Chapter 1


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  • Chapter 1

    1. 1. Chapter One: Shaping Your Health
    2. 2. Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood <ul><li>Forming an initial adult identity (who am I?) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing independence </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Broadening social skills </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing intimacy </li></ul>
    3. 3. Related Developmental Tasks of Young Adulthood <ul><li>Obtaining entry-level employment </li></ul><ul><li>Developing parenting skills </li></ul>
    4. 4. Developmental Tasks of Middle Adulthood <ul><li>Achieving generativity—giving back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing to the collective good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional way in which people repay society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reassessing plans of young adulthood— one’s original goals and objectives </li></ul>
    5. 5. Developmental Tasks of Older Adulthood <ul><li>Accepting changes of aging </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining physical functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Reassessing a sense of integrity—a sense of wholeness concerning life’s journey </li></ul>
    6. 6. Today’s College Students <ul><li>Traditional-age students </li></ul><ul><li>Nontraditional-age students </li></ul><ul><li>Minority students </li></ul><ul><li>Students with disabilities </li></ul>
    7. 7. Traditional Definitions of Health <ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morbidity: pertaining to illness and disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality: pertaining to death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Episodic health care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking medical treatment when ill or injured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventive or prospective medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying risk factors and high-risk health behaviors to lower the risk of illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Health Promotion: Personal and Collective Empowerment <ul><li>Individually oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Group oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Wellness </li></ul>
    9. 9. Individually-Oriented Health Promotion <ul><li>Individual focuses on personal goals—may overlap with risk reduction for chronic illness </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on fitness, social interaction, and healthy lifestyle </li></ul>
    10. 10. Group-Oriented Health Promotion <ul><li>Community places emphasis on a group centered concept to promote empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment: Gain more self control over one’s health perspective (for example, drug prevention within communities at risk) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Wellness <ul><li>A process intended to aid individuals in unlocking their full potential through the development of an overall wellness lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May not focus on mortality and morbidity but in practice shares many risk-reduction activities with health promotion approaches </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Institute of Medicine (2003) Priority Health Concerns <ul><li>Treat asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate care for 60+ million chronic disease sufferers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Develop evidence-based cancer screenings </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance rates of flu and pneumonia immunization </li></ul>
    13. 13. Institute of Medicine (2003) Priority of Health Concerns <ul><li>Improve detection of depression </li></ul><ul><li>Promote CVD prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce tobacco dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Widen availability of prenatal care </li></ul>
    14. 14. Why Behavior Change Is Often Difficult <ul><li>Several factors influence a person’s desire to change a health behavior—the person must </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the behavior is associated with a health problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept that the behavior increases personal risk for the health problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that risk-reduction intervention programs exist and can be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe the benefits of the new behavior justify the change in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel that significant others will be accepting of such changes </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Stages of Change <ul><li>Prochaska et al. (1994) identified the following six stages people go through in changing health behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precontemplation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Multiple Dimensions of Health <ul><li>Physical dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Social dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental dimension </li></ul>
    17. 17. Dimensions of Health and Developmental Tasks
    18. 18. A New Definition of Health <ul><li>A view less centered on the concepts of morbidity and mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Two areas of differences to focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) The role of health (process of transitions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) The composition of health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. A New Definition of Health <ul><li>One’s ability to use the intrinsic and extrinsic resources related to each dimension of health to participate fully in the activities that contribute to growth and development, with the goal of feeling a sense of well-being as one evaluates one’s progress through life </li></ul>
    20. 20. Chapter One: Shaping Your Health