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Reducing your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
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Reducing your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

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    • 1. Chapter Nine Enhancing Your Cardiovascular Health
    • 2. Cardiovascular Disease
      • Cardiovascular
        • Pertaining to the heart ( cardio ) and the blood vessels ( vasculara )
      • Estimated Prevalence of Major Cardiovascular Diseases
      • Hypertension 72,000,000
      • Coronary heart disease 15,800,000
      • Stroke 5,700,000
      • Congestive heart failure 5,200,000
      • Congenital heart disease 1,300,000
    • 3. The Vascular System
      • Refers to the blood vessels
      • Arteries carry blood away from the heart
        • Arterioles are smaller-diameter extensions of arteries
      • Veins carry blood back into the heart
        • Venules are smaller-diameter extensions of veins
      • Capillaries
        • Smallest extensions of the vascular system
        • Site of exchange of oxygen, food, and waste
    • 4. Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease
    • 5. The Heart
      • Four-chambered pump
      • Size of a fist
      • Function:
        • Creates pressure to circulate blood throughout the body
      • Location:
        • Left center of the thorax (between lungs)
      • Signal sends impulses from brain to the heart
      • Electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) measures the cardiac electrical functioning
    • 6. Circulation through the Heart
    • 7. Blood
      • Functions of the circulatory system
        • Transportation of nutrients, oxygen, waste products
        • Regulation of water content of cells
        • Regulation of body temperature
        • Buffering of ph level
        • Prevention of blood loss
        • Protection against toxins and microorganisms by circulating antibodies within the bloodstream
      • Average person has 5 quarts of blood
    • 8. Risk Factors That Cannot Be Changed
      • Increasing age
        • Most people who die from heart disease are age 65 and older
      • Male gender
        • Before age 55, men have a greater risk of heart disease than women do
        • After menopause, women’s rates of heart disease increase
      • Heredity
        • Family history
        • Race/ethnicity
    • 9. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
      • Major Risk Factors: The “Big Six”
        • Tobacco smoke
        • Physical inactivity
        • Abnormal blood cholesterol levels
        • High blood pressure
        • Diabetes mellitus
        • Obesity and overweight
      • Contributing Risk Factor
        • Individual responses to stress
    • 10. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
      • Tobacco smoke
        • Increases risk of heart attack, sudden cardiac death
        • Affects nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
        • Quitting leads to a reduced risk of heart disease
      • Physical inactivity
        • Exercise strengthens the heart muscle, maintains healthy blood vessels
        • Lowers cholesterol levels
        • Encourages weight loss and retention of lean muscle mass
        • Moderates stress
    • 11. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
      • Abnormal Blood Cholesterol Levels
      • Classification of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL, and HDL
      ≥ 60 40-59 < 40 HDL cholesterol High (Desirable) Normal Low ≥ 160 130-159 < 130 LDL cholesterol ≥ 200 150-199 < 150 Triglycerides ≥ 240 200-239 < 200 Total cholesterol High Borderline-High Normal or Desirable
    • 12. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
      • High blood pressure
        • Damages heart and blood vessels
      • Diabetes mellitus
        • Increases risk of heart and blood vessel disease
        • Linked to abnormal levels of cholesterol and other blood fats
      • Obesity and overweight
        • Abdominal obesity is especially risky
    • 13. Metabolic Syndrome
      • Risk factors often appear in a group
      • Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome
        • Elevated waist circumference
          • Men: ≥ 40 inches
          • Women: ≥ 35 inches
        • Elevated triglycerides
          • ≥ 150 mg/dL
        • Reduced HDL cholesterol
          • Men: < 40 mg/dL
          • Women: < 50 mg/dL
        • Elevated blood pressure
          • ≥ 130/85 mmHg
        • Elevated fasting glucose
          • ≥ 100 mg/dL
    • 14. Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
      • Coronary heart disease
      • Hypertension
