Differentiation in the Classroom Marzano's Research Based Strategies
1. Identifying Similarities and Differences <ul><li>Focuses on mental processes students use to restructure and understand information.
Helps the brain process and recall new information and learn by overlaying a known pattern onto an unknown one .
Looking for similarities and differences prompts the learner to consider, "What do I already know that will help me learn this new idea?” This fosters relationships and connections to new understanding. </li></ul>
Research To Back It Up <ul><li>Cognitive research shows that educational programs should challenge students to link, connect, and integrate ideas (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999).
Using these strategies can help to boost student achievement from 31 - 46 percentile points (Stone, 1983; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986; Ross, 1988).
Combining this strategy with the method of using nonlinguistic representation enhances student achievement significantly (Chen, 1999; Cole & McLeod, 1999; Glynn & Takahashi, 1998; Lin, 1996). </li></ul>
Classroom Activities <ul><li>Compare and Contrast
2. Nonlinguistic Representations <ul><li>Uses mental images to enhance a student’s ability to represent and elaborate on knowledge .
When students elaborate on knowledge, they are able to understand it in greater depth and be more successful at recalling it. </li></ul>
Research to Back it Up <ul><li>Two primary ways to acquire and store knowledge : linguistic (by reading or hearing lectures) , and nonlinguistic (through visual imagery, kinesthetic or whole-body modes, etc) . The more students use both systems, the better they are able to think about and recall what they have learned (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).
Thinking maps and brainstorming improve students' reading, writing, and thinking skills (Hyerle, 1996).
Finding patterns helps students organize ideas so they recall and apply what they have learned. When students learn to represent and visual 3-D forms, their understanding of geometry increases. (Bransford et al., 1999; Lehrer & Chazen, 1998). </li></ul>T
3. Summarizing and Note Taking <ul><li>Students take notes to arrive at a nugget of meaning for better retention.
Effective summarizing leads to synthesis of information – includes analyzing info, identification of key concepts and determining extraneous info.
Students must be able to analyze information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details that is stated in their own words. </li></ul>
Research to Back it Up <ul><li>Notes should be in both linguistic and nonlinguistic forms, including idea webs, sketches , informal outlines , and combinations of words and schematics; the more notes, the better (Nye, Crooks, Powlie, & Tripp, 1984) .
Notes become more meaningful when students review and revise their own notes (Anderson & Armbruster, 1986; Denner, 1986; Einstein, Morris, & Smith, 1985) .
When asked to summarize, students must analyze information at a deep level; They decide what information to omit, what to substitute, and what to keep (Anderson, V., & Hidi, 1988/1989; Hidi & Anderson, 1987). </li></ul>
Classroom Activities <ul><li>Model good note taking
Work in small groups to compare and discuss notes for review and test prep. </li></ul>
4. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Most students are not aware of the importance of believing that their level of effort is related to their achievement. Rewards and praise for achieving specific goals -> higher level of achievement.
Research to Back it Up <ul><li>When teachers show relationship between trying harder and increased success, student achievement can increase (Craske, 1985; Van Overwalle & De Metsenaere, 1990).
When rewards are directly linked to successfully understanding a performance standard, teacher rewards for accomplishment can improve achievement (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Wiersma, 1992).
Teachers must decide how to provide recognition. Abstract or symbolic recognition has more impact than tangible things, such as prizes (Cameron & Pierce, 1994). > </li></ul>
Classroom Activities <ul><li>Teach relationship between effort & achievement
5. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback <ul><li>A direction for learning is established by setting objectives.
Once students understand the parameters of an objective, they should brainstorm to determine what they know and what they want to learn.
Learning is enhanced with regular, timely, and specific feedback.
Help students understand where they stand relative to a specific target of knowledge or skill (Aimsweb!) </li></ul>
Research to Back it Up <ul><li>Instructional goals - not too specific. Narrowly focused goals limit learning. (Fraser, 1987; Walberg, 1999).
