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Nutrition and Your Diet

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    • 1. Chapter 5 Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet
    • 2. Nutrients
      • Nutrients = elements in food that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes
        • Carbohydrates
        • Fats
        • Protein
        • Vitamins
        • Minerals
        • Water
        • Fiber
    • 3. Carbohydrates
      • Major energy source: 4 calories/gram
      • Types
        • Monosaccharides
        • Disaccharides
        • Polysaccharides
      • Recommended intake: 45-65% of total calories from carbohydrates
    • 4. Carbohydrates
      • Simple sugars
        • Average American adult consumes about 140 pounds of sweeteners each year
          • Sugar, corn sweetener, syrup, honey
          • Sodas, candy, bakery and processed goods
    • 5. Fats
      • Functions: Insulation, carrier of vitamins, storage of long-term energy, and satiety
      • Energy source: 9 calories/gram
      • Types
        • Saturated
        • Monounsaturated
        • Polyunsaturated
        • Trans
      • Recommended intake: 20-35% of total calories
    • 6. Types of Fats
      • Saturated fats
        • Solid at room temperature
        • Primarily found in animal fats
        • Negative effects on heart health
      • Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
        • Liquid at room temperature
        • Vegetable oils
        • Positive effects on heart health
        • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fats found in fish are considered especially healthful
    • 7. Composition of Dietary Fats
    • 8. Types of Fats: Trans Fats
      • Altered form of unsaturated fat (hydrogen added)
      • Associated with unhealthy changes in cell membranes
      • Raises levels of “bad” cholesterol and lowers levels of “good” cholesterol
      • Found in margarine, snack foods, and some deep fried fast foods
        • Check food labels
    • 9. Types of Fats: Cholesterol
      • White fatlike substance found in cells of animal origin
      • Functions: Synthesizes cell membranes; starting material in formation of hormones and bile
      • The liver can synthesize cholesterol
      • Excess cholesterol in the body can clog arteries and increase risk of cardiovascular disease
    • 10. Fats: General Recommendations
      • 20-35% of total daily calories from fat
      • Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat
      • Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol
      • Keep trans-fatty acid consumption as low as possible
      • Get most fats from sources of unsaturated fats
        • Fish
        • Nuts
        • Vegetable oils
    • 11. Fats
      • Low-fat does not necessarily mean low-calorie
      • Higher price tag
      • Low-fat dairy and salad dressings have less saturated fat
      Low-fat foods
    • 12. Protein
      • Functions: Growth and maintenance of tissue, acid-base balance
      • Energy source: 4 calories/gram
      • Amino acids = building blocks of protein
        • 11 can be built by the body
          • Nonessential amino acids
        • 9 must be obtained from food
          • Essential amino acids
    • 13. Protein
      • Complete protein sources supply all essential amino acids
        • Animal foods, soybeans
      • Incomplete protein sources supply some but not all essential amino acids
        • Plant foods
      • Recommended intake: 10-35% of total calories
    • 14. Vitamins
      • Organic compounds needed in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and maintenance of health
      • Serve as co-enzymes
      • Provide no energy: 0 calories/gram
      • Types
        • Water soluble
          • B-complex vitamins and vitamin C
        • Fat soluble
          • Vitamins A, D, E, K
    • 15. Vitamins: Should I Take a Supplement?
      • Following dietary recommendations would allow most Americans to meet their nutrient needs without supplements
        • Many people eat too many nutrient-deficient foods
      • Caution with using supplements
        • Hypervitaminosis = toxicity
        • Megadoses of any vitamin can be harmful
      • Recommendations for certain groups
        • Folic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin D
    • 16. Phytochemicals
      • Phytochemicals = physiologically active components of foods that may deactivate carcinogens
      • Many phytochemicals function as antioxidants
        • May protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules (“free radicals”)
      • Examples
        • Carotenoids
        • Polyphenols
        • Allyl sulfides
    • 17. Minerals
      • Inorganic materials that act as structural elements and regulators of numerous body processes
      • Provide no energy: 0 calories/gram
      • Types
        • Macronutrients: “Major minerals” found in high amounts in the body
        • Micronutrients: “Trace elements” found in small amounts in the body
    • 18. Water and Fluids
      • Average adult loses about 10 cups of water per day
        • Urination, bowel movements, breathing, perspiration
      • Functions: Provide medium for nutrients, waste transport, temperature control
      • For every pound of body weight, you need about 0.5 ounce of fluid
      • Sources: Beverages, fruits, vegetables
    • 19. Fiber
      • Cellulose-based plant material that cannot be digested
      • Provides no energy: 0 calories/gram
      • Types:
        • Soluble (gel-forming)
        • Insoluble (absorbs water)
      • Benefits
        • Moves stool through digestive tract
        • Lowers blood cholesterol levels
        • Steadies blood sugar levels
      • Recommended: 21-38 grams/day
        • Most American adults: 11 grams/day
    • 20. Dietary Reference Intakes
      • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) = recommended nutrient intakes
        • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
        • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
        • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
      • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)—percent of total daily calories
          • 45-65% as carbohydrate
          • 20-35% as fat
          • 10-35% as protein
    • 21. Tools for Planning a Healthy Diet
      • The USDA Food Guide: MyPyramid
      • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • 22. MyPyramid
    • 23.  
