Psychological Health
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Psychological Health

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Psychological Health Psychological Health Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Two: Achieving Psychological Health
  • Psychological Health
    • Also known as emotional wellness
    • A broadly based concept pertaining to cognitive functioning in conjunction with the way people
      • Express emotions
      • Cope with stress, adversity, and success
      • Adapt to changes in themselves and their environment
  • Psychological Health
    • Biopsychological model
      • Biological factors
      • Psychological factors
      • Social factors
    • Positive self-concept
    • Positive self-esteem
    • Higher level of emotional intelligence
  • Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People
    • Accept themselves and others
    • Like themselves
    • Give and receive care, love, and support
    • Express full range of emotions (positive and negative)
    • Accepts life’s disappointments
    • Accept their mistakes
  • Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People (cont.)
    • Express empathy and concern for others
    • Take care of themselves
    • Trust others as well as themselves
    • Establish goals
    • Can function both independently and interdependently
    • Lead a health-enhancing lifestyle
  • Self-Esteem
    • Having pride in yourself
    • Treating yourself with respect
    • Considering yourself valuable, important, worthy
    • Feeling good about yourself
    • Having self-confidence, being self-assured
    • Accepting yourself
  • Emotional Intelligence
    • Ability to understand others and act wisely in human relations
    • Five primary domains:
      • Know your emotions
      • Manage your emotions
      • Motivate yourself
      • Recognize emotions in others
      • Handle relationships
  • Personality
    • Specific patterns of behavior and traits that identify and characterize an individual
      • Thoughts
      • Feelings
      • Behaviors
      • Motivation
      • Instinct
      • Temperament
    • Two factors that can influence personality:
      • nature (innate factors)
      • nurture (environmental factors)
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Self-actualization: The highest level of psychological health at which one reaches her or his highest potential and values truth, beauty, goodness, faith, love, humor, and ingenuity
    • Basic needs: Essential and fundamental needs
    • Metaneeds: Secondary concerns that can be addressed only after basic needs are met
  • Other Characteristics that Influence Psychological Health
    • Spiritual health
      • Sense of purpose, direction, and awareness
      • Morals, ethics, intrinsic values, and beliefs
  • Other Characteristics that Influence Psychological Health
    • Creative expression
      • Nonconformity
      • Independence
      • Motivation
      • Curiosity
      • Persistence
  • Keys to Psychological Health
    • Develop communication skills to foster improved social relationships
      • Verbal communication—be a skilled sender and listener
      • Nonverbal communication—facial expression, eye contact, personal space, body posture
      • Managing conflict
        • Listen
        • Focus on what to say and how to say it
        • Use assertive communication with “I” statements
  • Keys to Psychological Health
    • Cultivate a sense of humor to build a positive outlook on life
  • Optimistic Approach to Life
    • Learned helplessness (Pavlov) vs. learned optimism (Seligman)
    • Three key factors
      • Permanence—“never,” “always,” “forever”
        • Pessimists view causes of bad events as permanent and tend to give up easily
      • Pervasiveness
        • Universal explanations vs. situation specific explanations
      • Personalization
        • Internal vs. external explanatory style
  • Optimistic Approach to Life
    • Building optimism—reframe thinking about events
      • Change thoughts and beliefs
      • Create strategies for solving problems
      • Be persistent, work to overcome obstacles
  • Proactive Approach to Life
    • Proactive approach promotes better control of one’s overall life
      • Construct mental pictures
      • Accept mental pictures
      • Undertake new experiences
      • Reframe mental pictures
  • Psychological Disorders
    • Mood disorders
    • Anxiety disorders
    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    • Schizophrenia
  • Mood Disorders: Depression
    • Affects about one in ten Americans
    • Symptoms include
      • Depressed mood
      • Lack of motivation, lack of interest in usual activities
      • Social withdrawal
      • Disturbed sleep, eating habits
    • Risk factors
      • Family history
      • Environmental factors
  • Mood Disorders: Depression
  • Mood Disorders: Depression
    • Treatments
      • Counseling
      • Medication
      • Herbal supplements?
      • Exercise
      • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Mood Disorders: Seasonal Affective Disorder
    • Develops in response to changes in the seasons
    • Treatments
      • Counseling
      • Antidepressant medications
      • Light therapy
  • Suicide
    • Third leading cause of death for young adults
    • Men have higher rates of suicide than women
    • Risk factors include
      • Little or no social support
      • Family history of mental illness and/or suicide
      • Problems with drugs or alcohol
      • Possession of a firearm
  • Mood Disorders: Bipolar Disorder
    • Characterized by alternating episodes of depression and mania
    • Symptoms of mania
      • Excessive energy
      • Racing thoughts and rapid speech
      • Impulsive and/or reckless behavior
    • Treatment
      • Psychotherapy
      • Mood stabilizing medications
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
      • Intensity and frequency of worry that is excessive and out of proportion to the situation
    • Panic disorder
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    • Phobias (social phobia, specific phobia)
    • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    • An estimated 15 million Americans suffer from ADHD
    • Symptoms often seen in adult cases:
      • Difficulty getting organized
      • Chronic procrastination
      • Frequently searching for high stimulation
      • Low tolerance for frustration
      • Low self-esteem
  • Schizophrenia
    • Characterized by profound distortion of thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior
    • Symptoms may include
      • Delusions
      • Hallucinations
      • Disorganized thinking and speech
      • Catatonic behavior
    • Treatment with antipsychotic medications and psychotherapy
  • Health Providers for Psychological Disorders
    • Psychiatrists (MDs)
      • Treatment often focuses more on medical management and less on talking through problems
    • Psychologists
      • Includes a variety of subspecialties
      • Treatment generally focuses on behavior therapy and problem solving
    • Counselors
    • Social workers
  • Approaches in Treating Psychological Disorders
    • Dynamic therapy
      • Focuses on forces underlying an individual’s problems; may look at early childhood experiences
    • Humanistic therapy
      • Client-centered approach based on idea that people can naturally grow in positive and constructive ways
    • Behavior therapy
      • Focuses on behavior modification
    • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
      • Focuses on changing cognitive patterns in order to change behavior and emotional state
  • Approaches in Treating Psychological Disorders (cont.)
    • Solution-focused therapy
      • Goal-oriented approach that stresses looking for solutions rather than dwelling on problems
    • Couples and family therapy
    • Group therapy
      • Provides support; group members can also learn from one another’s experiences
  • Chapter Two: Achieving Psychological Health