Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Rejecting Tobacco
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Rejecting Tobacco

3,794

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,794
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
143
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Image sources: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Christopher Kerrigan, photographer Royalty-Free/Corbis The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Gary He, photographer
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter Eight Rejecting Tobacco Use
    • 2. Cigarette Smoking among College Students
      • College smoking trending upwards
        • Smoking among college students decreased from 1964 to 1995 (from 21% to 14%)
        • Current rates of smoking among college students:
          • 30.6% of full-time students
          • 42.7% of part-time students
        • Current rates of smoking among general population:
          • Men: 23.9%
          • Women: 18.1%
        • Direct relationship between alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking
    • 3. Demographic Trends in Smoking
      • Gender
        • Men have higher rates of smoking than women
      • Race/ethnicity
        • Highest smoking rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives
        • Lowest smoking rates among Asian Americans
      • Level of education
        • Higher levels of education are associated with lower rates of smoking
      • Age
        • Smoking rates go down as age goes up
      • Geographic residence
        • Highest smoking rates in Midwest
        • Lowest smoking rates in West
    • 4. Demographic Trends in Smoking
      • Size of the community
        • Large metropolitan areas have lowest smoking rate
      • Employment status
        • Highest rate of smoking among unemployed
      • Recent homelessness or incarceration
        • Higher rates
      • Place of birth
        • Native-born Americans have higher rates of smoking than foreign-born Americans
    • 5. Marketing of Tobacco Products
      • Controversy about advertising due to industry’s knowledge of the health risks
      • Restrictions on marketing of all tobacco products, BUT
        • Magazine advertising has increased
          • Especially in magazines with 15% or more youth readership
        • Free distribution of cigarettes in bars and restaurants
        • Luring teens through anti-smoking ads
    • 6. Development of Dependence
      • Dependence: Physical and/or psychological need to continue the use of nicotine
      • Physical dependence
        • Tolerance
        • Withdrawal
        • Titration
          • Particular level of a drug within the body
          • Adjusting the level of nicotine by adjusting the rate of smoking
    • 7. Theories of Nicotine Addiction
      • Genetic influences
        • 60% of initiation and maintenance of initial smoking is driven by genetic influences
      • Bolus theory
        • Based on body’s response to the bolus (ball) of nicotine delivered to the brain
      • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) theory
        • Release of beta endorphins delivers euphoric effect
      • Self-medication theory
        • Nicotine, through effects on dopamine, “lifts spirits”
    • 8. Psychosocial Factors Related to Dependence
      • Modeling behavior
      • Manipulation
      • Susceptibility to advertising
        • Use of tobacco products associated with a better life
      • Once smoking is initiated, dependence becomes a key factor in use
    • 9. Prevention and Intervention
      • Early childhood intervention
        • Decision making skills
        • Critical thinking and refusal skills
        • Support for smoke-free environments
    • 10. Tobacco Smoke
      • Particulate phase (small suspended particles)
        • Nicotine
        • Water
        • Tar
          • Phenol, benzo[a]pyrene, DDT, and many other chemicals
      • Gaseous phase
        • Carbon monoxide
        • Carcinogens
    • 11. Health Risks of Tobacco Use
    • 12. Illness, Premature Death, and Tobacco Use
      • Cardiovascular disease and nicotine
        • Myocardial infarction
        • Sudden cardiac death
        • Angina pectoris
        • Increased platelet adhesiveness
        • Unhealthy cholesterol changes
      • Cardiovascular disease and carbon monoxide
        • Impairment of oxygen transport
      • Smoking and oral contraceptive (OC) use
        • Linked to clots and heart attacks
        • Women who smoke should NOT use OCs
    • 13. Illness, Premature Death, and Tobacco Use
      • Cancer
        • Respiratory tract cancers (lung, mouth, larynx
          • Damage to the respiratory lining (mucus, cilia) brings carcinogens into direct contact with tissues
        • Other tobacco-enhanced cancers
          • Kidney
          • Gastrointestinal system
    • 14. Development of Lung Cancer
    • 15. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
      • Chronic bronchitis
        • Persistent inflammation or infection of the smaller airways within the lungs
      • Pulmonary emphysema
        • Irreversible disease process in which the alveoli are destroyed
      • Significant impact on quality of life
    • 16. Additional Health Concerns
      • Poor nutritional state
      • Reduced insulin sensitivity
      • Decline in short-term memory
      • Loss of senses of smell and hearing
      • Premature wrinkling of the skin
      • Stroke
      • Loss of bone mass
      • Impaired recovery from surgery
      • Gum disease
      • Impaired resistance to infection
      • Asthma
      • Infertility
      • Impotence
      • Earlier menopause
      • Poor circulation
      • Burns
    • 17. Risks from Specific Tobacco Products
      • Nonmanufactured cigarettes
        • Roll-your-own
        • Bidis
        • Kreteks
      • Mentholated cigarettes
      • Pipes
      • Cigars
      • Smokeless tobacco
    • 18. Nonmanufactured Forms of Cigarettes
      • Roll-your-own
        • More affordable
        • Equal risk
      • Bidis
        • High in tar and nicotine
        • High level of carbon monoxide
      • Kreteks (clove-flavored tobacco)
        • Increased tar and nicotine delivery
    • 19. Mentholated Cigarettes
      • Menthol
        • Unique taste and “cooling” sensation
      • Heavily marketed to African American smokers
      • Special health risks still under investigation
    • 20. Pipe and Cigar Smoking
      • Pipe/cigar smokers have the same rates of cancer as cigarette smokers:
        • Mouth
        • Larynx
        • Throat
        • Esophagus
      • Cigar manufacturers are now required to disclose tobacco content and additives
      • Warning labels required
    • 21. Smokeless Tobacco Use
      • Types
        • Chewing tobacco
        • Snuff
      • Risks associated with use
        • Leukoplakia
        • Erythroplakia
        • Periodontal disease
        • Oral cancer
        • Nicotine addiction
        • Other health risks
    • 22. Smoking and Reproduction
      • Infertility
      • Increased risk of ectopic pregnancy
      • Problem pregnancies
      • Breast-feeding
        • Exposes infants to harmful effects and chemicals
      • Neonatal health problems
        • Low birth weight
        • Respiratory problems
        • Higher risk of SIDS
    • 23. Involuntary (Passive) Smoking
      • Mainstream smoke
        • Smoke inhaled and then exhaled by smoker
      • Sidestream smoke
        • Smoke from the burning end of the cigarette, pipe, or cigar
        • Contains 85% of harmful substances associated with secondhand smoke
      • Environmental tobacco smoke
        • Diluted smoke that stays within a common source of air
    • 24. Health Risks of Passive Smoking
      • Heart disease
      • Cancer
      • Eye irritation
      • Nasal symptoms
      • Headaches
      • Cough
      • In children:
        • Bronchitis or pneumonia
        • Respiratory symptoms
        • Middle ear infections
    • 25. Cost of Smoking
      • 440,000 deaths/year
      • $150 billion/year in health-related expenditures
      • Reduced life expectancy
      • Loss of independence, freedom, and social contacts due to addiction
    • 26. The Health Benefits of Quitting
    • 27. Smoking Cessation
      • Programs
        • Education
        • Behavior modification
        • Aversive conditioning
        • Hypnosis
        • Acupuncture
    • 28. Smoking Cessation
      • Nicotine substitution products
        • Chewing gum
        • Patch
        • Inhaler
        • Spray
      • Neurotransmitter-based prescription medications
        • Bupropion (Zyban)
        • Varenicline (Chantix)
    • 29. Chapter Eight: Rejecting Tobacco Use

    ×