    • 24. MyPyramid
      • Personalized approach
        • Amounts recommended from each food group vary based on age, gender, and activity level
        • Visit www.mypyramid.gov
      • Balance food intake and physical activity
    • 25. MyPyramid Food Groups
      • Fruits
        • 2 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
        • Eat a variety of fruits
        • Favor whole fruits over fruit juices
      • Vegetables
        • 2½ cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
        • Eat a variety of vegetables
          • Dark green vegetables
          • Orange vegetables
          • Legumes
          • Starchy vegetables
          • Other vegetables
    • 26. MyPyramid Food Groups
      • Milk and milk products
        • 3 cups/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
        • Favor fat-free or low-fat products
        • Vegans and those who are lactose intolerant should choose other sources of calcium
    • 27. MyPyramid Food Groups
      • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans, and nuts
        • 5 1 / 2 ounce-equivalents for a 2,000-calorie diet
        • 1 ounce equivalents:
          • 1 ounce cooked meat, poultry, fish
          • 1 egg
          • 1 / 4 cup legumes or tofu
          • 1 tablespoon peanut butter
          • 1 / 2 ounce nuts or seeds
        • Choose lean and low-fat foods
    • 28. MyPyramid Food Groups
      • Breads, cereals, rice, and pasta
        • 6 ounces/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
        • 3 or more ounces/day should be whole grains
        • 1 ounce equivalents:
          • 1 slice bread
          • 1 cup dry cereal
          • 1 / 2 cup cooked rice, pasta, cereal
    • 29. MyPyramid Food Groups
      • Oils (vegetable oils, fish, nuts, seeds)
        • 24 grams or 6 teaspoons/day for a 2,000-calorie diet
        • 1 teaspoon equivalents:
          • 1 teaspoon vegetable oil or margarine
          • 1 tablespoon low-fat mayonnaise
          • 2 tablespoons light salad dressing
      • Discretionary calories
    • 30. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Adequate nutrients within calorie needs
        • Consume nutrient-dense foods within and among the food groups
      • Weight management
        • Balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended
        • Make small decreases in calorie intake to prevent gradual weight gain over time
    • 31. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Physical activity
        • Regular moderate physical activity
          • 30 minutes/day to reduce risk of chronic disease
          • 60 minutes/day to prevent gradual, unhealthy weight gain
          • 60-90 minutes/day to sustain weight loss
        • Decrease sedentary activities
    • 32. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Food groups to encourage
        • Fruits
        • Vegetables
        • Milk
      • Fats
        • Total fat: 20-35% of total calories
        • Saturated fat: <10% of total calories
        • Cholesterol: <300 mg/day
        • Limit trans fats
    • 33. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Carbohydrates
        • Choose whole grains often
        • Limit added sugars
      • Sodium and potassium
        • Sodium: Consume less than 2,300 mg/day (about 1 teaspoon of salt)
        • Potassium: Consume potassium-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables
    • 34. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Alcoholic beverages
        • Those who choose to drink should do so sensibly and in moderation
          • Up to 1 drink/day for women
          • Up to 2 drinks/day for men
      • Food safety
        • Take steps to avoid microbial foodborne illness
    • 35. Vegetarian Diets
      • Reliance on plant sources for most of the nutrients the body needs
        • Ovovegetarian: Includes eggs
        • Lactovegetarian: Includes dairy
        • Ovolactovegetarian: Includes eggs and dairy
        • Vegan: Excludes all animal products
          • Requires more planning
          • Need to maintain adequate intake of vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin D
        • Semivegetarian: Great reduction (but not elimination) of meat products
          • Pescovegetarian: Includes fish, eggs, dairy products
    • 36. MyPyramid for Ovolacto-vegetarians
    • 37. Food Labels
      • Required by the FDA since 1973
      • New in 2006
        • Amount of trans fat
        • Proteins derived from major food allergen sources
    • 38. Nutrition Facts Label
    • 39. Fast Foods
      • Fat density of fast foods
        • 40-70% of calories in fast foods is fat
        • Recommended intake: 20-35% of total daily calories from fat
      • Most people underestimate the calorie content in a fast food meal by as much as 500 calories
    • 40. Functional Foods
      • Foods capable of contributing to the improvement or prevention of specific health problems
        • Probiotics: Living bacteria that help prevent disease and strengthen the immune system (e.g., yogurt)
        • Garlic, olive oil, high-fiber foods, calcium-rich foods, antioxident-rich foods
        • Foods enriched with folic acid
    • 41. Dietary Supplements
      • Products that supplement the total daily intake of nutrients in the diet
      • Ingested in tablet, capsule, softgel, gelcap, and liquid form
      • Not in themselves used as conventional foods or as the only items in a meal or diet
      • Must be deemed safe for human
      • Cannot claim to cure or treat diseases
          • Americans spent over $19 billion on supplements (in 2005)
    • 42. Food Allergies
      • Allergy = reaction in which the immune system attacks an otherwise harmless food or ingredient
        • Different from a food intolerance, which is usually caused by an enzyme deficiency
      • Common food allergens include peanuts, milk, soy products, shellfish, and wheat
      • Allergic reactions can develop slowly over several exposures
        • Symptoms range from mildly unpleasant to life threatening
    • 43. Food Safety
      • Preventing foodborne illness
        • Safe handling, cooking, and storage of foods
    • 44. Food Safety
      • Food irradiation
        • Use of radiation to kill foodborne pathogens
      • Safe farming techniques
        • More humane treatment of farm animals
        • Improved food quality
        • Reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions (cause of “mad cow disease”), and chemicals
    • 45. Food Safety
      • Organic foods
        • No use of growth hormone or antibiotics
        • Not genetically engineered or irradiated
        • No use of chemical fertilizers or sewage sludge
        • Diseases, pets, and weeds treated or controlled primarily with nonchemical means
    • 46. Food Safety
      • Food additives
        • Provide color or flavor
        • Replace sugar or fat
        • Improve nutritional content, texture, or shelf life
        • FDA tested
      • Genetically modified foods
        • Altered to improve yields and reduce costs
    • 47. Chapter Five: Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet