Announcements  8/29<br />Lab starts this week!<br />Proper Dress required<br />There are no assignments due this week at t...
The Chemistry of Life I<br />Chapter 2<br />
Outline for Today<br />Matter and the Elements<br />Inorganic Matter<br />Water<br />Minerals<br />Gases<br />Organic Comp...
I. Matter and the Elements<br />Cp<br />Rg<br />Ds<br />http://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/periodicchart.cfm<br />
Hopefully, you remember much of your basic chemistry from last year<br />Electrons important in bonding<br />Covalent vs. ...
>95%<br />electrolytes<br />Co-factors for<br />Essential proteins<br />Essential element<br />of thyroid hormone<br />COM...
II. Inorganic Matter: Water<br />
i. Solvency<br />ii. Polarity<br />iii. Adhesion/cohesion<br />iv. Neutral pH<br />v. Thermal properties<br />vi. Reactivi...
Fig. 2.9<br />Solvency/Polarity<br />δ-<br />δ means a small charge<br />Polar – slightly charged at opposite ends<br />δ+...
Solvency/Polarity<br />http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html<br />
Adhesion means to stick to other things while cohesion means to stick to itself<br />Hydrogen bonds cause cohesiveness<br ...
Fig. 2.8<br />Adhesion/Cohesion<br />Notice the positive and negative interactions<br />H bonds are due to H bonding with ...
Acids or bases affect protein structure<br />Can render the protein non-functional<br />Fig. 2.12<br />Neutral pH<br />
High Heat Capacity<br />Amount of energy it takes to raise 1g of water 1 oC.  <br />Takes a lot of energy to change the te...
High heat of vaporization<br />Liquid  gas<br />Heat goes with it<br />Cools the body<br />1 ml of perspiration evaporati...
Reactivity<br />water is essential in many chemical reactions<br />		universal solvent<br /> water is added to break coval...
II. Inorganic Matter: Minerals<br />
II. Inorganic Compounds<br />2. MINERALS<br />a. elements extracted from the soil; consumed in our diet<br />b. main miner...
II. Inorganic Matter: Gases<br />
Gases: Important ones<br />Oxygen (O2)<br />Cellular respiration<br />Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />Waste product<br />Nitrous...
III. Organic Compounds<br />Fig. 2.14<br />
Overview - Carbon<br />Valence of 4<br />Can form maximum of 4 bonds<br />Single, double, triple bonds<br />Gives a lot of...
Functional Groups in Organic Compounds<br />O-<br />COO-<br />NH3+<br />PO4-<br />Fig. 2.14<br />
Macromolecules are large molecules<br />Usually composed of repeating units<br />monomers  polymers ( a dimer in the abov...
Fig. 2.15<br />Organic Compounds :Synthesis and Degradation Reactions<br />Polymer (dimer)  smaller units (e.g. monomers)...
Notice that both involve water<br />Loss from or addition to the molecule(s)<br />Both also involve enzymes (get to later ...
You join 11 organic molecules together.  How many water molecules are formed?<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />...
III. Major classes of compounds<br />http://www.steve.gb.com/images/molecules/cofactors/NADH.jpg<br />
“Carbon Water” <br />C, H, and O<br />Basic unit is the monosaccharide<br />Can have disaccharides and polysaccharides<br ...
Simple sugars<br />Most important are 6 carbon hexoses and 5 carbon pentoses<br />Pentose examples are ribose and deoxyrib...
Tab 2.6<br />
Two monosaccharides joined by a dehydration synthesis<br />Degraded to monosaccharides for nutritional purposes<br />fruct...
Tab 2.6<br />
What is a polymer?<br />Link similar small molecules together<br />Polysaccharides can have a mw of 500,000 or more while ...
Glycogen<br />Energy storing molecule<br />Only polysaccharide found in human tissues<br />Made by cells of liver, muscle,...
Starch<br />Energy storing molecule in plants<br />Plants rely on it when photosynthesis is not occurring<br />Polysacchar...
Cellulose<br />Structural molecule for plant support<br />Major component of wood<br />Most common organic compound on ear...
Tab 2.6<br />
Means the carbs are covalently bonded to proteins or lipids<br />Glycolipids and glycoproteins <br />Many of the lipids an...
