Municipal and Domestic Wastewater Treatment The Largest Biotechnology Industry in the World … … and the least understood?
Veolia Water N° 1 worldwide for water services; revenue of €12.5 billion for 2008; providing drinking water and wastewater treatment services to more than 139 million people around the world; 93,433 employees; Permanent operations in 64 countries ; Managing close to 4,400 contracts around the world.
The anammox reaction is : NH4+ + NO2- = N2 + 2H2O + energy
This reaction is carried out by a group of planctomycete bacteria. Two of those have been named provisionally: Candidatus "Brocadia anammoxidans" and Candidatus "Kuenenia stuttgartiensis".
Nitrite reductase Hydrizine hydrolase Hydrazine dehydrogenase http://www.anammox.com/anammox_mechanism.html Last updated: March 9, 2004
Assignment: Mangere Complex adds NZ$1b to Auckland City Economy.
The just completed upgrade of the Mangere Materials Complex adds the final process to allow complete recovery of the materials from what was once called wastewater. The wastewater also called sewage was collected at the plant and partly treated before being tipped into the Manukau harbour. The cost of this treatment both in $ terms and in environmental cost was in excess on $50 m in 2010. Recovery of the resources that was once waste and the industries linked to them are now worth over $1 b.
Ahn Y-H Sustainable nitrogen elimination biotechnologies: A Review. Process Biochemistry 41, 2006, 1709 - 1721
Mendoza-Espinosa, Leopoldo Stephenson, Tom. A review of biological aerated filters (BAFs) for wastewater treatment Environmental Engineering Science. 16(3). 1999. 201-216.
Stratful, I.; Brett, S. Scrimshaw, M. B.; Lester, J. N.. Biological phosphorus removal, its role in phosphorus recycling Environmental Technology. 20(7). July, 1999. 681-695.
Grady, C. P. L., Jr. Filipe, C. D. M. . Ecological engineering of bioreactors for wastewater treatment Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 123(1-4). October, 2000. 117-132
de-Bashan, Luz E.; Bashan, Yoav Recent advances in removing phosphorus from wastewater and its future use as fertilizer (1997-2003) Water Research. 38(19). November 2004. 4222-4246.
Mallick, Nirupama. Biotechnological potential of immobilized algae for wastewater N, P and metal removal: A review. BioMetals. 15(4). December 2002. 377-390.
Low, Euan W.; Chase, Howard A.. Reducing production of excess biomass during wastewater treatment Water Research. 33(5). April, 1999. 1119-1132.
Aksu, Zumriye. Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: A review Process Biochemistry. 40(3-4). March 2005. 997-1026.
Lazarova, V. ; Savoye, P. Janex, M. L.; Blatchley, E. R., III Pommepuy, M. [Author]. Advanced wastewater disinfection technologies: State of the art and perspectives Water Science & Technology. 40(4-5). Aug.-Sept., 1999. 203-213.
Chuichulcherm, S.. An integrated system for the bioremediation of wastewater containing xenobiotics and toxic metals Engineering in Life Sciences. 4(4). August 2004. 354-357.
Books that contain helpful sections ( not on close reserve)
Fry et al : 1992 Microbial control of pollution: Society for General Microbiology.
Gray NF 2004 :Biology of wastewater treatment 2nd ed. Imperial College Press, London.
Gerardi M and Zimmerman M :2004 Wastewater Pathogens: Electronic reproduction Somerset, New Jersey : Wiley InterScience, [electronic resource]
Ekama George A [a]; Wentzel Mark C [a]. Difficulties and developments in biological nutrient removal technology and modelling. Water Science & Technology. 39(6). March, 1999. 1-11. ( try via science direct)
Fuerhacker M; Bauer H; Ellinger R; Sree U; Schmid H; Zibuschka F; Puxbaum H. Approach for a novel control strategy for simultaneous nitrification/ denitrification in activated sludge reactors. Water Research. 34(9). June, 2000. 2499-2506
Strous Marc; Van Gerven Eric; Zheng Ping; Kuenen J Gijs; Jetten Mike S M [a]. Ammonium removal from concentrated waste streams with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process in different reactor configurations. Water Research. 31(8). 1997. 1955-1962
Krumins Valdis; Hummerick Mary; Levine Lanfang; Strayer Richard; Adams Jennifer L; Bauer Jan. Effect of hydraulic retention time on inorganic nutrient recovery and biodegradable organics removal in a biofilm reactor treating plant biomass leachate. Bioresource Technology 85. December, 2002. 243-248.