Ch 16

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Ch 16

  1. 1. A+ Guide to Managing andMaintaining Your PC, 7eChapter 16Fixing Windows Problems
  2. 2. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 2Objectives• Learn what to do when a hardware device,application, or Windows component gives a problem• Learn what to do when Windows Vista/7 won’t bootor boots with errors• Learn strategies that you can use to solve problemswith Windows 2000/XP startup
  3. 3. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 3Fixing Problems Caused By Hardware• Steps to determine device causing a problem– Research any error messages– Use the Vista/7 Problem Reports and Solutionswindow or the XP Error Reporting window– Check logs in Event Viewer– Check the Reliability and Performance Monitor– Consider recent changes
  4. 4. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 4
  5. 5. Fixing Problems Caused By Hardware(cont’d.)• Steps to discover the problem source– Check simple things first– Ensure Device Manager recognizes device with noerrors or warnings– Verify BIOS setup recognizes device with no errorsA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 5
  6. 6. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 6Fixing Problems Caused By Hardware(cont’d.)• Solving a problem with a device driver or service– Update device drivers– Update Windows– Try moving device to a different port or connector– Try reinstalling device– Try moving device to a different computer– Use System Restore
  7. 7. Fixing Problems Caused By Hardware(cont’d.)• Solving a problem with a device driver or service(cont’d.)– Check manufacturer’s documentation– Search the Internet for help– Boot into Safe Mode– Use System File Checker– Consider application using the device– Replace deviceA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 7
  8. 8. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 8Fixing Problems Caused ByApplications• Steps to find the problem source and fix it– Interview user and back up data– Ask user to reproduce problem while you watch– Use Task Manager to end a process not responding– Try a reboot– Suspect a virus causing a problem– Allow Windows to provide a solution
  9. 9. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 9Fixing Problems Caused ByApplications (cont’d.)• Steps to find the problem source and fix it (cont’d.)– Windows update might solve the problem– Download updates or patches for the application– Use the application setup to repair the installation– Consider data corruption– Try restoring default settings– Uninstall and reinstall application– Use System Restore
  10. 10. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 10Fixing Problems Caused ByApplications (cont’d.)• Steps to take if application never worked– Run application as administrator– Install application as administrator– Consider whether an older application havingcompatibility problems with Vista/7• Windows Vista/7 Compatibility Center• Try running application in compatibility mode– Verify application digitally signed
  11. 11. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 11Fixing Problems Caused ByApplications (cont’d.)• Considerations to determine if problem is caused byother applications, services, Windows, or hardware– Another application might be interfering– Use the Services console– Might be low on system resources– Verify Windows system files– Problem might be bad memory– Use Event Viewer to look for clues
  12. 12. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 12Fixing Problems Caused ByApplications (cont’d.)• Considerations to determine if problem is caused byother applications, services, Windows, or hardware(cont’d.)– Use the Reliability Monitor to look for clues– Use the Chkdsk command to check hard drive– Run application in Safe Mode with Networking
  13. 13. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 13Troubleshooting Vista/7 Startup• Three startup stages of the boot– Stage 1: Before the progress bar– Stage 2: After the progress bar and before logon– Stage 3: After logon
  14. 14. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears• Check with user– Verify important data location– Verify data backed up• Attempt to copy data to safe location if possible• Progress bar not showing– Portions of Vista/7 kernel, critical drivers, and servicesnot yet started• Indicates problem with hardware or startup files• Failing hardware may include: power supply,motherboard, CPU, memory, hard drive, video, orkeyboardA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 14
  15. 15. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Is the screen blank?– Absolutely nothing on the screen• Verify system power, monitor is plugged in and on– Suspect no power to system• Verify system not in standby mode or hibernation– Monitor totally without lights• Check monitor power– Monitor LED light lit• Reboot, check monitor power, and that it is on– Trade monitor for a good oneA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 15
  16. 16. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 16Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Does the computer appear to have power?– Can’t hear spinning drive or see lights on case front• Suspect electrical system• Check power connections and switches• May have bad power supply• Loose connections inside case
  17. 17. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 17Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Does an error message appear before Vista/7starts?– BIOS displays error message on-screen if problems• Uses beeps if video not working– On-screen messages for nonessential hardware• Try to bypass error by pressing a key and movingforward in the boot– On-screen messages for essential hardware• Focus attention on the error message, beep code, andvoice message describing problem
  18. 18. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can startup BIOS access the hard drive?– Possible messages• Hard drive not found• Fixed disk error• Disk boot failure, insert system disk and press enter• No boot device available– Check for physical problem• Drive, data cable, power, motherboard– Verify BIOS detected drive correctly• Turn on autodetection and reboot– Power down system, unplug it, and physically inspectA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 18
  19. 19. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can startup BIOS access the hard drive? (cont’d.)– BIOS found hard drive, but could not read drive or findwhat it needed• Invalid boot disk• Invalid drive specification• Invalid partition table• No operating system found, missing operating system,or error loading operating system• Could not find bootmgr or bootmgr missing– Boot from Windows setup files (DVD or SS drive)A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 19
  20. 20. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 20Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Use BIOS setup to set the boot sequence– Access BIOS setup utility– Find screen to change boot sequence– Make sure DVD drive listed before hard drive• Force system to boot from Windows Vista/7 setup DVD– Save settings and exit BIOS setup
  21. 21. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 21Figure 16-11 Verify that the boot sequence looks to the DVDdrive before it checks the hard drive for an operating systemCourtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  22. 22. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 22Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can you boot from the Vista/7 setup DVD?– If not then study error messages, and solveimmediate hardware problem• Hard drive and optical drive might have failed• Try floppy drive with DOS or Windows 9x floppy disk• Successful boot from floppy indicates problem with boththe hard drive and DVD drive– If able to boot from Vista/7 DVD• Windows logon screen appears• Problem isolated to the hard drive
  23. 23. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 23Figure 16-12 Select your language preferenceCourtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  24. 24. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 24Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can Windows Recovery Environment find theVista/7 installation?– Launch Windows RE• Windows RE attempts to locate Vista/7 installation onthe hard drive– If Windows RE cannot locate the installation, butBIOS setup recognizes the drive• Drive partitions and file systems might be corrupted– If Windows RE does locate the installation• Problem likely limited to corrupted or missing systemfiles or drivers– Attempt fixes: restart system after each step
  25. 25. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can Windows RE find the Vista/7 installation?(cont’d.)– Run Startup Repair• Sometimes fixes drastic problems with system files,boot records– Run System Restore• Process won’t help if file system corrupted– Restart system and launch Advanced Boot Optionsmenu• No boot menu: problem may be corrupted boot sector• Boot menu appears: probable BCD file or other startupfile problemA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 25
  26. 26. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 26Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can Windows RE find the Vista/7 installation?(cont’d.)– Restart system, launch Advanced Boot Options menu(cont’d.)• If boot menu appears: enable boot logging and reboot• Check boot log (Windowsntbtlog.txt) for the last entry• Might indicate which system file missing or corrupt– If boot menu does not appear:• Return to Windows RE, launch command promptwindow, and attempt to repair boot sector• use Bootrec.exe on Win7/Vista/7
  27. 27. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 27Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can Windows RE find the Vista/7 installation?(cont’d.)– If boot menu does appear:• Return to Windows RE, launch command promptwindow, and attempt to repair the BCD file– Try to repair corrupted file system• Use command prompt window and chkdsk c: /rcommand– When startup files missing or corrupt• Vista/7 may display an error message
  28. 28. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 28Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Can Windows RE find the Vista/7 installation?(cont’d.)– Use command prompt window to access drive C• Get to C prompt: use DIR command to list folders andfiles• Good list: check log file for clues• Not a good list: most likely Vista/7 installation destroyedbeyond repair• Make every effort to copy data to another media
  29. 29. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Options to recover from a corrupted Vista/7installation– Option 1: Complete PC backup available• Restore system to last backup– Option 2: Complete PC backup not available and databackups available on hard drive• Install Windows Vista/7, format hard drive duringinstallation, install all applications again, restore data– Option 3: Complete PC backup and data backup notavailable• Try to copy data to removable device and reinstallWindows Vista/7A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 29
  30. 30. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Steps to reinstall Windows Vista/7 when OS refusesto boot and important data on the drive– Boot from Vista/7 DVD, select language, select Installnow from opening menu• Follow directions on-screen to install the OS– Enter product key and accept license agreement• Select Custom (advanced) installation– When asked where to install the OS select partitionon which Vista/7 installedA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 30
  31. 31. Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Steps to reinstall Windows Vista/7 (cont’d.)– Vista/7 setup moves old installation folders intoWindows.Old folder– Clean Vista/7 installation goes in the Windows folder– Suspect hard drive failing• Copy all data and reinstall Vista/7 again– Healthy hard drive• Run Chkdsk to fix errors• Install all applications and device drivers• Create all user accounts and customize Vista/7 settings• Delete the Windows.Old folderA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 31
  32. 32. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 32Figure 16-16 Free up disk space by deleting the Windows.Old folderCourtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  33. 33. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 33Problems at Stage 1: Before theProgress Bar Appears (cont’d.)• Reinstall Vista/7 on a laptop or trusted computer– Use hidden partition on hard drive to recover theWindows installation• During startup, press appropriate key for access– Menu should appear with two options:• One option repairs the Windows installation, savinguser data• Other options reformats drive C and restores system topurchased setup– If neither method works use recovery CD or DVD
  34. 34. Problems at Stage 2: After the Progress BarAppears and Before Logon• Microsoft progress bar appears during the boot– Windows kernel loaded successfully– Critical drivers and services configured to be startedby the kernel running– Session Manager (Smss.exe) running in user modestarted the Win32 subsystem– If logon screen not displayed:• Probable corrupted driver or service started after kernelfinished its part of the boot• Fix by isolating and disabling Windows component,service, or application causing troubleA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 34
  35. 35. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 35Problems at Stage 2: After the Progress BarAppears and Before Logon• Back up data before focusing on the problem• Follow these steps:– Launch Windows RE from Vista/7 setup DVD• Run Startup Repair from Recovery Environment menu– Reboot, launch the Advanced Boot Options menu• Select the Last Known Good Configuration– In Windows RE, run System Restore
  36. 36. Problems at Stage 2: After the Progress BarAppears and Before Logon• Steps (cont’d.)– Try booting into Safe Mode• Immediately run antivirus software• Run Chkdsk c: /r• Examine all logs in Event Viewer• Use Software Explorer, MSconfig to stop applicationsjust installed, then uninstall and reinstall• Use Device Manager to check for hardware errors• Use the System File Checker (SFC) tool• Rename the WindowsNtbtlog.txt fileA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 36
  37. 37. Problems at Stage 2: After the Progress BarAppears and Before Logon• Steps (cont’d.)– Boot to the Advanced Boot Options menu and selectEnable Boot Logging– Compare the Ntbtlog.txt file to the one created in SafeMode– Easiest way to view the logs is to boot into Safe Modeand view the files with Notepad– Problem service or device identified• Boot into Safe Mode and use Device Manager todisable• Use Services console to disableA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 37
  38. 38. Problems at Stage 3: After WindowsLogon• Problems caused by applications or servicesconfigured to launch at startup– Shortcuts in startup folders, Scheduled Tasks, orsoftware installation processes affecting registryentries– Error message at startup• Disable program using MSconfigA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 38
  39. 39. How to Recover Lost Data• Use Windows tools, third party software, orcommercial data recovery services• Recovering a deleted or corrupted data file– Look in the Recycle Bin– Use the Recover command– Use application manufacturer’s web site– Find third party software• Undelete Plus http://undeleteplus.com• Recuva http://www.piriform.com/recuva• PC Inspector File Recovery www.pcinspector.deA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 39
  40. 40. How to Recover Lost Data (cont’d.)• Recover data from a computer that will not boot– Remove hard drive and install as a secondnonbooting hard drive in another system– Use IDE to USB or a SATA to USB converter kit• Temporarily connect hard drive to a USB port on aworking computer• Browse drive and copy data using Windows Explorer• Use a data recovery service– research “data recovery” on web• Read up on reviews, understand warranty andguarantees, and get a recommendationA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 40
  41. 41. Troubleshooting Windows 2000/XPStartup• Steps:– Talk to the user• Recent changes, conditions right before error, newhardware or software, data backup location– Important data not backed up• Make every effort to copy data to another media beforeworking on the Windows problem– Determine point in the boot where system fails– For problems related to hardware check simple thingsfirstA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 41
  42. 42. Troubleshooting Windows 2000/XPStartup (cont’d.)• Steps (cont’d.)– Error message displayed on-screen• Start by addressing it– Problem software related and cannot boot to desktop• Boot to the Advanced Options menu• Select the Last Known Good Configuration– Can boot load Windows desktop• If system giving many errors or is extremely slow,suspect a virus and run antivirus softwareA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 42
  43. 43. Summary• Solve Windows problems by using strategies andtechniques– Diagnosing a Windows problem• Problems involve hardware, applications, and Windows• Problems occur after the boot with hardware orsoftware• Problems occur during the boot– Determining the best tool for each situation– Solving Windows Vista/7 boot problems• Different from solving Windows XP/2000 boot issuesA+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 43

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