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CloudStack Design Camp in Taiwan Overview Slide

CloudStack Design Camp in Taiwan Overview Slide
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    2012 CloudStack Design Camp in Taiwan--- CloudStack Overview-1 2012 CloudStack Design Camp in Taiwan--- CloudStack Overview-1 Presentation Transcript

    • CloudStack Overview Alan Chu@ TCloud Computing
    • Outline• Overview of CloudStack• Problem Definition• Feature set overview• Network• Storage
    • What is CloudStack • Multi-tenant cloud orchestration platform – Turnkey solution for delivering IaaS clouds – Hypervisor agnostic Build your cloud the way the – Scalable and flexibleworld’s most successful clouds – Open source, open standards are built • Deliver cloud services faster and cheaper
    • History of Apache CloudStack• 2009: Cloud.com, 100% proprietary• 2010: Cloud.com, open core, GPL v3• 2011: Citrix Systems, 100% open, GPL v3• 2012: ASF, 100% open, Apache License 2
    • CloudStack Supports Multiple Cloud Strategies Private Clouds Public Clouds On-premise Hosted Multi-tenant Enterprise Cloud Enterprise Cloud Public Cloud • Dedicated • Dedicated • Mix of shared and resources resources dedicated • Security & total • Security resources control • SLA bound • Elastic scaling • Internal network • 3rd party owned • Pay as you go • Managed by and operated • Public internet, Enterprise or 3rd VPN access party
    • CloudStack Provides On-demand Access Org A Org B Users Admin AdminEnd User Users Users Compute Network StorageAdmin
    • Problem Definition• Offer a scalable, flexible, manageable IaaS platform that follows established cloud computing paradigms• IaaS – Orchestrate physical and virtual resources to offer self-service infrastructure provisioning and monitoring• Scalable – 1 -> N hypervisors / VMs / virtual resources – 1 -> N end users• Flexible – Handle new physical resource types • Hypervisors, storage, networking – Add new APIs – Add new services – Add new network models
    • Problem Definition (cntd)• Manageable – Hide complexity of underlying resources – Rich functional end-user and admin UI – Admin API to automate operations – Easy install, upgrade for small -> large clouds – Simple scaling, automated resilience
    • Feature Set Overview
    • Open Flexible PlatformCompute Hypervisor XenServer VMware KVM Bare metalStorage Block & Object Fiber Local Disk iSCSI NFS Swift Channel Primary Storage Secondary StorageNetwork Network & Network Services Connection Load Isolation Firewall VPN Type balancer
    • Service Offering
    • Create Custom Virtual Machines via Service Offerings Select Operating System • Windows, Linux Select Compute Offering • CPU & RAM Select Disk Offering • Volume Size Select Network Offering • Network & Services Create VM
    • Dashboard Provides Overview of Consumed Resources• Running, Stopped & Total VMs• Public IPs• Private networks• Latest Events
    • Virtual Machine Management Users ChangeVM Operations VM Access VM Status Service Offering Start • CPU Utilized 2 CPUs 4 CPUs Stop 1 GB RAM 4 GB RAM • Network Read 20 GB 200 GB Restart • Network Writes 20 Mbps 100 Mbps Destroy
    • Volume & Snaphost Management VM 1 Add / Delete Volumes Volume Create Templates Volume Template from Volumes Hourly Weekly Schedule Now Snapshots Daily Monthly …. View Snapshot History
    • Network & Network Services• Create Networks• Acquire public IP address for NAT & load balancing• Control traffic to VM using ingress and egress firewall rules• Set up rules to load balance traffic between VMs
    • CloudStack Deployment Architecture Internet  Hypervisor is the basic unit of CloudStack Management scale. ServerZone 1  Cluster consists of one ore more hosts of same hypervisor L3 core  All hosts in cluster have access to shared (primary) storagePod 1 Access Layer Pod N Secondary  Pod is one or more clusters, …. Storage usually with L2 switches. Cluster N  Availability Zone has one or more pods, has access to …. secondary storage.  One or more zones represent Cluster 1 cloud Host 1 Primary Storage Host 2
    • Management Server Managing Multiple Zones CloudData Center 1 Data Center 2 Data Center 2 Data Center 3 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone1 Zone 3 Zone 4 3 Zone CloudStack Cloud can have one or more Availability Zones (AZ). Data Center 2 Data Center 2 Data Center 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 3 Zone Zone 3 Zone 3
    • Management Server Managing Multiple Zones CloudData Center 1 Data Center 2  Single Management Server can Data Center 2 Mgmt Data Center 3 manage multiple zones Server Zone 2  Zones can be geographically Zone 2 distributed but low latency links are Zone 3 expected for better performance Zone1 Zone 4 3 Zone  Single MS node can manage up to 10K hosts.  Multiple MS nodes can be deployed Data Center 2 as cluster for scale or redundancy Data Center 2 Data Center 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone Zone 3 2 Zone 3 Zone 3
    • Management Server Deployment Architecture Single-node Multi-node Deployment Deployment MS User API User API MS MySQL Load MS DB BalancerAdmin API Admin API MySQL MS DB Back Up Replication DB  MS is stateless. MS can be deployed as physical server or VM Infrastructure Infrastructure Resources  Single MS node can manage up to Resources 10K hosts. Multiple nodes can be deployed for scale or redundancy
    • Core CloudStack Components• Hosts • Servers onto which services will be provisioned VM• Primary Storage Host • VM storage VM• Cluster Host • A grouping of hosts and their associated storage• Pod Primary Storage • Collection of clusters• Network Cluster • Within the switch Secondary Storage Secondary• Storage Network Cluster • Template, snapshot and ISO storage• Zone CloudStack Pod • Collection of pods, network offerings and secondary storage• Management Server Farm CloudStack Pod • Responsible for all management and provisioning tasks Zone
    • CloudStack Storage Primary Storage• Configured at Cluster-level. Close to hosts for better performance L3 switch• Stores all disk volumes for VMs in a cluster• Cluster can have one or more primary storages Pod 1 L2 switch• Local disk, iSCSI, FC or NFS Secondary Cluster 1 Storage Host 1 Primary Secondary Storage Storage Host 2• Configured at Zone-level• Stores all Templates, ISOs and Snapshots• Zone can have one or more secondary storages• NFS, OpenStack Swift
    • Provisioning Process1. User Requests Instance VM2. Provision Optional Network Host Services Host3. Copy instance template from Primary Storage secondary storage to primary Cluster storage on appropriate cluster4. Create any requested data Pod volumes on primary storage for the cluster Template5. Create instance Secondary Storage6. Start instance Zone
    • Citrix XenServer CloudStack• Integrates directly with XenServer Pool Manager Master• Snapshots at host level XenServer Pool Master Host• System VM control channel at host level• Network management is host level XenServer Host XenServer Host XenServer Host XenServer Host XenServer Resource Pool
    • RedHat Enterprise Linux (KVM)• Integrates with libvirt using Cloud Agent CloudStack Manager• Snapshots at host level• System VM control channel at host Cloud Agent level Libvirt• Network management is host level KVM Host Cloud Agent Libvirt KVM Host
    • VMware vSphere CloudStack• Integration through vCenter Manager• System VM control channel via vSphere Host CloudStack private network vCenter vSphere Host• Snapshot and volume management via Secondary Storage VM vSphere Cluster• Networking via vSphere vSwitch vSphere Host vSphere Host vSphere Host vSphere Cluster Data Center
    • Management Server Interaction with Hypervisors Management Server XAPI HTTPS vCenter Agent XenServer KVM ESX • XS 5.6, 5.6FP1, 5.6 SP2, • ESX 4.1, 5.0 • RHEL 6.0, 6.1, 6.2 6.0.2 • Full Snapshots • Full Snapshots (not live) • Incremental Snapshots • VMDK • QCOW2 • VHD • NFS, iSCSI, FC & Local disk • NFS, iSCSI & FC • NFS, iSCSI, FC & Local disk • Storage over-provisioning: • Storage over-provisioning: • Storage over-provisioning: NFS, iSCSI NFS NFS
    • Multi-tenancy & Account Management Cloud Resources Domain VMs, IPs, Snapshots… • Domain is a unit of Org A isolation that represents Admin a customer org, business unit or a reseller Domain Reseller A • Domain can have Admin Resources arbitrary levels of sub- Sub-Domain Org C VMs, IPs, Snapshots… domains Admin • A Domain can have one Account or more accounts Group A • An Account represents Account one or more users and is Group B the basic unit of isolation User 1 • Admin can limit resources at the Account User 2 or Domain levels
    • CloudStack Network
    • CloudStack Network Features The Service ofVirtual NetworkThe Management of Physical Network
    • Physical Network Operations Users Admin and Cloud API CloudStack MS Cluster Router MySQL Load Balancer Availability Zone L3 Core Switch Access Layer Switches Secondary Servers … … … … … Storage Pod 1 Pod 2 Pod 3 Pod N
