Psychological Health

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  • Psychological Health

    1. 1. Chapter Two: Achieving Psychological Health
    2. 2. Psychological Health <ul><li>Also known as emotional wellness </li></ul><ul><li>A broadly based concept pertaining to cognitive functioning in conjunction with the way people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cope with stress, adversity, and success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt to changes in themselves and their environment </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Psychological Health <ul><li>Biopsychological model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Positive self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of emotional intelligence </li></ul>
    4. 4. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People <ul><li>Accept themselves and others </li></ul><ul><li>Like themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Give and receive care, love, and support </li></ul><ul><li>Express full range of emotions (positive and negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts life’s disappointments </li></ul><ul><li>Accept their mistakes </li></ul>
    5. 5. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People (cont.) <ul><li>Express empathy and concern for others </li></ul><ul><li>Take care of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Trust others as well as themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Establish goals </li></ul><ul><li>Can function both independently and interdependently </li></ul><ul><li>Lead a health-enhancing lifestyle </li></ul>
    6. 6. Self-Esteem <ul><li>Having pride in yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Treating yourself with respect </li></ul><ul><li>Considering yourself valuable, important, worthy </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling good about yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Having self-confidence, being self-assured </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting yourself </li></ul>
    7. 7. Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Ability to understand others and act wisely in human relations </li></ul><ul><li>Five primary domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage your emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize emotions in others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle relationships </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Personality <ul><li>Specific patterns of behavior and traits that identify and characterize an individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two factors that can influence personality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nature (innate factors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nurture (environmental factors) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    10. 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Self-actualization: The highest level of psychological health at which one reaches her or his highest potential and values truth, beauty, goodness, faith, love, humor, and ingenuity </li></ul><ul><li>Basic needs: Essential and fundamental needs </li></ul><ul><li>Metaneeds: Secondary concerns that can be addressed only after basic needs are met </li></ul>
    11. 11. Other Characteristics that Influence Psychological Health <ul><li>Spiritual health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of purpose, direction, and awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morals, ethics, intrinsic values, and beliefs </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Other Characteristics that Influence Psychological Health <ul><li>Creative expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonconformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Keys to Psychological Health <ul><li>Develop communication skills to foster improved social relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal communication—be a skilled sender and listener </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication—facial expression, eye contact, personal space, body posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on what to say and how to say it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use assertive communication with “I” statements </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Keys to Psychological Health <ul><li>Cultivate a sense of humor to build a positive outlook on life </li></ul>
    15. 15. Optimistic Approach to Life <ul><li>Learned helplessness (Pavlov) vs. learned optimism (Seligman) </li></ul><ul><li>Three key factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanence—“never,” “always,” “forever” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimists view causes of bad events as permanent and tend to give up easily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal explanations vs. situation specific explanations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal vs. external explanatory style </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Optimistic Approach to Life <ul><li>Building optimism—reframe thinking about events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change thoughts and beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create strategies for solving problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be persistent, work to overcome obstacles </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Proactive Approach to Life <ul><li>Proactive approach promotes better control of one’s overall life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct mental pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept mental pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undertake new experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframe mental pictures </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Mood disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul>
    19. 19. Mood Disorders: Depression <ul><li>Affects about one in ten Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressed mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of motivation, lack of interest in usual activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbed sleep, eating habits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Mood Disorders: Depression
    21. 21. Mood Disorders: Depression <ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbal supplements? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Mood Disorders: Seasonal Affective Disorder <ul><li>Develops in response to changes in the seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antidepressant medications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light therapy </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Suicide <ul><li>Third leading cause of death for young adults </li></ul><ul><li>Men have higher rates of suicide than women </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no social support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history of mental illness and/or suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with drugs or alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession of a firearm </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Mood Disorders: Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Characterized by alternating episodes of depression and mania </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of mania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racing thoughts and rapid speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsive and/or reckless behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood stabilizing medications </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity and frequency of worry that is excessive and out of proportion to the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panic disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) </li></ul><ul><li>Phobias (social phobia, specific phobia) </li></ul><ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) <ul><li>An estimated 15 million Americans suffer from ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms often seen in adult cases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty getting organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic procrastination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently searching for high stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low tolerance for frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Characterized by profound distortion of thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized thinking and speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catatonic behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment with antipsychotic medications and psychotherapy </li></ul>
    28. 28. Health Providers for Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Psychiatrists (MDs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment often focuses more on medical management and less on talking through problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a variety of subspecialties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment generally focuses on behavior therapy and problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counselors </li></ul><ul><li>Social workers </li></ul>
    29. 29. Approaches in Treating Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Dynamic therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on forces underlying an individual’s problems; may look at early childhood experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humanistic therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client-centered approach based on idea that people can naturally grow in positive and constructive ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on behavior modification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive-behavioral therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on changing cognitive patterns in order to change behavior and emotional state </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Approaches in Treating Psychological Disorders (cont.) <ul><li>Solution-focused therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-oriented approach that stresses looking for solutions rather than dwelling on problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Couples and family therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Group therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides support; group members can also learn from one another’s experiences </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Chapter Two: Achieving Psychological Health

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