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Nutrition and Your Diet
 

Nutrition and Your Diet

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Nutrition and Your Diet Nutrition and Your Diet Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 5 Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet
  • Nutrients
    • Nutrients = elements in food that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes
      • Carbohydrates
      • Fats
      • Protein
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
      • Water
      • Fiber
  • Carbohydrates
    • Major energy source: 4 calories/gram
    • Types
      • Monosaccharides
      • Disaccharides
      • Polysaccharides
    • Recommended intake: 45-65% of total calories from carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates
    • Simple sugars
      • Average American adult consumes about 140 pounds of sweeteners each year
        • Sugar, corn sweetener, syrup, honey
        • Sodas, candy, bakery and processed goods
  • Fats
    • Functions: Insulation, carrier of vitamins, storage of long-term energy, and satiety
    • Energy source: 9 calories/gram
    • Types
      • Saturated
      • Monounsaturated
      • Polyunsaturated
      • Trans
    • Recommended intake: 20-35% of total calories
  • Types of Fats
    • Saturated fats
      • Solid at room temperature
      • Primarily found in animal fats
      • Negative effects on heart health
    • Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
      • Liquid at room temperature
      • Vegetable oils
      • Positive effects on heart health
      • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fats found in fish are considered especially healthful
  • Composition of Dietary Fats
  • Types of Fats: Trans Fats
    • Altered form of unsaturated fat (hydrogen added)
    • Associated with unhealthy changes in cell membranes
    • Raises levels of “bad” cholesterol and lowers levels of “good” cholesterol
    • Found in margarine, snack foods, and some deep fried fast foods
      • Check food labels
  • Types of Fats: Cholesterol
    • White fatlike substance found in cells of animal origin
    • Functions: Synthesizes cell membranes; starting material in formation of hormones and bile
    • The liver can synthesize cholesterol
    • Excess cholesterol in the body can clog arteries and increase risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Fats: General Recommendations
    • 20-35% of total daily calories from fat
    • Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat
    • Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol
    • Keep trans-fatty acid consumption as low as possible
    • Get most fats from sources of unsaturated fats
      • Fish
      • Nuts
      • Vegetable oils
  • Fats
    • Low-fat does not necessarily mean low-calorie
    • Higher price tag
    • Low-fat dairy and salad dressings have less saturated fat
    Low-fat foods
  • Protein
    • Functions: Growth and maintenance of tissue, acid-base balance
    • Energy source: 4 calories/gram
    • Amino acids = building blocks of protein
      • 11 can be built by the body
        • Nonessential amino acids
      • 9 must be obtained from food
        • Essential amino acids
  • Protein
    • Complete protein sources supply all essential amino acids
      • Animal foods, soybeans
    • Incomplete protein sources supply some but not all essential amino acids
      • Plant foods
    • Recommended intake: 10-35% of total calories
  • Vitamins
    • Organic compounds needed in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and maintenance of health
    • Serve as co-enzymes
    • Provide no energy: 0 calories/gram
    • Types
      • Water soluble
        • B-complex vitamins and vitamin C
      • Fat soluble
        • Vitamins A, D, E, K
  • Vitamins: Should I Take a Supplement?
    • Following dietary recommendations would allow most Americans to meet their nutrient needs without supplements
      • Many people eat too many nutrient-deficient foods
    • Caution with using supplements
      • Hypervitaminosis = toxicity
      • Megadoses of any vitamin can be harmful
    • Recommendations for certain groups
      • Folic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin D
  • Phytochemicals
    • Phytochemicals = physiologically active components of foods that may deactivate carcinogens
    • Many phytochemicals function as antioxidants
      • May protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules (“free radicals”)
    • Examples
      • Carotenoids
      • Polyphenols
      • Allyl sulfides
  • Minerals
    • Inorganic materials that act as structural elements and regulators of numerous body processes
    • Provide no energy: 0 calories/gram
    • Types
      • Macronutrients: “Major minerals” found in high amounts in the body
      • Micronutrients: “Trace elements” found in small amounts in the body
  • Water and Fluids
    • Average adult loses about 10 cups of water per day
      • Urination, bowel movements, breathing, perspiration
    • Functions: Provide medium for nutrients, waste transport, temperature control
    • For every pound of body weight, you need about 0.5 ounce of fluid
    • Sources: Beverages, fruits, vegetables
  • Fiber
    • Cellulose-based plant material that cannot be digested
    • Provides no energy: 0 calories/gram
    • Types:
      • Soluble (gel-forming)
      • Insoluble (absorbs water)
    • Benefits
      • Moves stool through digestive tract
      • Lowers blood cholesterol levels
      • Steadies blood sugar levels
    • Recommended: 21-38 grams/day
      • Most American adults: 11 grams/day
  • Dietary Reference Intakes
    • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) = recommended nutrient intakes
      • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
      • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
      • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)—percent of total daily calories
        • 45-65% as carbohydrate
        • 20-35% as fat
        • 10-35% as protein
  • Tools for Planning a Healthy Diet
    • The USDA Food Guide: MyPyramid
    • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • MyPyramid
  •  
  • MyPyramid
    • Personalized approach
      • Amounts recommended from each food group vary based on age, gender, and activity level
      • Visit www.mypyramid.gov
    • Balance food intake and physical activity
  • MyPyramid Food Groups