    • CloudStack Network Traffic TypeNetwork Traffic type: Public Network: Public traffic is generated when VMs in the cloud access the internet, e.g Virtual Router Guest Network: The tenant network to which instances are attached. Storage Network: The physical network which connects the hypervisor to the storages. Management Network: Control Plane traffic between CloudStack management server and hypervisor clusters
    • CloudStack Network Mode Basic Network Advanced Network• AWS-style networking • Account’s VM Isolation by VLAN• Account’s VM Isolation by • VR can provide more services : Security Group NAT, Firewall, PF, LB, VPN• VR provides service: DHCP, DNS • Guest Network supports Isolated• Each VM has only one NICs and Shared Network types (Network) • Each VM can have more NICs (Network)
    • CloudStack Basic Network• VR provides service: DHCP, DNS• VMs Isolation by Security Group
    • Security Group Isolation
    • CloudStack Advanced Network Public Network Guest Network 1 VLAN 101 Public IP Guest 1 10.1.1.2 Gateway address VM 1 address 65.37.141.11 10.1.1.1 Guest 1 Virtual Guest 1 10.1.1.3 Public Router VM 2 Internet NAT Guest 1 10.1.1.4 DHCP VM 3 Load Balancing Port Forwarding Firewall VPN Guest Network 2 Public IP VLAN 102 address Gateway Guest 2 10.1.1.2 65.37.141.24 address VM 1 10.1.1.1 Guest 2 Virtual Guest 2 10.1.1.3 Router VM 2 Guest 2 10.1.1.4 VM 3
    • VLAN Isolation
    • CloudStack Advanced Network Service• Firewall• Source NAT• Static NAT• Load Balancing• Port Forwarding• VPN
    • Advanced Network - NAT • Default Deny all the
    • Advanced Network - Load Balancing
    • Advanced Network - Port Forwarding
    • Guest Virtual Network With Physical Device CS Virtual Router provides Network Services External Devices provide Network Services Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.1/8 Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.1/8 VLAN 100 VLAN 100Public PublicNetwork/Internet Network/Internet Guest Private IP Guest 10.1.1.2 VM 1 Public IP 10.1.1.1 VM 1 65.37.141.111 Juniper 10.1.1.111 GatewayPublic IP SRX address CS Firewall65.37.141.11 10.1.1.1 Guest Guest Virtual 10.1.1.3 VM 2 10.1.1.3 VM 2 Router Public IP Private IP DHCP, DNS NetScaler 10.1.1.112 65.37.141.112 NAT Guest Load Guest Load Balancing 10.1.1.4 VM 3 Blancer VM 3 10.1.1.4 VPN Guest Guest 10.1.1.5 VM 4 10.1.1.5 VM 4 CS Virtual DHCP, DNS Router
    • Network Offerings• Cloud provider defines the feature set for guest networks• Toggle features or service levels – Security groups on/off – Load balancer on/off – Load balancer software/hardware – VPN, firewall, port forwarding• User chooses network offering when creating network• Enables upgrade between network offerings• Default offerings built-in – For classic CloudStack networking
    • Physical Network – Guest Network Mapping VM Instance • Choose the instantiated guest network Guest Network • Instance of Network Offering • Shared: created by Admin • Isolated: Created and owned by user • One virtual router for one network • Cross pod, within Zone • VLAN id picked from the pool Physical Network Network Offering • Zone level • Only for Guest traffic • Defined by NIC • Guest network type: Shared or Isolated • Assigned with traffic type (P, G, M, S) • Defined a set of network services, • Associated by label/vswitch name such as DHCP, Firewall, VPN, NAT… • Attached with device as service • Bandwidth provider Tag
    • Advanced Network – Multi-tier NetworkPublic Network Guest Network 1 Guest Network 2 Guest Network 3Internet 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.3.0/24 VLAN 100 VLAN 101 VLAN 102 App VM 10.1.2.31 1 10.1.3.21 Web VM 10.1.1.2 1 10.1.2.21 Public IP 65.37.141.111 App VM 10.1.2.24 2 10.1.3.45 Private IP Web VM CS 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.3 2 10.1.2.18 Virtual Router Web VM DHCP, DNS 3 10.1.2.38 10.1.3.24 DB VM 1 10.1.1.4 NAT, Firewall LB, VPN, Port Forwarding Web VM 10.1.1.5 4 10.1.2.39 CS Virtual CS DHCP, DNS Router DHCP, DNS Virtual Router
    • Advanced Network – Virtual Private Network Internet Internal VLAN CS Loadbalancer Virtual Router / IPSec site-to-site VPN Other Data CenterVirtual Router Services App VM• DNS 1 10.1.2.31• LB Web VM 1• Site-to-Site VPN 10.1.1.1• Static Routes App VM• Network ACLs Web VM 10.1.2.24 2• NAT, PF 10.1.1.3 2• FW [ingress & egress] Web VM 3 DB VM 1 10.1.1.4 10.1.3.24 Web VM 10.1.1.5 4 Guest Network Guest Network Guest Network 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.3.0/24 VLAN 100 VLAN 101 VLAN 102
    • CloudStack Storage
