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Chapter 5 Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet
Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients  = elements in food that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Major energy source: 4 calories/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides <...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Simple sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average American adult consumes about 140 pounds of sweeteners e...
Fats <ul><li>Functions: Insulation, carrier of vitamins, storage of long-term energy, and satiety </li></ul><ul><li>Energy...
Types of Fats <ul><li>Saturated fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily ...
Composition of Dietary Fats
Types of Fats: Trans Fats <ul><li>Altered form of unsaturated fat (hydrogen added) </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with unhea...
Types of Fats: Cholesterol <ul><li>White fatlike substance found in cells of animal origin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Sy...
Fats: General Recommendations <ul><li>20-35% of total daily calories from fat </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 10% of calories ...
Fats <ul><li>Low-fat does not necessarily mean low-calorie </li></ul><ul><li>Higher price tag </li></ul><ul><li>Low-fat da...
Protein <ul><li>Functions: Growth and maintenance of tissue, acid-base balance </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source: 4 calories...
Protein <ul><li>Complete protein sources supply all essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal foods, soybeans </l...
Vitamins <ul><li>Organic compounds needed in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and maintenance of health </li...
Vitamins: Should I Take a Supplement? <ul><li>Following dietary recommendations would allow most Americans to meet their n...
Phytochemicals <ul><li>Phytochemicals = physiologically active components of foods that may deactivate carcinogens </li></...
Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic materials that act as structural elements and regulators of numerous body processes </li></ul><...
Water and Fluids <ul><li>Average adult loses about 10 cups of water per day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urination, bowel movemen...
Fiber <ul><li>Cellulose-based plant material that cannot be digested </li></ul><ul><li>Provides no energy: 0 calories/gram...
Dietary Reference Intakes <ul><li>Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) = recommended nutrient intakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Es...
Tools for Planning a  Healthy Diet <ul><li>The USDA Food Guide: MyPyramid </li></ul><ul><li>The Dietary Guidelines for Ame...
MyPyramid
 
MyPyramid <ul><li>Personalized approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amounts recommended from each food group vary based on age, ...
MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Fruits  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Milk and milk products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul><...
MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans, and nuts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5  1 / 2  ounce-equival...
MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Breads, cereals, rice, and pasta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 ounces/day for a 2,000-calorie diet...
MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Oils (vegetable oils, fish, nuts, seeds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 grams or 6 teaspoons/day f...
Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Adequate nutrients within calorie needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consume nutrient-de...
Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular moderate physical activity  </li>...
Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Food groups to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose whole grains often </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Alcoholic beverages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who choose to drink should do so ...
Vegetarian Diets <ul><li>Reliance on plant sources for most of the nutrients the body needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovoveget...
MyPyramid for Ovolacto-vegetarians
Food Labels <ul><li>Required by the FDA since 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>New in 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of trans fat...
Nutrition Facts Label
Fast Foods <ul><li>Fat density of fast foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40-70% of calories in fast foods is fat </li></ul></ul>...
Functional Foods <ul><li>Foods capable of contributing to the improvement or prevention of specific health problems </li><...
Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Products that supplement the total daily intake of nutrients in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Ing...
Food Allergies <ul><li>Allergy = reaction in which the immune system attacks an otherwise harmless food or ingredient  </l...
Food Safety <ul><li>Preventing foodborne illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe handling, cooking, and storage of foods </li><...
Food Safety <ul><li>Food irradiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of radiation to kill foodborne pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul...
Food Safety <ul><li>Organic foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No use of growth hormone or antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Food Safety <ul><li>Food additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide color or flavor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace sugar ...
Chapter Five:  Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet
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Nutrition and Your Diet

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  • Transcript of "Nutrition and Your Diet"

    1. 1. Chapter 5 Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet
    2. 2. Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients = elements in food that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Major energy source: 4 calories/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended intake: 45-65% of total calories from carbohydrates </li></ul>
    4. 4. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Simple sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average American adult consumes about 140 pounds of sweeteners each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar, corn sweetener, syrup, honey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodas, candy, bakery and processed goods </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Fats <ul><li>Functions: Insulation, carrier of vitamins, storage of long-term energy, and satiety </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source: 9 calories/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyunsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended intake: 20-35% of total calories </li></ul>
    6. 6. Types of Fats <ul><li>Saturated fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily found in animal fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative effects on heart health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive effects on heart health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omega-3 polyunsaturated fats found in fish are considered especially healthful </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Composition of Dietary Fats
    8. 8. Types of Fats: Trans Fats <ul><li>Altered form of unsaturated fat (hydrogen added) </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with unhealthy changes in cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Raises levels of “bad” cholesterol and lowers levels of “good” cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Found in margarine, snack foods, and some deep fried fast foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check food labels </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Types of Fats: Cholesterol <ul><li>White fatlike substance found in cells of animal origin </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Synthesizes cell membranes; starting material in formation of hormones and bile </li></ul><ul><li>The liver can synthesize cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Excess cholesterol in the body can clog arteries and increase risk of cardiovascular disease </li></ul>
    10. 10. Fats: General Recommendations <ul><li>20-35% of total daily calories from fat </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Keep trans-fatty acid consumption as low as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Get most fats from sources of unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable oils </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Fats <ul><li>Low-fat does not necessarily mean low-calorie </li></ul><ul><li>Higher price tag </li></ul><ul><li>Low-fat dairy and salad dressings have less saturated fat </li></ul>Low-fat foods
    12. 12. Protein <ul><li>Functions: Growth and maintenance of tissue, acid-base balance </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source: 4 calories/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids = building blocks of protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 can be built by the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonessential amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 must be obtained from food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Protein <ul><li>Complete protein sources supply all essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal foods, soybeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incomplete protein sources supply some but not all essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended intake: 10-35% of total calories </li></ul>
    14. 14. Vitamins <ul><li>Organic compounds needed in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and maintenance of health </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as co-enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide no energy: 0 calories/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B-complex vitamins and vitamin C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins A, D, E, K </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Vitamins: Should I Take a Supplement? <ul><li>Following dietary recommendations would allow most Americans to meet their nutrient needs without supplements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people eat too many nutrient-deficient foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caution with using supplements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypervitaminosis = toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megadoses of any vitamin can be harmful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for certain groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin D </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Phytochemicals <ul><li>Phytochemicals = physiologically active components of foods that may deactivate carcinogens </li></ul><ul><li>Many phytochemicals function as antioxidants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules (“free radicals”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carotenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyphenols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allyl sulfides </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic materials that act as structural elements and regulators of numerous body processes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide no energy: 0 calories/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macronutrients: “Major minerals” found in high amounts in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micronutrients: “Trace elements” found in small amounts in the body </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Water and Fluids <ul><li>Average adult loses about 10 cups of water per day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urination, bowel movements, breathing, perspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: Provide medium for nutrients, waste transport, temperature control </li></ul><ul><li>For every pound of body weight, you need about 0.5 ounce of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: Beverages, fruits, vegetables </li></ul>
    19. 19. Fiber <ul><li>Cellulose-based plant material that cannot be digested </li></ul><ul><li>Provides no energy: 0 calories/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble (gel-forming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble (absorbs water) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves stool through digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers blood cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steadies blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended: 21-38 grams/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most American adults: 11 grams/day </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Dietary Reference Intakes <ul><li>Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) = recommended nutrient intakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)—percent of total daily calories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45-65% as carbohydrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20-35% as fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-35% as protein </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Tools for Planning a Healthy Diet <ul><li>The USDA Food Guide: MyPyramid </li></ul><ul><li>The Dietary Guidelines for Americans </li></ul>
    22. 22. MyPyramid
    23. 24. MyPyramid <ul><li>Personalized approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amounts recommended from each food group vary based on age, gender, and activity level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit www.mypyramid.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balance food intake and physical activity </li></ul>
