The Environment and your Health

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  • The Environment and your Health

    1. 1. The Environment and Your Health Chapter Sixteen
    2. 2. The Environment <ul><li>Range of conditions that can influence your health: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allergens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other organisms </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Environmental Problems and Solutions
    4. 4. Personal Environment <ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Health concerns of personal environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor air quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine disrupters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks <ul><li>Carbon monoxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odorless, colorless byproduct of combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects range from mild discomfort to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep appliances in working order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install a carbon monoxide detector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volatile organic compounds (paint, paint stripper, solvents) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects range from eye irritation in the short term to organ and nerve damage in the long term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize use of products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use and dispose of properly </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks (cont.) <ul><li>Tobacco smoke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases risk for respiratory problems and cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asbestos (building material) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals with a fibrous crystal structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes lung damage and cancer if inhaled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave undamaged asbestos-containing materials alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire qualified professional to remove damaged asbestos </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks (cont.) <ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic metal used in house paint, as gasoline additive, in plumbing solder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes organ damage, delayed physical and mental development, and death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace lead-based paints and test tap water in older houses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological pollutants (bacteria, molds, mildew, viruses, dust mites, plant pollen and other allergens) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize exposure through cleaning, vacuuming, pest control, and other strategies </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Indoor Air Quality: Health Risks (cont.) <ul><li>Radon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally occurring radioactive gas emitted during uranium decay in soil, rock, water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes lung cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test homes and install a radon reduction system if needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonionizing (electromagnetic) radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot break chemical bonds but may excite electrons or heat biological materials (e.g., microwave) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects still under study </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Drinking Water <ul><li>Source of water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety of drinking water is affected by environmental factors in home and community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply is typically from ground water (rural) or river/lakes (urban) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drinking water contaminants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead, copper, PVC from pipes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush water through plumbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have water tested and take any needed action </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Endocrine Disrupters <ul><li>Dangerous pollutants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dioxin, PCBs, DT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Antiseptics </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals used in manufacturing plastics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phthalates, bisphenol A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teflon </li></ul>
    11. 11. Noise <ul><li>Defined as any undesirable sound </li></ul><ul><li>Health effects are dependent upon intensity, frequency, and nature of the noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety, frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to concentrate, reduced productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger, stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term hearing loss can occur at noise levels at 120 decibels for over 2 hours </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The Community and Regional Environment <ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Land pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of green space </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing radiation </li></ul>
    13. 13. Air Pollution <ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal combustion engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil refineries, chemical production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen and sulfur oxides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lung tissue damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal effects </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Air Pollution (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Tropospheric ozone (“smog”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lung damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced lung capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory distress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air toxics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced fertility, birth defects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check information on local air quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid outdoor activities during alerts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit personal contribution </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Exposure to Unhealthy Air
    16. 16. Water Pollution <ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point sources (e.g., sewer overflow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban and agricultural runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological water pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease-causing organisms from human or animal sewage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally occurring elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial and agricultural activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Water Pollution (cont.) <ul><li>Health effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological pollutants cause diarrhea, hepatitis, cholera, and other diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic chemicals cause cancer, organ damage, infertility, and birth defects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read annual water quality reports for your area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid eating contaminated fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay attention to “don’t swim” warnings </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Land Pollution <ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal solid waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage sludge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitary landfill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incineration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking action—Three Rs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R educe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R euse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ecycle </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Loss of Green Space <ul><li>Urban development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases commute time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases physical activity, increases rates of overweight/obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces quality of life </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Ionizing Radiation <ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical X-rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally occurring radioactive minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear reactors and waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear bomb explosions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge of nuclear waste disposal </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Global Environment <ul><li>Atmosphere, oceans, continental land masses, and all living organisms that exist on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human population explosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratospheric ozone depletion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of natural habitats and species extinction </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Human Population Growth <ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource depletion and starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political tensions, terrorism, and war (competition for limited resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reducing population growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase infant survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide education opportunities for girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide universal access to birth control </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Human Population Growth
    24. 24. Global Climate Change <ul><li>Greenhouse gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap heat radiated from the earth; increase global temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone, water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased frequency and severity of destructive weather events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded range of disease-carrying insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased air and water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased food availability </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Global Climate Change (cont.) <ul><li>Taking action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive fuel-efficient vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use mass transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce, reuse, recycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase energy-efficient appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote, volunteer </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion <ul><li>Ozone layer of upper atmosphere protects surface of Earth from harmful UV radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of depletion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-made air pollutants, especially CFCs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin cancer, cataracts, weakened immunity, reduced crop yields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have refrigerators and air-conditioning systems serviced by licensed technicians who can properly dispose of old CFCs </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Loss of Habitat and Species Extinction <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of genetic diversity and possible drug treatments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degradation of overall environment and its ability to support life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessened emotional, psychological, and spiritual well-being </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce, reuse, recycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Buy green” </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. The Environment and Your Health Chapter Sixteen

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