    • Storage • Primary Storage Zone-Level Layer 3 Switch Private Network – Block device to the VM – IOPs intensive – Accessible from host orPod 1 Pod Pod cluster wide • WORM Storage Pod-Level Layer-2 2 N Switch Scale-Out NFS – Secondary Storage or Object Computing Server 1 Primary Store for templates, ISO, and Storage snapshot archiving Cluster 2 Computing Primary – High capacity Server 2 Storage • CloudStack manages the Computing Scale-Out storage between the two to Server 3 NFS achieve maximum benefit and Cluster 1 Primary Storage resiliency Computing Server 4
    • Primary Storage Support Matrix Type XenServer VMWare KVMLocal Disk Supported Supported SupportediSCSI Supported Supported Not SupportedFiber Channel Supported Supported Not SupportedNFS Supported Supported Supported
    • Storage Tagging• Supported via storage tags for primary storage• Specify a tag when adding a storage pool• Specify a tag when adding a disk offering• Only storage pools with the tag will be allocated for the volume
    • WORM Storage• Write Once Read Many storage pattern is supported by two different storage types – Secondary Storage (NFS Server within an availability zone) – Object Store (Swift implementation for cross-zone)• Objective for WORM storage – High capacity, cheap storage – Easy to increase capacity• Used to store templates, ISOs, and snapshots
    • CloudStack System VM
    • CloudStack System VMs• System VMs optimize and scale the data path on behalf of CloudStack – Stateless, can be destroyed and recreated from database state – Highly Available – Communicates with Management Server over management network – Usually have 3 interfaces: control(linked-local), mgmt and public• Console Proxy VM – Provides AJAX-style HTTP-only console viewer – Grabs VNC output from hypervisor – Scales out (more spawned) as load increases – Java-based server Communicates with MS• Secondary Storage VM – Provides image (template) management services – Download from HTTP file share or Swift – Copy between zones – Scale out to handle multiple NFS mounts – Java-based server communicates with MS
    • CloudStack System VMs• Virtual Router VM – Provides multiple network services – IPAM (DHCP), DNS, NAT, Source NAT, Firewall, Port Forwarding, VPN – User-data, Meta-data, guest SSH keys and password change server – Redundancy via VRRP – MS configures VR over SSH • Proxied via the hypervisor on XS and KVM
    • System VM spec• Debian 6.0 ("Squeeze"), 2.6.32 kernel with the latest security patches from the Debian security APT repository. No extraneous accounts• 32-bit for enhanced performance on Xen/VMWare• Only essential software packages are installed. Services such as, printing, ftp, telnet, X, kudzu, dns, sendmail are not installed.• SSHd only listens on the private/link-local interface. SSH port has been changed to a non- standard port (3922). SSH logins only using keys (keys are generated at install time and are unique for every customer)• pvops kernel with Xen paravirt drivers + KVM virtio drivers + VMware tools for optimum performance on all hypervisors. Xen tools inclusion allows performance monitoring• Template is built from scratch and is not polluted with any old logs or history• Latest versions of haproxy, iptables, ipsec, apache from debian repository ensures improved security and speed• Latest version of jre from Sun/Oracle ensures improved security and speed
    • MS Internals• Architecture• Workflow• High Availability• Scalability
    • Inside a Management Server Plugins cmd.execute() Plugins Cmds Plugins AsyncCS API API Job Services Servlet Queue API Mgr Kernel Responses Agent API (Commands) Agent Resources Manager Local Or Remote Hypervisor Network Native Device APIs API MySQL
    • Old Architecture API Layer Pros EC2 CloudStack Access Control • Agile development for existing developersVirtual Machine Manager Console Proxy Manager • Scales well horizontally Async Job Manager Snapshot Manager Template Manager Network Manager Storage Manager Cons … • Monolithic • Difficult to educate new and third-party Agent Manager XenServ KVM SRX F5 NetScal Other developers er er • Easy to introduce bugs Resour Resour Resour Resourc Resourc ce ce Resour es ce e ce 59
    • New Deployment Architecture • Scales horizontally to different pressure points • Automatically scales service VMs in zones to facilitate most efficient data path transfers • Fault isolation between API servers and Execution Servers and resources within zones
    • New Architecture – API Server UI Cloud CLI Other Clients • API Server isolates Portal integration code from REST Execution Server API Server • API Server can OAM&P API Pluggable API Engine End User EC2 Other horizontally scale to Management Services API API ACL & APIs Integration handle traffic- Resource management- Configuration Authentication - Accounts, Domains, and • Easily adds other API- Additional operations added Projects - ACL, limits compatibility • Easily exposes API by third party checking Framework- Job Queue-- Database Access Layer OSGi needed by third party vendors
