Nutrition basics revised july 2013 without graphics


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This PowerPoint details the various types of nutrients needed for optimum human health. It also includes nutrients that we would not normally think about. It talks about enzymes as a category of nutrients, besides water, fiber, vitamins, minerals, amino acids (proteins), essential fatty acids, and carbohydrates.

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  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Another group of nutrients are the carbohydrates. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Mineral water is quite refreshing. Coconut water is also quite good for you, too. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • This lists vitamins, except for the B complex. The B complex vitamins are covered on the following slide. Vitamins can either be water soluble or fat based nutrients. One thing to keep in mind is that the body is needs the right level of nutrients, not too little or too much. This applies to all nutrients. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Nutrients not considered essential; however, they are known to enhance health and disease resistance: Choline 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • According to Vitamins and Minerals Demystified, the following listed below are minerals. For trace and minor trace minerals, the amount needed is quite small. Electrolyte minerals are those with positive and negative ions. Electrolyte Minerals: Sodium Chloride Potassium Major Minerals: Calcium Phosphorous Magnesium Sulfur Trace Minerals: Iron Zinc Minor Trace Minerals: Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Silicon Vanadium Note: There is controversy about the safety and use of fluoride. As for magnesium, most of it is found in cells, not in the blood stream. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • For a listing of amino acids, go to slide 23. Essential amino acids are needed in the diet. The non-essential amino acids are derived from the essential amino acids. As for fats, there are good fats and bad fats. What we fats we need more of are the omega 3 fats; and we get plenty of omega 6 fats. A good resource is: Understanding fats and oils by Michael T. Murray, ND and Jade Beutler. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Some of these nutrients have a specific role in the body. However, they may not have been designated as required nutrients. Below is a listing of nutrients that do play a specific role, but are not officially listed as nutrients. L-Carnitine Alpha-Lipoic Acid Bioflavonoids Coenzyme Q-10 Inositol Orotic Acid Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Vitamin B15 Vitamin B17 Vitamin F (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) Vitamin T Vitamin U 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • An example of enzymes are the digestive enzymes, the ones used to digest and process fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the stomach. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Enzymes are found in raw vegetables and fruits. Cooking destroys enzymes. Enzymes are needed to help the body digest the nutrients found in food. Enzymes are needed for eating, digesting, absorbing, seeing, hearing, smelling, breathing, kidney function, reproduction, elimination, and removing toxins. Phytochemicals are a new discovery of nutrients. They are found in vegetables. As for antioxidants, this refers to nutrients that have the ability to deal with free radicals in the body. One of them is vitamin C. These free radicals can cause health problems, if they are not kept in check. As we learn more about our intestines, part of the digestive system, it is filled with bacteria. Unfortunately, antibiotics can cause havoc with the bacteria in our intestines, also known as flora. However, taking probiotics helps the flora be filled with good bacteria. There are different sources of probiotics (or acidophilus). It can be taken as a supplement or in foods such as yogurt, sauerkraut, kimchi, kombucha drinks, etc. As for carbohydrates, it is important to be aware of the difference between simple carbohydrates which are low in nutritional quality versus complex carbohydrates which are much higher in their nutritional content. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • There is controversy about the benefits of cow’s milk to human health. A number of people are allergic to casein, a protein found in cow’s milk. Some fats are needed in the body, especially the omega 3s. Some people have trouble digesting grains, especially grains with gluten (wheat, rye, and barley). 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • If you have choose between sugar and high fructose corn syrup, sugar is probably a much safer choice. White flour and white rice loses about 70% of the nutrients in the processing from whole grains into white flour and white rice. MSG and Aspartame are not good for infants, young children, the fetuses, and for the elderly. They are known to be excitotoxins and can harm brain cells. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke 09/19/13