    • Fruits
      • 2 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
      • Eat a variety of fruits
      • Favor whole fruits over fruit juices
    • Vegetables
      • 2½ cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
      • Eat a variety of vegetables
        • Dark green vegetables
        • Orange vegetables
        • Legumes
        • Starchy vegetables
        • Other vegetables
  • MyPyramid Food Groups
    • Milk and milk products
      • 3 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
      • Favor fat-free or low-fat products
      • Vegans and those who are lactose intolerant should choose other sources of calcium
  • MyPyramid Food Groups
    • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans, and nuts
      • 5 1 / 2 ounce-equivalents for a 2,000-calorie diet
      • 1 ounce equivalents:
        • 1 ounce cooked meat, poultry, fish
        • 1 egg
        • 1 / 4 cup legumes or tofu
        • 1 tablespoon peanut butter
        • 1 / 2 ounce nuts or seeds
      • Choose lean and low-fat foods
  • MyPyramid Food Groups
    • Breads, cereals, rice, and pasta
      • 6 ounces/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
      • 3 or more ounces/day should be whole grains
      • 1 ounce equivalents:
        • 1 slice bread
        • 1 cup dry cereal
        • 1 / 2 cup cooked rice, pasta, cereal
  • MyPyramid Food Groups
    • Oils (vegetable oils, fish, nuts, seeds)
      • 24 grams or 6 teaspoons/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
      • 1 teaspoon equivalents:
        • 1 teaspoon vegetable oil or margarine
        • 1 tablespoon low-fat mayonnaise
        • 2 tablespoons light salad dressing
    • Discretionary calories
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Adequate nutrients within calorie needs
      • Consume nutrient-dense foods within and among the food groups
    • Weight management
      • Balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended
      • Make small decreases in calorie intake to prevent gradual weight gain over time
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Physical activity
      • Regular moderate physical activity
        • 30 minutes/day to reduce risk of chronic disease
        • 60 minutes/day to prevent gradual, unhealthy weight gain
        • 60-90 minutes/day to sustain weight loss
      • Decrease sedentary activities
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Food groups to encourage
      • Fruits
      • Vegetables
      • Milk
    • Fats
      • Total fat: 20-35% of total calories
      • Saturated fat: <10% of total calories
      • Cholesterol: <300 mg/day
      • Limit trans fats
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Carbohydrates
      • Choose whole grains often
      • Limit added sugars
    • Sodium and potassium
      • Sodium: Consume less than 2,300 mg/day (about 1 teaspoon of salt)
      • Potassium: Consume potassium-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Alcoholic beverages
      • Those who choose to drink should do so sensibly and in moderation
        • Up to 1 drink/day for women
        • Up to 2 drinks/day for men
    • Food safety
      • Take steps to avoid microbial foodborne illness
  • Vegetarian Diets
    • Reliance on plant sources for most of the nutrients the body needs
      • Ovovegetarian: Includes eggs
      • Lactovegetarian: Includes dairy
      • Ovolactovegetarian: Includes eggs and dairy
      • Vegan: Excludes all animal products
        • Requires more planning
        • Need to maintain adequate intake of vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin D
      • Semivegetarian: Great reduction (but not elimination) of meat products
        • Pescovegetarian: Includes fish, eggs, dairy products
  • MyPyramid for Ovolacto-vegetarians
  • Food Labels
    • Required by the FDA since 1973
    • New in 2006
      • Amount of trans fat
      • Proteins derived from major food allergen sources
  • Nutrition Facts Label
  • Fast Foods
    • Fat density of fast foods
      • 40-70% of calories in fast foods is fat
      • Recommended intake: 20-35% of total daily calories from fat
    • Most people underestimate the calorie content in a fast food meal by as much as 500 calories
  • Functional Foods
    • Foods capable of contributing to the improvement or prevention of specific health problems
      • Probiotics: Living bacteria that help prevent disease and strengthen the immune system (e.g., yogurt)
      • Garlic, olive oil, high-fiber foods, calcium-rich foods, antioxident-rich foods
      • Foods enriched with folic acid
  • Dietary Supplements
    • Products that supplement the total daily intake of nutrients in the diet
    • Ingested in tablet, capsule, softgel, gelcap, and liquid form
    • Not in themselves used as conventional foods or as the only items in a meal or diet
    • Must be deemed safe for human
    • Cannot claim to cure or treat diseases
        • Americans spent over $19 billion on supplements (in 2005)
  • Food Allergies
    • Allergy = reaction in which the immune system attacks an otherwise harmless food or ingredient
      • Different from a food intolerance, which is usually caused by an enzyme deficiency
    • Common food allergens include peanuts, milk, soy products, shellfish, and wheat
    • Allergic reactions can develop slowly over several exposures
      • Symptoms range from mildly unpleasant to life threatening
  • Food Safety
    • Preventing foodborne illness
      • Safe handling, cooking, and storage of foods
  • Food Safety
    • Food irradiation
      • Use of radiation to kill foodborne pathogens
    • Safe farming techniques
      • More humane treatment of farm animals
      • Improved food quality
      • Reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions (cause of “mad cow disease”), and chemicals
  • Food Safety
    • Organic foods
      • No use of growth hormone or antibiotics
      • Not genetically engineered or irradiated
      • No use of chemical fertilizers or sewage sludge
      • Diseases, pets, and weeds treated or controlled primarily with nonchemical means
  • Food Safety
    • Food additives
      • Provide color or flavor
      • Replace sugar or fat
      • Improve nutritional content, texture, or shelf life
      • FDA tested
    • Genetically modified foods
      • Altered to improve yields and reduce costs
  • Chapter Five: Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet