Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol

6,027
views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine

1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • this is a good slideshow.............
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,027
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
316
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter Seven: Making Decisions about Drug and Alcohol Use
    • 2. Drugs
      • Drug = any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, that by its chemical or physical nature alters structure or function in the living organism
      • Psychoactive drug = any substance capable of altering feelings, moods, or perceptions
    • 3. The Process of Addiction
      • Addictive behavior has three common aspects:
        • Exposure : Introduced to the drug or behavior that is considered pleasurable
        • Compulsion : Time, energy, and money are spent to pursue the behavior. Normal behavior has already degenerated
        • Loss of control: Addicted people lose the ability to control their behavior and results in addiction to more than one drug or behavior
    • 4. Codependence
      • Applies to people who are close to an individual who is addicted to something
      • Characteristics of codependents:
        • Focused on protecting or coping with the addict
        • Lose their sense of identity
        • Experience stress, often resulting in chaotic behaviors, addictions, and physical illnesses
    • 5. Basic Drug Terms and Concepts
      • Central nervous system
      • Routes of drug administration
      • Drug misuse
      • Drug abuse
      • Drug dependence
    • 6. Central Nervous System
      • Neuron : A nerve cell
        • Axon : The portion of a neuron that conducts electrical impulses to the dendrites of adjacent neurons
        • Dendrite : The portion of a neuron that receive electrical stimuli from adjacent neurons
      • Synapse : The location at which an electrical impulse from one neuron is transmitted to an adjacent neuron
      • Neurotransmitters : Chemical messengers that transfer electrical impulses across the synapses between nerve cells
    • 7. Action of Psychoactive Drugs on the Central Nervous System
    • 8. Drug Misuse and Abuse
      • Drug misuse: Inappropriate use of legal drugs intended to be medications
        • Intentional or unintentional
      • Drug abuse: Any use of a legal or illegal drug in a way that is detrimental to health or well-being
    • 9. Drug Dependence
      • Addiction/physical dependence: Compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a substance, habit, or practice to such a degree that cessation causes severe emotional or physiological reactions
        • Withdrawal illness: Uncomfortable response of the body as it attempts to maintain homeostasis in the absence of a drug
        • Tolerance : An acquired reaction to a drug in which the continued intake of the same dose has diminished effects
      • Psychological dependence: Craving a drug for emotional reasons and to maintain a sense of well-being
      • Intoxication : Dysfunctional and disruptive changes in physiological and psychological functioning, mood, and cognitive processes
    • 10. Six Categories of Psychoactive Drugs
      • Stimulants
      • Depressants
      • Hallucinogens
      • Cannabis
      • Narcotics
      • Inhalants
    • 11. Past Month Use of Selected Psychoactive Drugs among Americans 12 and Older
    • 12. Stimulants
      • Key actions: Stimulate the function of the central nervous system
        • Increased heart rate, blood pressure, brain function
        • Feelings of energy, exhilaration
      • Examples:
        • Cocaine
        • Amphetamine
        • Methamphetamine
        • Caffeine
        • Ritalin
        • Ephedra
    • 13. Depressants
      • Key actions: Slow the function of the central nervous system
        • Reduced heart and breathing rates, blood pressure
        • Lowered inhibitions, impaired judgment
        • Sedation, drowsiness, loss of consciousness
      • Examples:
        • Barbiturates
        • Rohypnol
        • Alcohol
        • Tranquilizers
        • GHB
    • 14. Hallucinogens
      • Key actions: Altered states of feeling and perception (hallucinations, distortions of reality)
        • Increased temperature, heart rate, blood pressure
        • Weakness, tremors, nervousness, paranoia
        • Synesthesia (sensation of combining of the senses)
      • Examples:
        • LSD
        • PCP
        • Peyote
        • Ecstasy and designer drugs
    • 15. Cannabis
      • Active ingredient: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
      • Key actions:
        • Euphoria, confusion
        • Slowed thinking and reaction time
        • Impaired balance and coordination
        • Cough, frequent respiratory infections
      • Examples:
        • Hashish
        • Marijuana
    • 16. Narcotics (Opiates)
      • Key actions:
        • Relief of pain, euphoria
        • Reduced heart rate and blood pressure
        • Sedation, drowsiness, confusion
      • Natural and synthetic; derived from the Oriental poppy plant
      • Examples:
        • Opium
        • Morphine
        • Heroin
        • Oxycodone
    • 17. Inhalants
      • Volatile compounds
      • Key actions:
        • Unpredictable, drunklike effects; aggression
        • Euphoria
        • Damage to respiratory and cardiovascular systems
      • Examples:
        • Gasoline
        • Glues
        • Paint
        • Aerosol propellants
        • Nitrites (“laughing gas”)
    • 18. Combination Drug Effects
      • Synergistic effect = heightened or exaggerated effect produced by the concurrent use of two or more drugs
      • Additive effect = combined (but not exaggerated) effect produced by concurrent use of two or more drugs
      • Potentiated effect = the use of one drug intensifies the effect of a second drug
      • Antagonistic effect = effect produced when one drug reduces or offsets the effects of a second drug
    • 19. The Nature of Alcoholic Beverages
      • Ethyl alcohol or ethanol
        • Produced through fermentation
        • May be concentrated through distillation
      • Alcohol content
        • Beer: 4%
        • Wine: 10-14%
        • Port, sherry: 20%
        • Distilled liquors: 40-100%
      • Proof = Twice the alcohol concentration
    • 20. The Nature of Alcoholic Beverages
      • Alcohol = central nervous system depressant
        • May appear to act as a stimulant in social situations because it depresses the inhibitory centers of the brain
    • 21. Physiological Effects of Alcohol Consumption
      • Absorbed primarily in small intestine
      • Factors that influence absorption
        • Strength of beverage
        • Number of drinks consumed
        • Speed of consumption
        • Presence of food
        • Body chemistry
        • Race/ethnicity
        • Gender
      • Metabolized in the liver
    • 22. Gender and Alcohol Absorption
      • Women absorb more alcohol more quickly than men
        • Less alcohol dehydrogenase
        • Proportionately more body fat
        • Proportionately less body water
        • Effects of menstrual cycle
    • 23. Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
      • BAC = percentage of alcohol in a measured quantity of blood
      • BAC rises when alcohol is consumed faster than it is metabolized by the liver
        • BAC: 0.05% Changes in behavior
        • BAC: 0.10% Decrease in motor function
        • BAC: 0.25% Body starts to shut down
      • Acute alcohol intoxication = potentially fatal elevation of BAC, often resulting from heavy, rapid consumption of alcohol
    • 24. Alcohol Poisoning
      • Danger signs: Call 911
        • After heavy drinking in a short period of time
        • Unconsciousness, deep stupor
        • Shock
        • Vomiting
        • Weak, rapid pulse
        • Irregular breathing, pale or bluish skin
      • Continue monitoring anyone who has passed out
    • 25. Patterns of Alcohol Use
      • Reasons people drink
        • Effective, affordable, legal psychoactive drug
        • Reduced inhibitions
        • Associated with positive events and characteristics, “good times”
    • 26. College Drinking: Negative Consequences
    • 27. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Ages 12 or Older
    • 28. How Much Alcohol Do College Students Really Drink?
    • 29. Alcohol Related Problems
      • Alcohol-related medical problems
        • Effects of chronic use
        • Fetal alcohol syndrome
      • Alcohol-related psychological problems
        • Alcoholism (Alcohol Dependence)
        • Alcohol abuse
      • Alcohol-related social problems
        • Accidents
        • Crime and violence
        • Suicide
      • Alcohol-related family problems
    • 30. Effects of Alcohol Use on the Body
    • 31. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE)
      • Alcohol crosses the placenta and can cause birth defects in unborn children
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
        • Low birth weight
        • Mental retardation
        • Facial abnormalities
        • Heart problems
      • Fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
        • Partial expression of FAS
    • 32. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • 33. Alcohol-Related Psychological Problems
      • Alcohol dependence (alcoholism)
        • Primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental influences
        • Tolerance, withdrawal, pattern of compulsive use
        • Physical addiction, serious health effects
      • Alcohol abuse
        • Pattern of drinking that creates personal difficulties or difficulties for other people—harmful consequences
        • Consequences/indications
          • Missing classes, reduced academic performance
          • Blackouts
          • Legal problems
    • 34. Alcohol-Related Social Problems
      • Accidents
        • Motor vehicle collisions
        • Falls
        • Drowning
        • Fires and burns
      • Crime and Violence
      • Suicide
    • 35. Responsible Use of Alcohol
      • Becoming a responsible drinker
        • Avoid parties with heavy drinking and people who are drinking heavily
        • Choose non-alcoholic drinks
        • Participate with others in positive activities
    • 36. Drug Testing
      • Increasingly popular prevention tool
      • Federal employees and contractors
      • Many private companies test to screen job applicants or monitor employee drug use
    • 37. Treatment and Intervention
      • College or University health centers
      • Community programs
      • Hospital facilities
      • Private facilities
      • Inpatient vs. outpatient treatment
      • Self-help groups
    • 38. Chapter Seven: Making Decisions about Drug and Alcohol Use

    ×