  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • This information comes from anti-aging medicine. Apparently, as we get older, our hormones levels decrease, leading to a number of health issues (or, in the case of insulin, rises). The use of bioidentical hormones can be used when our hormone levels decline (not use synthetic hormones). Medical supervision is recommended with bioidentical hormone supplementation. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Organically grown vegetables (along with fruits and grains) are higher in nutritional quality and have less residue of pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals that may be used to grow the vegetables. Organically grown foods are known to have better flavor. The problem with eggs, chicken, and red meats is that when these animals are given hormones, antibiotics, etc., some of it in food, this unfortunately ends up in the meat/food. Another issue that is receiving attention is genetically modified foods, also known as gmo. There are questions as to it’s safety to human health. 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke 09/19/13
  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke 09/19/13
  • 09/19/13 Nutrition Basics by Tamar Clarke
  • Nutrition basics revised july 2013 without graphics

    1. 1. ByTamar N. Clarke, MLS, MPA July 2, 2013, updated September 5, 2013 Nutrition Basics 1
    2. 2. Nutrition Basics Overview What is Nutrition Importance of Nutrition Addendum Items Needed for Nutrition Items that are not Nutritious Questions 2
    3. 3. What is Nutrition Nutrition includes elements and substances that are needed by our cells to be healthy. Good nutrition affects all areas of our bodies, our skin, our heart, our bones, our teeth, our eyes, our lungs, our muscles, our brains, other organs and our immune system. Each of us are biochemically unique. Needs vary from person to person. Nutritional needs vary at different stages of life, from infants to seniors. Nutrient levels need to be in a correct range within the body, not too little or too much. 3
    4. 4. Importance of Nutrition Good nutrition enables us to enjoy optimum health and feel good. Good nutrition in some cases can reverse disease. Nutrition is important to our health. 4
    5. 5. Seven Basic Nutrient Categories 5 Water Fiber Vitamins Regular B Complex Minerals Major Electrolytes Minor (Minor and Trace) Amino Acids Fats Carbohydrates
    6. 6. Nutrition Elements, part 1 - Water 6 Water Of all of the nutrients and items that our bodies need, water is the most important substance needed. Our bodies are 70% water. It needs to be clean water; not sodas, not juices, etc. Water performs a number of functions in our bodies. Amount of water needed is based on your weight. If you weigh 100 lbs, translate that into ounces and take half of that amount. In this case, a 100 lbs. individual needs 50 ounces of water daily, a little over six eight-ounce glasses of water.
    7. 7. Nutrition Elements, part 2 - Fiber 7 In order for all of our digestive systems to operate more smoothly, it needs fiber. Fiber is found in our fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. Two types of fiber exists: soluable and insoluable Soluable Fiber (dissolves in water) is found in: Nuts, seeds, oatmeal, beans, apples, pears, Strawberries and blueberries Insoluable Fiber (provides bulk) is found in: Whole grains, barley, brown rice, cereals, carrots, zucchini, tomatoes Three benefits of fiber: Improve bowel function Help improve cardiovascular health Helps regulate blood sugar levels Source: The Raw Truth by Jordan Rubin (2010), page. 77
    8. 8. Nutrition Elements, part 3 - Vitamins Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K 8
    9. 9. Nutrition Elements, part 3 continued Vitamin B Complex B1 (Thiamine) B2 (Riboflavin) B3 (Niacin) B5 (Pantothenic Acid) B6 (Pyridoxine) B7 (Biotin) B9 (Folate) B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 9
    10. 10. Nutrition Elements, part 4 - Minerals 10 Major Minerals Calcium Magnesium Phosphorous Sulfur Electrolyte Minerals Chloride Potassium Sodium Trace Minerals Iron Selenium Zinc Minor Trace Minerals Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Silicon Vanadium
    11. 11. Nutrition Elements, part 5 – Amino Acids 11 Amino Acids 9 Essential Amino Acids 22 Non-Essential Amino Acids
    12. 12. Nutrition Elements Part 6 - Fats 12 Fats Essential Fatty Acids There are good and bad (trans-fat) fats. Omega 3 fats Omega 6 fats
    13. 13. Nutrition Elements, part 7 - Carbohydrates 13 Simple Carbohydrates White sugar White wheat flour White rice Complex Carbohydrates Beans and legumes Brown rice Whole wheat berries Yams
    14. 14. Nutrition Elements, part 8 (Optional) - Enzymes Another type of nutrients are enzymes The body produces enzymes from other nutrients Enzymes perform a number of functions Enzymes are found in fresh , raw vegetables and fruits 14
    15. 15. Nutrition Elements – Independent Nutrients 15 Alpha Lipoic Acid Beta Glucan Choline Coenzyme Q-10 Inositol Lutein PABA (Para-Aminobenzic Acid) (considered to be B vitamin) Others
    16. 16. Addendum Items Needed for Nutrition Enzymes Phytochemicals Antioxidants Intestinal bacterial flora (probiotics) Carbohydrates (complex and simple) 16
    17. 17. Foods High in Nutritional Quality Vegetables Beans and legumes Fruits Nuts Dairy and Eggs Oils (olive, coconut, etc.) Grains, whole grains Meats, Fish, Chicken 17
    18. 18. Items that are not Nutritious White sugar and high fructose corn syrup White wheat flour White rice Preservatives and food additives (MSG) Artificial colors and flavors Soft drinks with sugar, corn syrup, or artificial sweeteners (Aspartame) 18
    19. 19. Questions 19
    20. 20. Addendum Topics List 20 Amino Acids Enzymes Fiber Glossary Hormones Organic vs Non-Organic Organic vs Non-Organic: The Dirty Dozen Recommendations in changing diets Sprouts Vitamin Discovery Information Water: Benefits of Drinking Water
    21. 21. Addendum: Amino Acids Essential Non-Essential 21  Histidine  Isoleucine  Leucine  Lysine  Methionine  Phenylalanine  Threonine  Tryptophan  Valine  Arginine  Alanine  Asparagine  Aspartic acid  Cysteine  Glutamic acid  Glutamine  Glycine  Ornithine  Proline  Selenocysteine  Serine  Taurine  Tyrosine
    22. 22. Addendum: Enzymes, part one Enzymes are another component of nutrition. They enable us to utilize the nutrients in the body. Enzymes are needed for eating, digesting, absorbing, seeing, hearing, smelling, breathing, kidney function, reproduction, elimination, and removing toxins. Enzymes are best found in uncooked foods. Cooking reduces the level of enzymes. It is best to eat salads, raw vegetables and fruits. One category of enzymes are the digestive enzymes. Amylase - breaks down carbohydrates Lipase – breaks down fats Protease – breaks down protein Note: Words that end in “ase” generally are enzymes. 22
    23. 23. Addendum: Enzymes, part two There are three types of enzymes. They are: Metabolic Enzymes-produced by the pancreas and performs a wide variety of functions. This includes breathing, eating, sleeping, digestion, absorption of nutrients, movement, growth, blood circulation, immune system, sexual function, and sensory perception. Digestive Enzymes-produced by the stomach, pancreas, and intestines. Found in the mouth and digestive tract. Food Enzymes – Found only in raw foods and help initiate the digestion in the mouth and stomach. Raw foods include fresh fruits, vegetables, raw sprouted seeds and grains, and unpasteurized dairy products. Also, dietary intake of enzymes reduces the burden on the pancreas to produce enzymes. Source: The Raw Truth by Jordan Rubin (2010), page 6323
    24. 24. Addendum: Enzymes, part three Listing of Enzymes (partial) Alpha galactosidase-breaks down sugars found in complex carbohydrates Amylase-breaks down starch and converts it to sugar Beta Glucanase-acts on glucan, a fiber found in oats and barley Bromelein – found in pineapple, aids digestion Cellulase – breaks down plant fiber Dipeptidyl peptidase IV- digestive enzyme that detoxifies gluten and beta casein Glucoamylase-digestive enzyme Hemicellulase-breaks down plant’s cell wall interior Invertases and sucrases-24
    25. 25. Addendum: Enzymes, part four Listing of Enzymes (partial) Lactase-breaks down milk sugar Lipase-breaks down fats Maltase-breaks down maltose into sugar Papain-found in papayas and supports digestion Pectinase-breaks down pectin, found in grapes and apples Peptidase-metabolizes proteins Phytase-enzyme breaks down indigestible parts of grains Xylanase – breaks down zylose Source: The Raw Truth by Jordan Rubin (2010), pages 64-65 25
    26. 26. Addendum: Fiber, Best Sources Raw Seeds and Nuts Almonds Chia Seeds Flaxseeds Pumpkin Seeds Sesame Seeds Source: The Raw Truth (2010), by Jordan Rubin, pg. 77-78 Fruits and Vegetables Blackberries, strawberries, and raspberries Blueberries Carrots Coconuts Pears 26
