Basic radio communication & operation


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Basic radio communication & operation

  1. 1. COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS & RADIO COMMUNICATION: Radio equipment is often taken for granted since it is now so common. However, the development of radio links between dispatcher, mobile units, and hospitals has been one of the key contributors to improvement in EMS over the year. Imagine if you had to call the dispatcher by phone every few minute to see if there is a call, hospitals would be unable to prepare for the arrival of patients, as they do now.
  2. 2. COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM: There are several components to any radio or communications system. BASE STATIONS are two way radios that are at a fixed site such as hospital or dispatch center.
  3. 3. MOBILE RADIOS are two way radios that are used or affixed in a vehicle. Most units are actually mounted inside the vehicle. These devices have lower transmitting power than the base.
  4. 4. PORTABLE RADIOS are hand held two way radios. This type of radio is important because it will allow you to be in touch with the dispatcher, medical director, and with other member of the EMS system while you’re away from the ambulance.
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OTHER COMPONENTS: • LANDLINE conventional telephone that utilize telephone wire as means for travel of signal.
  6. 6. • REPEATERS are devices that are used when transmissions must be carried over a long distance. Repeaters may be in ambulance/mobile or placed in various areas around EMS system. The repeater pick up signals from lower power unit, such as mobile and portable radios and retransmits them at a higher power. The retransmission is done on another frequency.
  7. 7. • CELLULAR PHONE are phones that transmit through the air instead of over wire so that the phone can be transported and used over a wide area. These devices are becoming more widely available and popular around the country. In many areas where the distance of expense is too great to set a conventional EMS communications through already establish commercial system.
  8. 8. OTHER DEVICES Global Positioning System (GPS) Automated Vehicle Locator System (AVLS) Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) Intergraded Radio Dispatch System (IRDS) Global Positioning System (GPS)
  9. 9. Automated Vehicle Locator System (AVLS) Automatic vehicle location (AVL or ~locating; telelocating in EU) is a means for automatically determining and transmitting the geographic location of a vehicle. This data, from one or more vehicles, may then be collected by a vehicle tracking system for a picture of vehicle travel. Most commonly, the location is determined using GPS, and the transmission mechanism is SMS, GPRS, a satellite or terrestrial radio from the vehicle to a radio receiver. GSM and EVDO are the most common services applied, because of the low data rate needed for AVL, and the low cost and near-ubiquitous nature of these public networks. The low bandwidth requirements also allow for satellite technology to receive telemetry data at a moderately higher cost, but across a global coverage area and into very remote locations not covered well by terrestrial radio or public carriers. Other options for determining actual location, for example in environments where GPS illumination is poor, are dead reckoning, i.e. inertial navigation, or active RFID systems or cooperative RTLS systems. With advantage, combinations of these systems may be applied. In addition, terrestrial radio positioning systems utilizing an LF (Low Frequency) switched packet radio network were also used as an alternative to GPS based systems.
  10. 10. Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) Computer-assisted dispatch, also called Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD), is a method of dispatching taxicabs, couriers, field service technicians, mass transit vehicles or emergency services assisted by computer. It can either be used to send messages to the dispatchee via a mobile data terminal (MDT) and/or used to store and retrieve data (i.e. radio logs, field interviews, client information, schedules, etc.). A dispatcher may announce the call details to field units over a two-way radio. Some systems communicate using a two-way radio system's selective calling features. CAD systems may send text messages with call-for-service details to alphanumeric pagers or wireless telephony text services like SMS. The central idea is that persons in a dispatch center are able to easily view and understand the status of all units being dispatched. CAD provides displays and tools so that the dispatcher has an opportunity to handle calls-for-service as efficiently as possible.
  11. 11. Intergraded Radio Dispatch System (IRDS)
  12. 12. RADIO RULES: The very first thing, which a radio operator does before transmitting, is to monitor. It is important that all operators should enter into any channel or frequency properly. A radio user should strictly follow these procedures: • Make sure that your radio is on and the volume is adjusted properly. • Listen first & get a good idea of what is going on in the frequency. • If there’s a modulator or a modulation going on, wait until it ends before entering in the frequency. SHOW SOME ETHICS- If you have some comment or you have an idea regarding the topic being aired, enter properly you may PATCH UP or SHORT BRAKE ENTERAPT.
  13. 13. • PRESS FIRST BEFORE TALKING Press the “press to talk” (PTT) button on the radio, then wait 1-2 second before speaking. This prevents cutting of the first few words of your massage. • Speak slowly and clearly • In a controlled frequency: Do not go on automatic, look for the control and ask permission. Shout for the control for three times (3X) follow by your call sign, if no contact you can go on automatic. - Shout for the unit identification then follow by your call sign for 3x only, if no response! The other party may be busy or not on monitor, try again later, to give way to other radio user. NO NEED TO BREAK, IF THERES NOTHING TO BREAK
  14. 14. • After every modulation, clear the frequency by saying “air clear” or “frequency clear”, for a control channel turn the channel back to the control or say “control, back to you” or “control, take it back” • In case of emergency ”break-break” or “double Break” follow by your call sign if modulation is going on, if not direct your emergency situation to the control.
  15. 15. PROPER MODULATION • Avoid unnecessary modulation, only official message or report shall be transmitted, to give way for more important one • Greet every one “Good Morning, Good Afternoon, or Good Evening” if its there time to drop by for the day. • Address everyone mam/sir, regardless of gender not of rank to show courtesy. • Think first of the message before transmitting, to avoid the use of “aaaaaah”. • Be brief with your massage.
  16. 16. • Give at least 2-3 second gap or pause after every transmission. This will allow emergency breaker & or weak signal breaker to enter the channel or frequency. • Speak slowly and clearly. • Speak with your lips about two 2-3 inches from the microphone. • When transmitting a number that might be unclear (15 may sound like 16 or 50). Give the number, and then repeat the individual digits. Say “15, one-five”. • Affirmative & negative are preferred over “yes & no”. • After transmitting say “over”. • Avoid codes, slang or abbreviations that are not authorized.
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