      • Stroke
      • Congenital heart disease
      • Rheumatic heart disease
      • Congestive heart failure
      • Diseases of the arteries
      • Arrhythmias
    • 15. Coronary Heart Disease
      • Damage to vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle
      • Atherosclerosis: Buildup of plaque on the inner walls of arteries
      • Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Death of part of the heart muscle
      • Biomarkers
        • Homocysteine
        • High sensitivity C-reactive protein
    • 16. Progression of Atherosclerosis
    • 17. Cholesterol and Lipoproteins
      • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
        • “Bad” cholesterol
      • High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
        • “Good” cholesterol
      • To improve cholesterol levels:
        • Reduce saturated fat intake
        • Reduce cholesterol intake
        • Reduce caloric intake to control weight
    • 18. Coronary Heart Disease
      • Angina pectoris: Chest pain with stress or exertion
      • Symptoms of a heart attack include chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, back or jaw pain
        • Emergency treatment: CPR and AEDs
      • Diagnosis
        • Blood tests
        • Vital signs
        • Electrocardiogram, echocardiogram
        • Coronary arteriography
        • PET, EBCT, and MRI
        • Nuclear medicine
    • 19. Coronary Heart Disease
      • Surgical treatments
        • Coronary artery bypass surgery
          • Provides alternative routes for blood to take around points of blockage
        • Percutaneous coronary intervention
          • A slender balloon-tipped tube is used to flatten plaque and widen an artery
        • Heart transplant
      • Nonsurgical treatments
        • Medications, including aspirin
    • 20. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
    • 21. Hypertension
      • Symptoms: “Silent killer” (no symptoms)
      • Screening: Regular checks of resting blood pressure
      • Effects: Heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, eye damage
      • Classification
      90 or higher 80-89 Less than 80 Diastolic (bottom number) 140 or higher 120-139 Less than 120 Systolic (top number) Hypertension Prehypertension Normal Blood pressure (mm Hg)
    • 22. Hypertension
      • Prevention and treatment
        • Weight reduction
        • Physical activity
        • Moderation in alcohol use
        • DASH eating plans
        • Salt restriction
        • Stress reduction
        • Medication
    • 23. Stroke
      • Blockage of vessel to the brain
      • Types of stroke
        • Cerebrovascular occlusions
        • Cerebral hemorrhage
        • Cerebral aneurysm
      • Warning sign: Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
      • Diagnosis
        • Computerized axial tomography (CT) scan
        • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
      • Treatment
        • Clot dissolving drugs
        • Cell-rebuilding drugs
    • 24. Causes of Stroke
    • 25. Congenital Heart Disease
      • Abnormalities present at birth
        • Caused by environmental factors or illness
      • Types
        • Valve damage
        • Holes in the walls of the septum
        • Blood vessel transportation
        • Underdevelopment of left side of the heart
      • Treatment
        • Surgery may be performed to repair malformations
    • 26. Rheumatic Heart Disease
      • Chronic damage to the heart (especially the valves)
      • Result of streptococcal infection in the heart
        • Complication of rheumatic fever
      • Damage tends to occur in valves of the heart
      • Diagnosis: X-rays, echocardiogram
      • Treatment: Surgery
    • 27. Congestive Heart Failure
      • Inability of the heart to pump out all the blood that returns to it
        • Fluid accumulates in veins, lungs, and kidneys
      • Caused by heart damage from other causes
      • Treatment
        • Rest
        • Proper diet
        • Modified daily activities
        • Use of appropriate drugs
    • 28. Diseases of the Arteries
      • Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
      • Blood vessel disease involving changes to the arteries and arterioles in the extremities
      • Causes
        • Cigarette smoking
        • Obesity
        • High-fat diet
        • Sedentary occupations
      • Treatment
        • Blood vessel surgery
        • Medication
        • Modified lifestyle
    • 29. CVD Prevention
      • Avoid tobacco
      • Choose a healthy diet
      • Be physically active
      • Control body weight
      • Manage stress
      • Get regular screenings
    • 30. Chapter Nine: Enhancing Your Cardiovascular Health