The Multimedia and Contiguity Principles of E-Learning Christy Billingsley EdTech 513: Multimedia Summer 2009
Learning Objective <ul><li>The student will be able to identify the multimedia principle and explain whether a given examp...
E-Learning  Fundamentals Multimedia Principle The  combination  of  learning-supportive  graphics with  text  promotes  le...
A graphic is a concise way to provide a lot of information to the learner. In the  organizational graphic  below, a tree d...
A  representational graphic  illustrates the appearance of an object and aids the student in identifying the appearance of...
An  interpretive graphic  assists the learner make sense of an intangible concept. Below, buoyancy is much easier to grasp...
A  transformational graphic  aids the student in understanding how something happens or changes over time. The expansion o...
A  relational graphic  summarizes quantitative relationships. In the illustration below, the student can visualize the mis...
<ul><li>All of the graphics seen to this point have been used in combination with text t encourage active learning. They e...
Decorative graphics  should be avoided in e-learning materials. They do not contribute to active learning and are a distra...
E-Learning  Fundamentals Multimedia Principle The combination of  learning-supportive graphics with text promotes learning...
The graphic below describes paper-making steps. It’s no very easy to follow along since the student’s eyes have to keep tr...
The paper-making process is easier to understand when the text and graphic are contiguous since the eyes can focus on one ...
When learning the parts of an object, contiguity of text to the graphic reduces cognitive overload. Imagine learning the p...
Assessment <ul><li>When answering the following problems, be sure to  include the multimedia and/or contiguity principle  ...
<ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the multimedia principle: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The idea that the use of learning-sup...
<ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the multimedia principle: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The idea that the use of learning-sup...
#2 A. Explain why this worksheet would make it difficult for a student to learn the names and locations of states for the ...
#2 A. Explain why this worksheet would make it difficult for a student to learn the names and locations of states for the ...
http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #3 Explain why this image is a model of the mult...
http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #3 Explain why this image is a model of the mult...
http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #4 Explain why this image is  not  a model of th...
http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #4 Explain why this image is  not  a model of th...
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Billingsley Multimedia & Contiguity Project

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Billingsley Multimedia & Contiguity Project

  1. 1. The Multimedia and Contiguity Principles of E-Learning Christy Billingsley EdTech 513: Multimedia Summer 2009
  2. 2. Learning Objective <ul><li>The student will be able to identify the multimedia principle and explain whether a given example appropriately uses the principle. </li></ul><ul><li>The student will be able to identify the contiguity principle and analyze the benefits of its use when given a graphic. </li></ul>
  3. 3. E-Learning Fundamentals Multimedia Principle The combination of learning-supportive graphics with text promotes learning
  4. 4. A graphic is a concise way to provide a lot of information to the learner. In the organizational graphic below, a tree diagram is delivers information to the learner much more effectively than words alone. bcsfootballplayoffs.com/large-bracket.htm
  5. 5. A representational graphic illustrates the appearance of an object and aids the student in identifying the appearance of something. Can you imagine learning the parts of a frog without a picture to go with it?? http://k-2.stanford.edu/InfoFrames/2-BioSys.2.0.html
  6. 6. An interpretive graphic assists the learner make sense of an intangible concept. Below, buoyancy is much easier to grasp with the combination of text and graphics. spot.pcc.edu
  7. 7. A transformational graphic aids the student in understanding how something happens or changes over time. The expansion of the United States is simplified with the addition of a map. United States Westward Expansion http://www.geocities.com/tonyball96/americanhistory/SummerNotes625.htm
  8. 8. A relational graphic summarizes quantitative relationships. In the illustration below, the student can visualize the misery index as the combination of the inflation and unemployment rates. http://www.washington.uwc.edu/about/faculty/muryn_j/ECO%20203/Bernanke%203rd%20Ed/misery%20index%20inflation%20and%20unemployment%2009-06-08.gif
  9. 9. <ul><li>All of the graphics seen to this point have been used in combination with text t encourage active learning. They each required the student to apply the text to a visual which increases understanding. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Decorative graphics should be avoided in e-learning materials. They do not contribute to active learning and are a distraction to the student. X All of the graphics seen to this point have been used in combination with text t encourage active learning. They each required the student to apply the text to a visual which increases understanding.
  11. 11. E-Learning Fundamentals Multimedia Principle The combination of learning-supportive graphics with text promotes learning Contiguity Principle The placement of text near its corresponding graphic promotes learning
  12. 12. The graphic below describes paper-making steps. It’s no very easy to follow along since the student’s eyes have to keep tracking from the graphic to the corresponding text. Ugh! www.wipapercouncil.org Step 1: Forestry Step 2: Debarking, Chipping and/or Recycling Step 3: Pulp Preparation Step 4: Paper Formation St ep 5: Paper Finishing
  13. 13. The paper-making process is easier to understand when the text and graphic are contiguous since the eyes can focus on one area of the diagram at time Step 5: Paper Finishing: rolled sheets are cut into paper that you can buy at the store!! 1: Forestry: trees grown from seedlings Step 2: Debarking, Chipping: the bark is removed and wood broken into bits and cooked to a pulp Step 3: Pulp Preparation: pulp is cleaned and dyed Step 4: Paper Formation: pulp is run through rollers and heated to produce thin sheets
  14. 14. When learning the parts of an object, contiguity of text to the graphic reduces cognitive overload. Imagine learning the parts of a shark if you have to continually refer to a key for the part names rather than focusing on the graphic! http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Image:Parts_of_a_shark.svg
  15. 15. Assessment <ul><li>When answering the following problems, be sure to include the multimedia and/or contiguity principle in your answer. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the multimedia principle: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The idea that the use of learning-supportive graphics with text encourages learning </li></ul><ul><li>B. The idea that placing text near the graphic it refers to encourages learning. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the multimedia principle: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The idea that the use of learning-supportive graphics with text encourages learning </li></ul><ul><li>B. The idea that placing text near the graphic it refers to encourages learning. </li></ul>‘ A’ is the correct answer. ‘B’ describes the contiguity principle.
  18. 18. #2 A. Explain why this worksheet would make it difficult for a student to learn the names and locations of states for the first time? B. Describe and/or sketch a better way to help students learn the 50 states. www.graphicmaps.com
  19. 19. #2 A. Explain why this worksheet would make it difficult for a student to learn the names and locations of states for the first time? B. Describe and/or sketch a better way to help students learn the 50 states. www.graphicmaps.com A. The worksheet does not follow the contiguity principle. The image of the state is separated from its name after the worksheet is complete. This would be a better “quiz” sheet. B. The map of the U.S. should be larger with room for students to write the name inside of the state’s boundaries.
  20. 20. http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #3 Explain why this image is a model of the multimedia principle. A Lean Manufacturing Timeline
  21. 21. http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #3 Explain why this image is a model of the multimedia principle. A Lean Manufacturing Timeline The timeline illustrates change over time making it a transformational image. The student can easily correlate the event with the time it occurred and compare its placement in relation to other events.
  22. 22. http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #4 Explain why this image is not a model of the contiguity principle. A Lean Manufacturing Timeline
  23. 23. http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/horacemann/Teched/Lean_Production_history.htm #4 Explain why this image is not a model of the contiguity principle. A Lean Manufacturing Timeline The images are not place near the event or person they represent.

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