Notice a pattern?<br />Glucose<br />Fructose<br />Ribose<br />Sucrose<br />Maltose<br />Cellulose<br />If a chemical ends ...
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2- Chemistry of Life I

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2- Chemistry of Life I

  1. 1. Announcements 8/29<br />Lab starts this week!<br />Proper Dress required<br />There are no assignments due this week at the beginning of lab<br />Good idea to look over Ex. 1 and 2<br />No labs Labor Day week due to short week (that is next week)<br />All connect assignments are up for Module 1<br />Tegrity- explanation<br />
  2. 2. The Chemistry of Life I<br />Chapter 2<br />
  3. 3. Outline for Today<br />Matter and the Elements<br />Inorganic Matter<br />Water<br />Minerals<br />Gases<br />Organic Compounds<br />Overview<br />Classes of Biomolecules<br />Carbohydrates<br />Continued in The Chemistry of Life_2<br />
  4. 4. I. Matter and the Elements<br />Cp<br />Rg<br />Ds<br />http://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/periodicchart.cfm<br />
  5. 5. Hopefully, you remember much of your basic chemistry from last year<br />Electrons important in bonding<br />Covalent vs. ionic bonding<br />Hydrogen bonding (discuss shortly)<br />
  6. 6. >95%<br />electrolytes<br />Co-factors for<br />Essential proteins<br />Essential element<br />of thyroid hormone<br />COMPOSITION OF LIVING MATTER<br />I. The Elements<br />
  7. 7. II. Inorganic Matter: Water<br />
  8. 8. i. Solvency<br />ii. Polarity<br />iii. Adhesion/cohesion<br />iv. Neutral pH<br />v. Thermal properties<br />vi. Reactivity<br />Fig. 2.8<br />COMPOSITION OF LIVING MATTER<br />II. Inorganic Compounds<br />1. WATER<br />a. Properties that make it the IDEAL solvent for the human body<br />
  9. 9. Fig. 2.9<br />Solvency/Polarity<br />δ-<br />δ means a small charge<br />Polar – slightly charged at opposite ends<br />δ+<br />δ+<br />http://library.thinkquest.org/10429/low/matter/matter.htm<br />
  10. 10. Solvency/Polarity<br />http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html<br />
  11. 11. Adhesion means to stick to other things while cohesion means to stick to itself<br />Hydrogen bonds cause cohesiveness<br />Get a surface tension<br />Forms a lubrication<br />What does this do?<br />Cuts down on friction<br />Adhesion/Cohesion<br />
  12. 12. Fig. 2.8<br />Adhesion/Cohesion<br />Notice the positive and negative interactions<br />H bonds are due to H bonding with F, O, or N (F not seen in biological systems)<br />
  13. 13. Acids or bases affect protein structure<br />Can render the protein non-functional<br />Fig. 2.12<br />Neutral pH<br />
  14. 14. High Heat Capacity<br />Amount of energy it takes to raise 1g of water 1 oC. <br />Takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water<br />Stabilization of body temperature<br />Thermal Stability<br />
  15. 15. High heat of vaporization<br />Liquid  gas<br />Heat goes with it<br />Cools the body<br />1 ml of perspiration evaporating from the body removes 500 cals of heat<br />Thermal Stability<br />SWEATING is our main mechanism of heat release<br />
  16. 16. Reactivity<br />water is essential in many chemical reactions<br /> universal solvent<br /> water is added to break covalent bonds<br /> is crucial in metabolism<br />(will discuss more in organic cmpds)<br />Fig. 2.15<br />Anabolic reaction<br />Catabolic reaction<br />
  17. 17. II. Inorganic Matter: Minerals<br />
  18. 18. II. Inorganic Compounds<br />2. MINERALS<br />a. elements extracted from the soil; consumed in our diet<br />b. main minerals are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium,<br /> chloride, magnesium, zinc, copper<br />c. are crucial for synthesis and maintenance of:<br />Bones<br />Muscles<br />Neurons<br />Calcium, phosphorus<br />Calcium, sodium, phosphorus<br />Calcium, sodium, potassium,<br />phosphorus<br />
  19. 19. II. Inorganic Matter: Gases<br />
  20. 20. Gases: Important ones<br />Oxygen (O2)<br />Cellular respiration<br />Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />Waste product<br />Nitrous Oxide<br />neurotransmitter<br />Methane (CH4)<br />Carbon monoxide (CO) is a problem<br />
  21. 21. III. Organic Compounds<br />Fig. 2.14<br />
  22. 22. Overview - Carbon<br />Valence of 4<br />Can form maximum of 4 bonds<br />Single, double, triple bonds<br />Gives a lot of variety due to the functional groups<br />Clusters of atoms that determine the chemical properties/reactivity<br />Fig. 2.23a<br />http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/202linear.html<br />
  23. 23. Functional Groups in Organic Compounds<br />O-<br />COO-<br />NH3+<br />PO4-<br />Fig. 2.14<br />
  24. 24. Macromolecules are large molecules<br />Usually composed of repeating units<br />monomers  polymers ( a dimer in the above fig.)<br />Put together via dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction)<br />Notice the loss of water from the molecule<br />Fig. 2.15<br />Organic Compounds :Synthesis and Degradation Reactions<br />
  25. 25. Fig. 2.15<br />Organic Compounds :Synthesis and Degradation Reactions<br />Polymer (dimer)  smaller units (e.g. monomers)<br />Larger molecules broken apart via hydrolysis reaction (“splitting with water”)<br />Water is used up in the reaction<br />
  26. 26. Notice that both involve water<br />Loss from or addition to the molecule(s)<br />Both also involve enzymes (get to later with proteins)<br />Fig. 2.15<br />Organic Compounds :Synthesis and Degradation Reactions<br />
  27. 27. You join 11 organic molecules together. How many water molecules are formed?<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />No way to tell<br />
  28. 28. III. Major classes of compounds<br />http://www.steve.gb.com/images/molecules/cofactors/NADH.jpg<br />
  29. 29. “Carbon Water” <br />C, H, and O<br />Basic unit is the monosaccharide<br />Can have disaccharides and polysaccharides<br />Functions are energy and structure<br />Carbohydrates<br />
  30. 30. Simple sugars<br />Most important are 6 carbon hexoses and 5 carbon pentoses<br />Pentose examples are ribose and deoxyribose<br />Hexose examples are shown on the right<br />Monosaccharides<br />Fig. 2.16<br />
  31. 31. Tab 2.6<br />
  32. 32. Two monosaccharides joined by a dehydration synthesis<br />Degraded to monosaccharides for nutritional purposes<br />fructose<br />glucose<br />glucose<br />galactose<br />glucose<br />glucose<br />Disaccharides<br />Fig. 2.17<br />
  33. 33. Tab 2.6<br />
  34. 34. What is a polymer?<br />Link similar small molecules together<br />Polysaccharides can have a mw of 500,000 or more while glucose is 180<br />Glycogen, starch, and cellulose are important polysaccharides<br />Fig. 2.18<br />Polysaccharides<br />
  35. 35. Glycogen<br />Energy storing molecule<br />Only polysaccharide found in human tissues<br />Made by cells of liver, muscle, uterus, and vagina<br />Can be broken down to maintain blood glucose <br />Branching allows for more storage<br />Fig. 2.18<br />Polysaccharides<br />
  36. 36. Starch<br />Energy storing molecule in plants<br />Plants rely on it when photosynthesis is not occurring<br />Polysaccharides<br />
  37. 37. Cellulose<br />Structural molecule for plant support<br />Major component of wood<br />Most common organic compound on earth<br />Common component of our diets but we have no enzymes to digest it<br />Roughage <br />Polysaccharides<br />http://www.steve.gb.com/images/molecules/sugars/cellulose.png<br />
  38. 38. Tab 2.6<br />
  39. 39. Means the carbs are covalently bonded to proteins or lipids<br />Glycolipids and glycoproteins <br />Many of the lipids and proteins on the cell surface have up to 12 sugars attached<br />Proteoglycans<br />Carb is the major portion<br />Conjugated Carbohydrates<br />
  40. 40. Notice a pattern?<br />Glucose<br />Fructose<br />Ribose<br />Sucrose<br />Maltose<br />Cellulose<br />If a chemical ends in “ose” it is a carbohydrate<br />Note: That does not mean that all carbohydrates end in “ose” (glycogen)<br />

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