    • New Architecture – Execution Server Execution Server • Execution Server protected by job queue • Kernel kept small for stability. It Services API Kernel Plugins• Drives long running VM operations • Storage only drives processes.• Syncs between resources managed and DB Handling • Network • Plugins provide mappings of• Generates events Handling • Deployment virtual entities to physical planning • Hypervisor resources Handling • Third party plugins to provide vendor differentiation in CloudStack• Framework Cluster Management • Component Framework • Communicates with resources•• Job Management • Alert & Event Management (OSGi) Transaction Management within data center over message•• Database Access Layer Messaging Layer bus
    • New Architecture – Resources Agent • Resources are carried in Hypervisor Resources service VMs to be in close network proximity to the Network Resources physical resources it Storage Resources manages Image & Template Resources • Easily scales to utilize the most abundant resource in Snapshot Resources data center (CPU & RAM) • Communicates with Execution Server over message bus (JSON) • Can be replicated for fault tolerance
    • Cloud Other UI CLI Clients Portal Management Server REST API OAM&P API End User API EC2 API Other APIs Pluggable Service API EngineConsole Proxy ACL & Authentication Security AdaptersManagement - Accounts, Domains, and Projects - ACL, limits checking Account Management Connectors Template Services API Access Deployment Planning Plugin API HA Kernel - Drives long running VM Services API Network Configurations Usage operations Calculations - Syncs between resources managed and DB Network Elements Additional - Generates events Services Hypervisor Gurus Cluster Resource Job Alert & Event Database Management Management Management Management Access Event Bus Message Bus Hypervisor Network Storage Image Snapshot Resources Resources Resources Resources Resources
    • Kernel Module• Understands how to orchestrate long running processes (i.e. VM starts, Snapshot copies, Template propagation)• Well defined process steps• Calls Plugin API to execute functionalities that it needs
    • Plugins• Various ways to add more capability to CloudStack• Implements clearly defined interfaces• All operations must be idempotent• All calls are at transaction boundaries• Compiles only against the Plugin API module
    • Anatomy of a Plugin Rest API- Optional. Required only if needs to expose configuration API to admin. ServerResource - Optional. Required if Plugin needs to be co- located with the resource - Implements translation layer to talk to resource - Communicates withPlugin API Implmentation server component via JSON Data Access Layer
    • Anatomy of a Plugin• Can be two jars: server component to be deployed on management server and an optional ServerResource component to be deployed co- located with the resource• Server component can implement multiple Plugin APIs to affect its feature• Can expose its own API through Pluggable Service so administrators can configure the plugin• As an example, OVS plugin actually implements both NetworkGuru and NetworkElement
    • Plugin Interfaces Available• NetworkGuru – Implements various network isolation technologies and ip address technologies• NetworkElement – Facilitate network services on network elements to support a VM (i.e. DNS, DHCP, LB, VPN, Port Forwarding, etc)• DeploymentPlanner – Different algorithms to place a VM and volumes.• Investigator – Ways to find out if a host is down or VM is down.• Fencer – Ways to fence off a VM if the state is unknown• UserAuthenticator – Methods of authenticating a user• SecurityChecker – ACL access• HostAllocator – Provides different ways to allocate host• StoragePoolAllocator – Provides different ways to allocate volumes
    • Adding a Plugin to CloudStack• Components are configured through components.xml• Supports DAO, Manager, and Adapter patterns• Open to other component frameworks (OSGi a possibility)
    • High Availability
    • High Availability• Service Offering contains a flag for whether HA should be supported for the VM• Does not use the native HA capability of hypervisors for XenServer and KVM• Uses adapters to fine tune HA process