Learning increases if students are encouraged to personalize the teacher's goals. Student ownership enhances learning focus. Studies show the benefits of students setting sub-goals derived from the larger teacher-defined goals (Bandura & Schunk, 1981; Morgan, 1985).
Learning "contracts" are effective in developing student ownership and completion of goals. A contract is an agreement between student and teacher. If the students meet the criteria laid out in the contract, they get the corresponding grade. (Kahle & Kelly, 1994; Miller & Kelley, 1994; Vollmer, 1995) . </li></ul>
Classroom Activities <ul><li>Students create own goals
Focus goals on understanding, not so much on accomplishing tasks. </li></ul>
6. Generating and Testing Hypotheses Students should be asked "what if?" as they plan and conduct simple investigations (e.g., formulate a testable question, make systematic observations, and develop logical conclusions)
Research to Back it Up <ul><li>Students apply their conceptual understanding by generating and testing a hypothesis (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).
An interactive approach to teaching physics concepts provides a better environment for student learning than traditional textbook-based instruction (Hake, 1998) . (But, of course!)
When students explain the scientific principles they are working from and the hypotheses they generate, their understanding increases (Lavoie, 1999; Lavoie & Good, 1988; Lawson, 1988). </li></ul>
Classroom Activities <ul><li>Teach students how to frame a good question
7. Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers <ul><li>Give students opportunity to connect what they already know to what they need to know. (KWL)
Questions should focus on what is central and most important.
Advance organizers are most useful for information that is not easily presented in a well-organized manner. </li></ul>
Research to Back it Up <ul><li>Higher-level questions that ask students to analyze information result in more learning than simply asking students to recall information. (Redfield & Rousseau, 1981) . However, teachers are more apt to ask lower-order questions (Fillippone, 1998; Mueller, 1973) .
Advance organizers , including graphic ones, help students learn new concepts and vocabulary (Stone, 1983). Presenting information graphically as well as symbolically in an advance organizer reinforces vocabulary learning and supports reading skills. (Brookbank Grover, Kullberg, & Strawser, 1999; Moore & Readence 1984).
By increasing the amount of "wait time" after asking a question, teachers foster increased student discourse and more student-to-student interactio n (Fowler, 1975). </li></ul>
Use a variety of strategies to form groups. e.g. hair color </li></ul>
9. Homework and Practice <ul><li>Provide opportunities for students to practice, review, and apply knowledge.
Enhance a student's ability to reach a level of expected proficiency for a skill or concept. </li></ul>
Research to Back it Up <ul><li>Impact of homework on achievement increases as students move through the grades (Cooper, 1989, a, b) Elementary students: homework establishes good learning and study habits (Cooper, 1989; Cooper, Lindsay, Ye, & Greathouse, 1998; Gorges & Elliot, 1999). High school students: for every 30 additional minutes of homework completed daily, a student's GPA can increase up to half a point (Keith, 1992).
In the U.S. teachers tend to compress many skills into practice sessions, however students learn more when allowed to practice fewer skills or concepts, but at a deeper level (Healy, 1990).
Mastery requires focused practice over days or weeks. After only four practice sessions students reach a halfway point to mastery. It takes more than 24 more practice sessions before students reach 80 percent mastery. This practice must occur over a span of days or weeks, and cannot be rushed (Anderson, 1995; Newell & Rosenbloom, 1981).
Homework assignments provide the time and experience students need to develop study habits that support learning. They experience the results of their effort as well as the ability to cope with mistakes and difficulty (Bempechat, 2004). </li></ul>
Teacher Involvement <ul><li>Provide appropriate feedback to correct misunderstanding, validate process, and highlight errors in thinking.
Lack of completion -> appropriate consequences.
Recognize uniqueness among students. As they practice, given time , they will adapt and shape their learning and eventually incorporate the new skill into a knowledge base of their own, deepening understanding . </li></ul>