9 C to 3.3 C above in two minutes.
  • 35. Tornado Alley Tornadoes are spawned because of hot and cold air masses fighting it out. 90% of the world’s tornados occur in N. America, most between the Rockies and the Mississippi River.
  • 36. What Is the Highest Mountain on Earth?
  • 37. Major Mountains of the World
  • 38. World’s Tallest Mountains
  • 39. Composite Satellite Image of Peaks
  • 40. Tallest Mountain in United States  Mount McKinley, in Alaska, is the tallest mountain in the United States. at a height of approximately 20,320 feet (6,194 m). It is the centerpiece of Denali National Park.
  • 41. How Many Volcanoes Exist on Earth?
  • 42. Earth’s Volcanoes  There are about 1,500 active volcanoes on the Earth's surface - the majority following along the Pacific 'Ring of Fire' – and around 50 of these erupt each year.
  • 43. Most Active Volcanos By Region  North America  South America  Antarctica  Europe – Mt. Vesuvius  Asia
  • 44. Kilimanjaro  Kilimanjaro is the tallest free- standing mountain rise in the world,rising 4,600 m (15,100 ft) from its base, and includes the highest peak in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,340 ft).
  • 45. Largest Visible Volcano  Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on earth. It is an active shield volcano, with a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km³)
  • 46. Yellowstone Caldara  Caldara is 60 x 85 km and has an estimated 125,000 km2 of eruptible magma
  • 47. Toba Caldara – Sumatra, Indonesia Last Super Volcano Erruption – 75,000 years ago
  • 48. What Is the Maximum Depression of the Earth?
  • 49. Maximum Depression – Dead Sea at 408 m
  • 50. What is the Largest Meteorite to Hit the Earth?
  • 51. Largest Visible Asteroid Impact  200 Visible Craters  Sedona, Arizona is a mystical region with a crater site that is 550 ft deep
  • 52. What Is the Size of the Earth’s Ocean Basins?
  • 53. Largest Ocean - Pacific
  • 54. The Areas and Depths of Oceans Ocean and Area in % of the Depth, Depth, Locations of the seas million area of the meters meters greatest depths of 2 km World the Ocean Ocean mean greatest Pacific 178.8 49.5 3 976 11 022 Marianas Trench Atlantic 91.7 25.4 3 597 8 742 Puerto Rico Trench Indian 76.2 21 3 711 7 729 Sunda Trench Arctic 14.7 4.1 1 225 5 608 Greenland Sea (Molloy Deep) World 361.3 100 3 711 11 022 Marianas Trench Ocean
  • 55. Geostrophic Gyres
  • 56. Gulf Stream Measurements  Named in honour of the pioneering oceanographer Harald Sverdrup  A unit of measure of volume transport used almost exclusively in oceanography to measure the transport of ocean currents.  It is equivalent to 106 cubic meters per second (0.001 km³/s, or about 264 million U.S. gallons per second).  Its symbol is Sv. Note that the sverdrup is not an SI unit, and that its symbol conflicts with the sievert's.
  • 57. Vendee Globe – Polar Circumnavigation http://www.vendeeglobe.org/en/
  • 58. Largest Tides - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia  Change of17 meters  100 billion tons of water in 6 hours
  • 59. Largest Organism on Earth  Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) – 30m (90 feet)
  • 60. Ocean Biographic Information System Database http://www.iobis.org/
  • 61. Deepest Spot - Mariana Trench -10.924 m
  • 62. Deepest Dive http://www.cdnn.info/news/industry/i060807.html
  • 63. World’s Longest Mountain Range  Mid-Atlantic Ridge at nearly 10,000 km
  • 64. Largest Seamount  Lōʻihi has yet to build to the surface of the ocean, although it is now over 3,000 m (10,000 ft) high (taller than Mount St. Helens)
  • 65. Largest Wave; Seamount Produced  Surfer, Tow-In Surfing at The Cortez Bank, 100 miles off San Diego, CA
  • 66. Largest Reef - Great Barrier Reef
  • 67. Coral Reef Sites
  • 68. The Great Blue Hole, Belize http://www.ambergriscaye.com/pages/town/greatbluehole.html
  • 69. Largest Wave, Reef Produced  Laird Hamilton  Tow-In Surfing  Teahupoo Reef, Fiji
  • 70. What Is the Longest River?
  • 71. Nile  6671 Km
  • 72. 10 Largest Rivers Nile 6671 Africa Amazon 6280 South America Mississipi Missouri-Red Rock 5970 North America Chang Jiang 5800 Asia Ob (with Irtys) 5410 Asia Huang He 4845 Asia Rio Paraná 4700 South America Mekong 4500 Asia Amur (with Silka) 4416 Asia Irtys 4400 Asia
  • 73. River Structure Rain and snow Lake Glacier Rapids Waterfall Tributary Flood plain Oxbow lake Salt marsh Delta Ocean Deposited sediment Source Zone Transition Zone Water Floodplain Zone Sediment
  • 74. Steepest River Descent  Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeastern Tibet
  • 75. Hydrology Measurements  Cusec is a measure of flow rate and is informal shorthand for cubic foot per second (28.317 liters per second). In the United States it is generally applied to water flow, particularly in rivers. Other informal synonyms are cfs and second-feet.
  • 76. Kayaking Records http://freespace.virgin.net/thamesweirs.com/profile.htm
  • 77. Largest Discharge  Amazon River - 1/6 of all water discharged by all the world’s rivers 4 million ft3/s
  • 78. Where Is the World’s Tallest Waterfall?
  • 79. World’s Largest Waterfalls http://www.world-waterfalls.com/database.php?s=N&t=W&orderby=avevolume&sortLimit=5000
  • 80. Iguazu Falls (Devil’s Throat) http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303
  • 81. Devil’s Throat, YouTube.com http://video.yahoo.com/video/play?ei=UTF-8&gid=239380&vid=316549&b=2
  • 82. 10 Tallest Waterfalls http://www.world-waterfalls.com/database.php?s=N&t=H&orderby=height&sortLimit=300
  • 83. What Is the Largest Lake?
  • 84. Caspian Sea – 371,000 Km² Adjacent Countries
  • 85. 10 Largest Lakes Caspian Sea 371.000 Asia Lake Superior 82.100 North America Victoria 68.100 Africa Huron 59.600 North America Michigan 58.016 North America Tanganyika 32.893 Africa Great Bear Lake 31.792 North America Bajkal 31.500 Asia Malawi (or Nyasa) 30.800 Africa Great Slave Lake 28.438 North America
  • 86. Lake Stratification
  • 87. Largest Concentration of Freshwater Lakes Oneida County, N. Wisconsin
  • 88. Pro Wakeboarding http://www.wakeboardworld.com
  • 89. What Is the Largest Island?
  • 90. World’s Largest Island Greenland – 2,130,800 km2
  • 91. 10 Largest Islands http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_by_area
  • 92. World’s Smallest Island – Bishop Rock  It lies at the most south- westerly part of the United Kingdom
  • 93. World’s Remotest Inhabited Island – Tristan da Cunha  It is in the South Atlantic, 2575 km (1600 miles) south of St Helena, which is an island a few hundred kilometers (miles) off the coast of South Africa.
  • 94. Mountain Biking – New Zealand
  • 95. What Is the Largest Glacier on Earth?
  • 96. World's Largest Glacier  Lambert Glacier  It covers more than 386,102 mi²
  • 97. Thickest Ice Sheet – Antarctica  4.8 Km  (3 miles)
  • 98. Glacier Surfing http://www.surfersvillage.com/surfing/28775/news.htm
  • 99. Glacier Surfing, Alaska http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lLC5q6fAiUw&feature=related
  • 100. Where are the world’s largest caves?
  • 101. Largest Cave System Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA
  • 102. Deepest Cave http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0505/feature4/multimedia.html  Krubera Cave, in the Republic of Georgia. It currently holds the world record at 5,610 feet (1,710 meters)
  • 103. Base Jumping, Cave of Swallows http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvIDNEt-Fmk
  • 104. How Many Species Have Been Identified?
  • 105. Most of the World’s Biomass  About 1.7 million species have been identified.  Microbes make up roughly ½ of the earth’s biomass  Animals make up 1/1000th of the earth’s total biomass
  • 106. Longest Living Organism  250-million-year-old bacteria were found in ancient sea salt beneath Carlsbad, New Mexico. The microscopic organisms were revived in a laboratory after being in 'suspended animation', encased in a hard- shelled spore, for an estimated 250 million years.  43,000 years old Kings Holly (Lomatia tasmanica) - found in the rainforests of Tasmania. Scientists estimated the age of the plant using a nearby fossil of an identical plant.
  • 107. Longest Migration Route http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/08/060808-bird-migration.html
  • 108. What Is the Current Population of the Earth?
  • 109. Current Population - 6,446,131,400
  • 110. World Population Clock http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html
  • 111. 10 Most Populated Cities 1 Tōkyō Tokyo Japan 34,200,000 2 Ciudad de México Mexico City Mexico 22,800,000 3 Seoul (Sŏul) Seoul South Korea 22,300,000 4 New York New York USA 21,900,000 5 São Paulo Sao Paulo Brazil 20,200,000 6 Mumbai Bombay India 19,850,000 7 Delhi Delhi India 19,700,000 8 Shanghai Shanghai China 18,150,000 9 Los Angeles Los Angeles USA 18,000,000 10 Ōsaka Osaka Japan 16,800,000
  • 112. Tallest Building
  • 113. Buildering (or Urban Free Climbing) Alain-Robert- Spiderman
  • 114. Spiderman Climbs Building http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2TJ3tU8mbo&feature=related
  • 115. What Was the First U.S. National Park?
  • 116. Yellowstone National Park  National Park Service Act of 1916
  • 117. 56 Major National Parks Today http://www.nps.gov/
  • 118. Not Only a Place for Extreme Sports Scientific Studies in Our Parks  Biology  Seismology  Biogeography  Volcanology  Limnology  Oceanography  Ichthyology  Hydrology  Astronomy  Glaciology  Meteorology  Demography  Climatology  Paleontology  Geology