    • Triggering High AvailabilityVM HA are triggered via the following methods:• VM Sync detects out of band VM changes• Resource Management detects that a resource is unreachable and its state can not be determined.• VM start/stop has been sent to the resource but resource does not return• Details of how high availability is done is at http://docs.cloudstack.org/CloudStack_Documentation/Design_Documents/CloudStack_High_Availability_- _Developers_Guide
    • Scalability
    • Current Status• 10k resources managed per management server node• Scales out horizontally (must disable stats collector)• Real production deployment of tens of thousands of resources• Internal testing with software simulators up to 30k physical resources with 300k VMs managed by 4 management server nodes• We believe we can at least double that scale per management server node
    • Balancing Incoming Requests• Each management server has two worker thread pools for incoming requests: effectively two servers in one. – Executor threads provided by tomcat – Job threads waiting on job queue• All incoming requests that requires mostly DB operations are short in duration and are executed by executor threads because incoming requests are already load balanced by the load balancer• All incoming requests needing resources, which often have long running durations, are checked against ACL by the executor threads and then queued and picked up by job threads.• # of job threads are scaled to the # of DB connections available to the management server• Requests may take a long time depending on the constraint of the resources but they don’t fail.
    • Comparison of two Approaches• Stats Collector – collects capacity statistics – Fires every five minutes to collect stats about host CPU and memory capacity – Smart server and dumb client model: Resource only collects info and management server processes – Runs the same way on every management server• VM Sync – Fires every minute – Peer to peer model: Resource does a full sync on connection and delta syncs thereafter. Management server trusts on resource for correct information. – Only runs against resources connected to the management server node
    • Resource Load Balancing• As management server is added into the cluster, resources are rebalanced seamlessly. – MS2 signals to MS1 to hand over a resource – MS1 wait for the commands on the resources to finish – MS1 holds further commands in a queue – MS1 signals to MS2 to take over – MS2 connects – MS2 signals to MS1 to complete transfer – MS1 discards its resource and flows the commands being held to MS2• Listeners are provided to business logic to listen on connection status and adjusts work based on who’s connected.• By only working on resources that are connected to the management server the process is on, work is auto-balanced between management servers.• Also reduces the message routing between the management servers.
    • Interactions OVM Cluster Primary Storage vcenter Monitoring Primary CS API vSphere Cluster Storage End User UI Primary XS Cluster Storage Admin UI Clustered CloudStack XAPI Domain CS Admin & CloudStack CloudStack Admin End-user API Primary UI Management JSON KVM Cluster Storage Server NetConf Juniper SRXCloud user Nitro API{API client (Fog/etc)} VNC JSON ec2 API JSON Netscaler Cloud user Console Console {ec2 API client } Proxy VM Proxy VM NFS MySQL Server {Proxied} SSH Sec. Storage NFS NFS Sec. Storage VM Ajax HTTPS VM Console Router VM HTTP (Template Download) Router VM HTTP (Template Copy) Router VM Cloud user HTTP (Swift)
    • CloudStack vs. OpenStack vs.Eucalyptus
    • CloudStack• Mainly written in Java• ASL2.0 license• Has more than 100 production clouds (Around May, 2012)• Support private/hybrid/public cloud• Scale to 30K physical host in commercial environment• Support XenServer/Vsphere/KVM/OVM/Baremetal as hypervisor• Multiple geographically distributed datacenters management• Flexible and rich network functionality• Easy installation and management• Amazon EC2 API compatible• Well documented• Active community
    • OpenStack• Mainly written in Python• ASL2.0 license• Support private/hybrid/public cloud• Immature for commercial usage• Support XenServer/Vsphere/KVM/Xen/Hyper-V as hypervisor• Network is single point of failure• Weak VPN support for enterprise hybrid cloud• All inter-module communication are based on MQ• Not well documented• A bit hard to install• Amazon EC2 API partially compatible
    • Eucalyptus (Open Source edition)• Mainly written in Java• GPLv3 license• Focus on private cloud• Support KVM/Xen as hypervisor• Fully compatible with Amazon EC2• Fully compatible with Amazon S3 via Walrus• EBS support via AoE and iSCSI• Both web UI and command line tools for cloud administration• Well documented• Difficult to getting started