    27. 27. Addendum: Glossary 27  Acid/Alkaline  Amino acids  Antioxidants  Bioavailability  Bioaccumulation  Carbohydrates  Detoxification  Empty calories  Enzymes  Essential Fatty Acids  Fiber  Flora (intestinal bacteria)  Food chain  Free radicals  Glycemic Index  GMO (Genetically Modified Foods)  Heavy metals  Hormones  Hydration  Maldigestion  Malabsorption  Minerals  Nutrient Dense  Organic  Phytochemicals  Probiotics  Protein  Vitamins
    28. 28. Addendum: Hormones Major Minor 28 Thyroid (affects all areas of the body) Adrenals (affects our energy and immune system, continued and unrelentless stress deplete the adrenals) Cortisol (depleted levels of cortisol are a setup for a heart attack) Insulin (high levels cause quite a few symptoms) Estrogen Progesterone (not progestin) Testosterone Pregnenolone DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) Melatonin Human growth hormone
    29. 29. Addendum: Organic vs Non- Organic Plant Based Foods Animal Based Foods 29 Vegetables Fruits Grains Chicken Red Meats Eggs
    30. 30. Addendum: Organic vs Non- Organic The Dirty Dozen12 Least Contaminated 12 Most Contaminated 30 Onions Avocado Sweet Corn (Frozen) Pineapples Mango Asparagus Sweet Peas (Frozen) Kiwi Fruit Bananas Cabbage Broccoli Papaya Peaches Apples Sweet Bell Peppers Celery Nectarines Strawberries Cherries Pears Grapes (Imported) Spinach Lettuce Potatoes Source:
    31. 31. Addendum: Recommendations in changing diets While some people have changed their diets overnight, this is not recommended. What is recommended is that dietary changes be implemented on a gradual basis. Below are suggestions: First week, stop drinking all sodas Second week, dilute juices with 1 part juice and three parts water Third week, read labels and avoid processed foods that contains terminology that you are not familiar Fourth week, drop or eliminate sugar Fifth week, replace wheat with brown rice Note: Maintain a written log of the changes and your reactions 31
    32. 32. Addendum: Sprouts 32 Taking legumes (e.g. mung beans) (except kidney beans) and grains, soaking it water 6 to 8 hours, then rinsing it twice a day, generate sprouts and increases nutritional levels. Sources:   
    33. 33. Addendum: Vitamin Discovery Information Source: Year of discovery, vitamin, and food source 1913 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil 1910 Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Rice bran 1920 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus, most fresh foods 1920 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil 1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Meat, eggs 1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils 1926 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) eggs, liver, animal products 1929 Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) Leafy green vegetables 1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Meat, whole grains, in many foods 1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Meat, dairy products, eggs 1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Meat, diary products 1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Meat, eggs, grains 1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leafy green vegetables 33
    34. 34. Addendum: Benefits of Water 34 Water benefits the body in a number of ways. Some of the main ones are:  Water helps the body digest and absorb vitamins and nutrients.  Water detoxifies the liver and kidneys.  Water carries away waste from the body.  Water helps the body digest food.  Water thins the blood allowing the blood to circulate efficiently, decreasing joint pain by decreasing inflammation. Water improves energy. Water increases mental and physical performance. Water removes toxins (that cause cancer) from your body. Water keeps skin healthy and glowing.  Water helps you lose weight.  Water helps you keep more alkaline (also decreasing arthritis). Source: Doctor’s Secret Joint Pain Cure Remedy Report ,
    35. 35. Addendum: Recipe for a Green Berry Smoothie 1 cup frozen organic berries (blueberries) 1/2 peeled organic cucumber or 1 small very ripe banana 1 large handful of organic green leafy veggies (ex: parsley or spinach) 1 spoonful of raw honey or 10 drops liquid stevia pinch of celtic sea salt dash of vanilla extract 3/4 cup of water or ¾ cup of coconut water Add all ingredients to a blender and blend Compliments of Take Back Our Health Conference www.TBYHConference.com35
    36. 36. Resources:  HealthProfessional/    Understanding fats and oils: your guide to healing with essential fatty acids (1996) by Michael T. Murray, ND and Jade Beutler (Publisher: Apple Publishing Company) Vitamins and minerals demystified (2008) by Dr. Steve Black (Publisher: McGraw Hill Publisher) 36