    24. 25. MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Fruits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a variety of fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor whole fruits over fruit juices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2½ cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a variety of vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark green vegetables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orange vegetables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starchy vegetables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other vegetables </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Milk and milk products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor fat-free or low-fat products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegans and those who are lactose intolerant should choose other sources of calcium </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans, and nuts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 1 / 2 ounce-equivalents for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ounce equivalents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 ounce cooked meat, poultry, fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 egg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 / 4 cup legumes or tofu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 tablespoon peanut butter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 / 2 ounce nuts or seeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose lean and low-fat foods </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Breads, cereals, rice, and pasta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 ounces/day for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 or more ounces/day should be whole grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ounce equivalents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 slice bread </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 cup dry cereal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 / 2 cup cooked rice, pasta, cereal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. MyPyramid Food Groups <ul><li>Oils (vegetable oils, fish, nuts, seeds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 grams or 6 teaspoons/day for a 2,000-calorie diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 teaspoon equivalents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 teaspoon vegetable oil or margarine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 tablespoon low-fat mayonnaise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 tablespoons light salad dressing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Discretionary calories </li></ul>
    29. 30. Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Adequate nutrients within calorie needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consume nutrient-dense foods within and among the food groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make small decreases in calorie intake to prevent gradual weight gain over time </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular moderate physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 minutes/day to reduce risk of chronic disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60 minutes/day to prevent gradual, unhealthy weight gain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60-90 minutes/day to sustain weight loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease sedentary activities </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Food groups to encourage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total fat: 20-35% of total calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fat: <10% of total calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol: <300 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit trans fats </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose whole grains often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit added sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium and potassium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium: Consume less than 2,300 mg/day (about 1 teaspoon of salt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium: Consume potassium-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Alcoholic beverages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who choose to drink should do so sensibly and in moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 1 drink/day for women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 2 drinks/day for men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Food safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take steps to avoid microbial foodborne illness </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Vegetarian Diets <ul><li>Reliance on plant sources for most of the nutrients the body needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovovegetarian: Includes eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactovegetarian: Includes dairy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovolactovegetarian: Includes eggs and dairy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegan: Excludes all animal products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to maintain adequate intake of vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin D </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semivegetarian: Great reduction (but not elimination) of meat products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pescovegetarian: Includes fish, eggs, dairy products </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. MyPyramid for Ovolacto-vegetarians
    36. 37. Food Labels <ul><li>Required by the FDA since 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>New in 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of trans fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins derived from major food allergen sources </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Nutrition Facts Label
    38. 39. Fast Foods <ul><li>Fat density of fast foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40-70% of calories in fast foods is fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended intake: 20-35% of total daily calories from fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most people underestimate the calorie content in a fast food meal by as much as 500 calories </li></ul>
    39. 40. Functional Foods <ul><li>Foods capable of contributing to the improvement or prevention of specific health problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probiotics: Living bacteria that help prevent disease and strengthen the immune system (e.g., yogurt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garlic, olive oil, high-fiber foods, calcium-rich foods, antioxident-rich foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods enriched with folic acid </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Products that supplement the total daily intake of nutrients in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Ingested in tablet, capsule, softgel, gelcap, and liquid form </li></ul><ul><li>Not in themselves used as conventional foods or as the only items in a meal or diet </li></ul><ul><li>Must be deemed safe for human </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot claim to cure or treat diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Americans spent over $19 billion on supplements (in 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Food Allergies <ul><li>Allergy = reaction in which the immune system attacks an otherwise harmless food or ingredient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different from a food intolerance, which is usually caused by an enzyme deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common food allergens include peanuts, milk, soy products, shellfish, and wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Allergic reactions can develop slowly over several exposures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms range from mildly unpleasant to life threatening </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Food Safety <ul><li>Preventing foodborne illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe handling, cooking, and storage of foods </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Food Safety <ul><li>Food irradiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of radiation to kill foodborne pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safe farming techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More humane treatment of farm animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved food quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions (cause of “mad cow disease”), and chemicals </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Food Safety <ul><li>Organic foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No use of growth hormone or antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not genetically engineered or irradiated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No use of chemical fertilizers or sewage sludge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases, pets, and weeds treated or controlled primarily with nonchemical means </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Food Safety <ul><li>Food additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide color or flavor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace sugar or fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve nutritional content, texture, or shelf life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDA tested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetically modified foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered to improve yields and reduce costs </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Chapter Five: Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet
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