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The Environment and your Health

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  • Transcript

    • 1. The Environment and Your Health Chapter Sixteen
    • 2. The Environment
      • Range of conditions that can influence your health:
        • Availability of resources
        • Physical conditions
          • Temperature
          • Humidity
          • Toxins
          • Allergens
          • Pathogens
          • Noise
          • Radiation
        • Other organisms
    • 3. Environmental Problems and Solutions
    • 4. Personal Environment
      • Home
      • Neighborhood
      • Workplace
      • Health concerns of personal environment:
        • Indoor air quality
        • Drinking water
        • Endocrine disrupters
        • Noise
    • 5. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks
      • Carbon monoxide
        • Odorless, colorless byproduct of combustion
        • Effects range from mild discomfort to death
        • Keep appliances in working order
        • Install a carbon monoxide detector
      • Volatile organic compounds (paint, paint stripper, solvents)
        • Effects range from eye irritation in the short term to organ and nerve damage in the long term
        • Minimize use of products
        • Use and dispose of properly
    • 6. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks (cont.)
      • Tobacco smoke
        • Increases risk for respiratory problems and cancer
        • Reduce exposure
      • Asbestos (building material)
        • Minerals with a fibrous crystal structure
        • Causes lung damage and cancer if inhaled
        • Leave undamaged asbestos-containing materials alone
        • Hire qualified professional to remove damaged asbestos
    • 7. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks (cont.)
      • Lead
        • Toxic metal used in house paint, as gasoline additive, in plumbing solder
        • Causes organ damage, delayed physical and mental development, and death
        • Replace lead-based paints and test tap water in older houses
      • Biological pollutants (bacteria, molds, mildew, viruses, dust mites, plant pollen and other allergens)
        • Minimize exposure through cleaning, vacuuming, pest control, and other strategies
    • 8. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks (cont.)
      • Radon
        • Naturally occurring radioactive gas emitted during uranium decay in soil, rock, water
        • Causes lung cancer
        • Test homes and install a radon reduction system if needed
      • Nonionizing (electromagnetic) radiation
        • Cannot break chemical bonds but may excite electrons or heat biological materials (e.g., microwave)
        • Effects still under study
    • 9. Drinking Water
      • Source of water supply
        • Safety of drinking water is affected by environmental factors in home and community
        • Water supply is typically from ground water (rural) or river/lakes (urban)
      • Drinking water contaminants
        • Agricultural fertilizers
        • Pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, viruses
        • Lead, copper, PVC from pipes
      • Taking action
        • Flush water through plumbing
        • Have water tested and take any needed action
    • 10. Endocrine Disrupters
      • Dangerous pollutants
        • Dioxin, PCBs, DT
      • Pesticides
      • Herbicides
      • Antiseptics
      • Chemicals used in manufacturing plastics
        • Phthalates, bisphenol A
      • Teflon
    • 11. Noise
      • Defined as any undesirable sound
      • Health effects are dependent upon intensity, frequency, and nature of the noise
        • Anxiety, frustration
        • Inability to concentrate, reduced productivity
        • Anger, stress
        • Long-term hearing loss can occur at noise levels at 120 decibels for over 2 hours
    • 12. The Community and Regional Environment
      • Air pollution
      • Water pollution
      • Land pollution
      • Loss of green space
      • Ionizing radiation
    • 13. Air Pollution
      • Sources
        • Internal combustion engines
        • Oil refineries, chemical production
      • Health effects
        • Carbon monoxide
          • Impaired respiration
        • Nitrogen and sulfur oxides
          • Lung tissue damage
          • Respiratory effects
        • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
          • Cancer
          • Fetal effects
    • 14. Air Pollution (cont.)
        • Tropospheric ozone (“smog”)
          • Lung damage
          • Reduced lung capacity
          • Respiratory distress
        • Air toxics
          • Cancer
          • Reduced fertility, birth defects
      • Taking Action
        • Check information on local air quality
          • Avoid outdoor activities during alerts
        • Limit personal contribution
    • 15. Exposure to Unhealthy Air
    • 16. Water Pollution
      • Sources
        • Point sources (e.g., sewer overflow)
        • Urban and agricultural runoff
      • Types
        • Biological water pollutants
          • Disease-causing organisms from human or animal sewage
        • Toxic pollutants
          • Naturally occurring elements
          • Industrial and agricultural activities
    • 17. Water Pollution (cont.)
      • Health effects
        • Biological pollutants cause diarrhea, hepatitis, cholera, and other diseases
        • Toxic chemicals cause cancer, organ damage, infertility, and birth defects
      • Taking action
        • Read annual water quality reports for your area
        • Avoid eating contaminated fish
        • Pay attention to “don’t swim” warnings
    • 18. Land Pollution
      • Sources
        • Municipal solid waste
        • Sewage sludge
      • Disposal
        • Sanitary landfill
        • Incineration
      • Taking action—Three Rs:
        • R educe
        • R euse
        • R ecycle
    • 19. Loss of Green Space
      • Urban development
        • Increases commute time
        • Decreases physical activity, increases rates of overweight/obesity
        • Reduces quality of life
    • 20. Ionizing Radiation
      • Sources
        • Medical X-rays
        • Naturally occurring radioactive minerals
        • Nuclear reactors and waste products
        • Nuclear bomb explosions
      • Health Effects
        • Organ damage
        • Birth defects
        • Cancer
        • Death
      • Challenge of nuclear waste disposal
    • 21. The Global Environment
      • Atmosphere, oceans, continental land masses, and all living organisms that exist on Earth
      • Concerns
        • Human population explosion
        • Global climate change
        • Stratospheric ozone depletion
        • Loss of natural habitats and species extinction
    • 22. Human Population Growth
      • Effects
        • Resource depletion and starvation
        • Habitat destruction
        • Political tensions, terrorism, and war (competition for limited resources)
      • Reducing population growth
        • Increase infant survival
        • Provide education opportunities for girls
        • Provide universal access to birth control
    • 23. Human Population Growth
    • 24. Global Climate Change
      • Greenhouse gases
        • Trap heat radiated from the earth; increase global temperature
        • Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone, water vapor
      • Effects of climate change
        • Coastal flooding
        • Increased frequency and severity of destructive weather events
        • Expanded range of disease-carrying insects
        • Decreased air and water quality
        • Decreased food availability
    • 25. Global Climate Change (cont.)
      • Taking action
        • Conserve electricity
        • Drive fuel-efficient vehicles
        • Use mass transit
        • Reduce, reuse, recycle
        • Purchase energy-efficient appliances
        • Vote, volunteer
    • 26. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
      • Ozone layer of upper atmosphere protects surface of Earth from harmful UV radiation
      • Causes of depletion
        • Human-made air pollutants, especially CFCs
      • Effects
        • Skin cancer, cataracts, weakened immunity, reduced crop yields
      • Taking action
        • Have refrigerators and air-conditioning systems serviced by licensed technicians who can properly dispose of old CFCs
    • 27. Loss of Habitat and Species Extinction
      • Causes
        • Population growth
        • New technologies
      • Health effects
        • Loss of genetic diversity and possible drug treatments
        • Degradation of overall environment and its ability to support life
        • Lessened emotional, psychological, and spiritual well-being
      • Taking action
        • Conserve energy
        • Reduce, reuse, recycle
        • “ Buy green”
    • 28. The Environment and Your Health Chapter Sixteen