RocksRocks
and the Rock Cycleand the Rock Cycle
 What is a rock?What is a rock?
 How does a rock form?How does a rock form?
 What is/are the origin(s) of a rock?What i...
Definition of a RockDefinition of a Rock
 Made of mineralsMade of minerals
 Firm and coherentFirm and coherent
 Aggrega...
Why Study Rocks?Why Study Rocks?
 Rocks and minerals have economic value.Rocks and minerals have economic value.
 Earth ...
Components of a RockComponents of a Rock
 ClastsClasts (fragments) or crystals large(fragments) or crystals large
enough ...
ClastsClasts
Clasts + MatrixClasts + Matrix
Clasts + CementClasts + Cement
The Rock CycleThe Rock Cycle
 Rocks are divided into three groupsRocks are divided into three groups
based on their mode ...
Igneous RockIgneous Rock
Sedimentary RockSedimentary Rock
Metamorphic RockMetamorphic Rock
Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)
 Magma (molten rock)Magma (molten rock)
– crystallizes (cools and solidfies) at orcr...
Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)
 A rock, exposed at the surfaceA rock, exposed at the surface
undergoesundergoes
– w...
Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)
 A rock, exposed at the surfaceA rock, exposed at the surface
undergoesundergoes
– d...
Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)
 A rock at or near the surface isA rock at or near the surface is
buried to great de...
Alternate PathsAlternate Paths
 The full rock cycle does not alwaysThe full rock cycle does not always
take place. Some "...
RockRock
CycleCycle
(2)(2)
Plate Tectonics and the RockPlate Tectonics and the Rock
CycleCycle
 Cooling and crystallization ofCooling and crystalliz...
Plate Tectonics and the Rock CyclePlate Tectonics and the Rock Cycle
Rock Cycle/EPCC/LM3
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Rock Cycle/EPCC/LM3

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Rock Cycle/EPCC/LM3

  1. 1. RocksRocks and the Rock Cycleand the Rock Cycle
  2. 2.  What is a rock?What is a rock?  How does a rock form?How does a rock form?  What is/are the origin(s) of a rock?What is/are the origin(s) of a rock?
  3. 3. Definition of a RockDefinition of a Rock  Made of mineralsMade of minerals  Firm and coherentFirm and coherent  Aggregate of materialsAggregate of materials
  4. 4. Why Study Rocks?Why Study Rocks?  Rocks and minerals have economic value.Rocks and minerals have economic value.  Earth processes (volcanic eruptions,Earth processes (volcanic eruptions, mountain building, weathering,mountain building, weathering, earthquakes etc.) depend in some waysearthquakes etc.) depend in some ways on the properties of rocks.on the properties of rocks.  Every rock contains clues about theEvery rock contains clues about the environment in which it formed. Byenvironment in which it formed. By looking at rocks closely we can figure outlooking at rocks closely we can figure out events that happened earlier in Earthevents that happened earlier in Earth history.history.
  5. 5. Components of a RockComponents of a Rock  ClastsClasts (fragments) or crystals large(fragments) or crystals large enough to see the individual piecesenough to see the individual pieces  MatrixMatrix - fine-grained material- fine-grained material between larger clasts or crystalsbetween larger clasts or crystals  CementCement - crystalline added after the- crystalline added after the original rock formed (usually byoriginal rock formed (usually by water flowing through the rock)water flowing through the rock)
  6. 6. ClastsClasts
  7. 7. Clasts + MatrixClasts + Matrix
  8. 8. Clasts + CementClasts + Cement
  9. 9. The Rock CycleThe Rock Cycle  Rocks are divided into three groupsRocks are divided into three groups based on their mode of origin:based on their mode of origin: – igneous,igneous, – metamorphic,metamorphic, – sedimentary.sedimentary.  Each type of rock can be linked toEach type of rock can be linked to another type by processes that actanother type by processes that act on and within the Earth.on and within the Earth.
  10. 10. Igneous RockIgneous Rock
  11. 11. Sedimentary RockSedimentary Rock
  12. 12. Metamorphic RockMetamorphic Rock
  13. 13. Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)  Magma (molten rock)Magma (molten rock) – crystallizes (cools and solidfies) at orcrystallizes (cools and solidfies) at or near the surface to formnear the surface to form igneous rocksigneous rocks
  14. 14. Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)  A rock, exposed at the surfaceA rock, exposed at the surface undergoesundergoes – weatheringweathering disintegration of rock due todisintegration of rock due to chemical/mechanical action,chemical/mechanical action, – transportationtransportation oror erosionerosion sediment moves downhill by gravity andsediment moves downhill by gravity and taken somewhere else by wind or water,taken somewhere else by wind or water,
  15. 15. Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)  A rock, exposed at the surfaceA rock, exposed at the surface undergoesundergoes – depositiondeposition -comes to rest somewhere - in an ocean,-comes to rest somewhere - in an ocean, river floodplain, swamp, sand dune etc., andriver floodplain, swamp, sand dune etc., and – lithificationlithification conversion into rock through compactionconversion into rock through compaction and cementation and forms aand cementation and forms a sedimentary rocksedimentary rock..
  16. 16. Rock Cycle (Basic)Rock Cycle (Basic)  A rock at or near the surface isA rock at or near the surface is buried to great depth and isburied to great depth and is subjected to:subjected to: – intense heat (due to magma nearby?) orintense heat (due to magma nearby?) or – pressure (due to mountain building)pressure (due to mountain building) – The rock reacts to this change ofThe rock reacts to this change of environment by becoming aenvironment by becoming a metamorphic rockmetamorphic rock..
  17. 17. Alternate PathsAlternate Paths  The full rock cycle does not alwaysThe full rock cycle does not always take place. Some "short cuts" are:take place. Some "short cuts" are: – Sedimentary rock melts.Sedimentary rock melts. – Igneous rock is metamorphosed.Igneous rock is metamorphosed. – Sedimentary rock weathers.Sedimentary rock weathers. – Metamorphic rock weathers.Metamorphic rock weathers.
  18. 18. RockRock CycleCycle (2)(2)
  19. 19. Plate Tectonics and the RockPlate Tectonics and the Rock CycleCycle  Cooling and crystallization ofCooling and crystallization of magmamagma – volcanic arcs, rifts/ridgesvolcanic arcs, rifts/ridges  MetamorphismMetamorphism – At depth, especially within arcsAt depth, especially within arcs  UpliftUplift, weathering, erosion,, weathering, erosion, depositiondeposition – Especially where mountains built up atEspecially where mountains built up at plate marginsplate margins
  20. 20. Plate Tectonics and the Rock CyclePlate Tectonics and the Rock Cycle

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