Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol
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Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol

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Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Seven: Making Decisions about Drug and Alcohol Use
  • Drugs
    • Drug = any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, that by its chemical or physical nature alters structure or function in the living organism
    • Psychoactive drug = any substance capable of altering feelings, moods, or perceptions
  • The Process of Addiction
    • Addictive behavior has three common aspects:
      • Exposure : Introduced to the drug or behavior that is considered pleasurable
      • Compulsion : Time, energy, and money are spent to pursue the behavior. Normal behavior has already degenerated
      • Loss of control: Addicted people lose the ability to control their behavior and results in addiction to more than one drug or behavior
  • Codependence
    • Applies to people who are close to an individual who is addicted to something
    • Characteristics of codependents:
      • Focused on protecting or coping with the addict
      • Lose their sense of identity
      • Experience stress, often resulting in chaotic behaviors, addictions, and physical illnesses
  • Basic Drug Terms and Concepts
    • Central nervous system
    • Routes of drug administration
    • Drug misuse
    • Drug abuse
    • Drug dependence
  • Central Nervous System
    • Neuron : A nerve cell
      • Axon : The portion of a neuron that conducts electrical impulses to the dendrites of adjacent neurons
      • Dendrite : The portion of a neuron that receive electrical stimuli from adjacent neurons
    • Synapse : The location at which an electrical impulse from one neuron is transmitted to an adjacent neuron
    • Neurotransmitters : Chemical messengers that transfer electrical impulses across the synapses between nerve cells
  • Action of Psychoactive Drugs on the Central Nervous System
  • Drug Misuse and Abuse
    • Drug misuse: Inappropriate use of legal drugs intended to be medications
      • Intentional or unintentional
    • Drug abuse: Any use of a legal or illegal drug in a way that is detrimental to health or well-being
  • Drug Dependence
    • Addiction/physical dependence: Compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a substance, habit, or practice to such a degree that cessation causes severe emotional or physiological reactions
      • Withdrawal illness: Uncomfortable response of the body as it attempts to maintain homeostasis in the absence of a drug
      • Tolerance : An acquired reaction to a drug in which the continued intake of the same dose has diminished effects
    • Psychological dependence: Craving a drug for emotional reasons and to maintain a sense of well-being
    • Intoxication : Dysfunctional and disruptive changes in physiological and psychological functioning, mood, and cognitive processes
  • Six Categories of Psychoactive Drugs
    • Stimulants
    • Depressants
    • Hallucinogens
    • Cannabis
    • Narcotics
    • Inhalants
  • Past Month Use of Selected Psychoactive Drugs among Americans 12 and Older
  • Stimulants
    • Key actions: Stimulate the function of the central nervous system
      • Increased heart rate, blood pressure, brain function
      • Feelings of energy, exhilaration
    • Examples:
      • Cocaine
      • Amphetamine
      • Methamphetamine
      • Caffeine
      • Ritalin
      • Ephedra
  • Depressants
    • Key actions: Slow the function of the central nervous system
      • Reduced heart and breathing rates, blood pressure
      • Lowered inhibitions, impaired judgment
      • Sedation, drowsiness, loss of consciousness
    • Examples:
      • Barbiturates
      • Rohypnol
      • Alcohol
      • Tranquilizers
      • GHB
  • Hallucinogens
    • Key actions: Altered states of feeling and perception (hallucinations, distortions of reality)
      • Increased temperature, heart rate, blood pressure
      • Weakness, tremors, nervousness, paranoia
      • Synesthesia (sensation of combining of the senses)
    • Examples:
      • LSD
      • PCP
      • Peyote
      • Ecstasy and designer drugs
  • Cannabis
    • Active ingredient: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    • Key actions:
      • Euphoria, confusion
      • Slowed thinking and reaction time
      • Impaired balance and coordination
      • Cough, frequent respiratory infections
    • Examples:
      • Hashish
      • Marijuana
  • Narcotics (Opiates)
    • Key actions:
      • Relief of pain, euphoria
      • Reduced heart rate and blood pressure
      • Sedation, drowsiness, confusion
    • Natural and synthetic; derived from the Oriental poppy plant
    • Examples:
      • Opium
      • Morphine
      • Heroin
      • Oxycodone
  • Inhalants
    • Volatile compounds
    • Key actions:
      • Unpredictable, drunklike effects; aggression
      • Euphoria
      • Damage to respiratory and cardiovascular systems
    • Examples:
      • Gasoline
      • Glues
      • Paint
      • Aerosol propellants
      • Nitrites (“laughing gas”)
  • Combination Drug Effects
    • Synergistic effect = heightened or exaggerated effect produced by the concurrent use of two or more drugs
    • Additive effect = combined (but not exaggerated) effect produced by concurrent use of two or more drugs
    • Potentiated effect = the use of one drug intensifies the effect of a second drug
    • Antagonistic effect = effect produced when one drug reduces or offsets the effects of a second drug
  • The Nature of Alcoholic Beverages
    • Ethyl alcohol or ethanol
      • Produced through fermentation
      • May be concentrated through distillation
    • Alcohol content
      • Beer: 4%
      • Wine: 10-14%
      • Port, sherry: 20%
      • Distilled liquors: 40-100%
    • Proof = Twice the alcohol concentration
  • The Nature of Alcoholic Beverages
    • Alcohol = central nervous system depressant
      • May appear to act as a stimulant in social situations because it depresses the inhibitory centers of the brain
  • Physiological Effects of Alcohol Consumption
    • Absorbed primarily in small intestine
    • Factors that influence absorption
      • Strength of beverage
      • Number of drinks consumed
      • Speed of consumption
      • Presence of food
      • Body chemistry
      • Race/ethnicity
      • Gender
    • Metabolized in the liver
  • Gender and Alcohol Absorption
    • Women absorb more alcohol more quickly than men
      • Less alcohol dehydrogenase
      • Proportionately more body fat
      • Proportionately less body water
      • Effects of menstrual cycle
  • Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
    • BAC = percentage of alcohol in a measured quantity of blood
    • BAC rises when alcohol is consumed faster than it is metabolized by the liver
      • BAC: 0.05% Changes in behavior
      • BAC: 0.10% Decrease in motor function
      • BAC: 0.25% Body starts to shut down
    • Acute alcohol intoxication = potentially fatal elevation of BAC, often resulting from heavy, rapid consumption of alcohol
  • Alcohol Poisoning
    • Danger signs: Call 911
      • After heavy drinking in a short period of time
      • Unconsciousness, deep stupor
      • Shock
      • Vomiting
      • Weak, rapid pulse
      • Irregular breathing, pale or bluish skin
    • Continue monitoring anyone who has passed out
  • Patterns of Alcohol Use
    • Reasons people drink
      • Effective, affordable, legal psychoactive drug
      • Reduced inhibitions
      • Associated with positive events and characteristics, “good times”
  • College Drinking: Negative Consequences
  • Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Ages 12 or Older
  • How Much Alcohol Do College Students Really Drink?
  • Alcohol Related Problems
    • Alcohol-related medical problems
      • Effects of chronic use
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
    • Alcohol-related psychological problems
      • Alcoholism (Alcohol Dependence)
      • Alcohol abuse
    • Alcohol-related social problems
      • Accidents
      • Crime and violence
      • Suicide
    • Alcohol-related family problems
  • Effects of Alcohol Use on the Body
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE)
    • Alcohol crosses the placenta and can cause birth defects in unborn children
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
      • Low birth weight
      • Mental retardation
      • Facial abnormalities
      • Heart problems
    • Fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
      • Partial expression of FAS
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Alcohol-Related Psychological Problems
    • Alcohol dependence (alcoholism)
      • Primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental influences
      • Tolerance, withdrawal, pattern of compulsive use
      • Physical addiction, serious health effects
    • Alcohol abuse
      • Pattern of drinking that creates personal difficulties or difficulties for other people—harmful consequences
      • Consequences/indications
        • Missing classes, reduced academic performance
        • Blackouts
        • Legal problems
  • Alcohol-Related Social Problems
    • Accidents
      • Motor vehicle collisions
      • Falls
      • Drowning
      • Fires and burns
    • Crime and Violence
    • Suicide
  • Responsible Use of Alcohol
    • Becoming a responsible drinker
      • Avoid parties with heavy drinking and people who are drinking heavily
      • Choose non-alcoholic drinks
      • Participate with others in positive activities
  • Drug Testing
    • Increasingly popular prevention tool
    • Federal employees and contractors
    • Many private companies test to screen job applicants or monitor employee drug use
  • Treatment and Intervention
    • College or University health centers
    • Community programs
    • Hospital facilities
    • Private facilities
    • Inpatient vs. outpatient treatment
    • Self-help groups
  • Chapter Seven: Making Decisions about Drug and Alcohol Use