Becoming Physically Fit
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Becoming Physically Fit

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Becoming Physically Fit Becoming Physically Fit Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
  • Basic Concepts
    • Physical fitness
      • A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
    • Physical activity
      • Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure
    • Exercise (subset of physical activity)
      • Planned, structured, and repetitive activity designed to improve or maintain physical fitness
  • Four Components of Physical Fitness
    • Cardiorespiratory endurance
      • Aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise
    • Muscular fitness
      • Strength vs. endurance
    • Flexibility
    • Body composition
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time
    • Produced by exercise involving continuous, repetitive movements
      • Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling
    • Aerobic (with oxygen) energy production
    • Structural and functional benefits
  • Muscular Fitness
    • Strength : Ability to contract skeletal muscles to a maximal level
    • Endurance : Ability to contract skeletal muscles repeatedly over a long period of time
    • Improved by performing repeated contractions at less than maximal levels
  • Flexibility and Body Composition
    • Flexibility : Ability of your joints to move through an intended range of motion
    • Body composition: The make-up of the body in terms of muscle, bone, fat, water, and minerals
      • Fitness experts are most concerned with percentages of body fat and fat-free weight
  • Developing a Personalized Fitness Program: Key Principles
    • Overload : Placing increasing amounts of stress or resistance on the body causes changes that improve fitness
    • Specificity : The type of exercise must be specific to the outcome that is targeted for improvement
    • Reversibility (regression): “Use it or lose it”
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training Factors
    • Mode
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Duration
  • Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance Program
    • Mode of activity
      • Continuous activity
      • Using large muscle groups
      • Aerobic in nature
      • Enjoyable
      • Cross-train and/or vary activities to maintain motivation
  • Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program
    • Frequency (How often should I train?)
      • 3-5 times/week
      • More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement
      • Less than 3 times/week will not show significant improvement
  • Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program
    • Intensity (How hard should I train?)
      • Target heart rate (THR) = Between 65% and 90% of maximum heart rate
      • Maximum heart rate can be estimated by subtracting your age from 220
    • Target heart rate range = (220 – age) x 65-90%
      • Sample calculation for a 20-year-old:
          • 220 - 20 = 200 x 0.65 = 130 bpm
          • 220 - 20 = 200 x 0.90 = 180 bpm
  • Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program
    • Duration
      • ACSM recommends 20-60 minutes of continuous activity
      • The lower the intensity, the longer the duration should be
  • Muscular Fitness
    • Types of Muscular Fitness Exercises
    • Isometric (“same length”): Muscle contraction without movement
    • Isotonic (“same tension”): Muscle contraction with movement against a specific fixed resistance throughout the full range of motion
    • Isokinetic (“same motion”): Muscle contraction with movement against variable resistance through the full range of motion at a fixed speed
  • Muscular Fitness: Equipment
  • Muscular Fitness
    • Frequency: 2 times/week
    • One set of 8-12 repetitions (10-15 repetitions for adults over 50) of 8-10 exercises
      • Multiple sets could provide greater benefits
    • Sufficient resistance to fatigue major muscle groups (legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back)
    • Training recommendations
      • Isotonic or isokinetic exercises
      • Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing
  • Major Muscle Groups
  • Flexibility
    • Failure to maintain flexibility can result in reduced range of motion and injury
    • Two forms of stretching motions:
      • Static stretching: Slow lengthening of a muscle group to an extended stretch, followed by a hold of the extended position for 10-30 seconds
        • Recommended
      • Ballistic stretching: A bouncing form of stretching in which a muscle group is lengthened repetitively to produce multiple quick, forceful stretches
  • Flexibility Training
    • Stretch all major muscle groups
    • 2-3 times/week
    • Should be done following a warm-up
    • Static stretching is preferred over ballistic stretching
    • Hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds
  • Body Composition
    • Measurement of percent body fat is often included in a fitness program
    • To reduce body fat, an exercise program should maximize caloric expenditure
      • ACSM recommends exercise sessions expending 300-400 calories
  • The Workout Routine
    • Warm-up (5-10 minutes of slow, gradual, comfortable movements related to the upcoming activity; can end with a period of stretching)
    • Conditioning (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and/or flexibility workout following ACSM guidelines)
    • Cooldown (5-10 minutes of relaxing exercises to return the body to a resting state)
  • Exercise and Aging
    • Change is gradual
    • Individual differences occur
    • Greatest change is noted in areas of complex function
    • Homeostatic decline occurs with age
    • Stay physically active to slow physical decline
  • Changes in Older Adults
    • Decrease in bone mass and changes in bone structure
    • Decrease in muscle bulk and strength
    • Decrease in cardiorespiratory endurance
    • Loss of nerve cells
    • Decrease hearing and vision abilities
    • Decrease in sensory modalities
    • Slower reaction time
    • Gait and postural changes
  • Exercise for Older Adults
    • Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50
    • Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary
    • Physical exams are recommended before beginning a program
    • Well-designed programs should start slowly
    • Recognize signs of distress
  • Special Health Concerns
    • Low-back pain
      • Affects 4 out of 5 adults at least once in their lifetimes
      • Mechanical (postural) problems tend to be the main culprit
      • Regular physical activity greatly reduces the occurrences of low-back pain
  • Special Health Concerns
    • Osteoporosis
      • Decreased bone mass; may lead to fractures
      • 80% of suffers are women
      • Lower level of estrogen may decrease calcium absorption
      • Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake; weight bearing exercise
    • Osteoarthritis
      • Joint inflammation
      • Common in older adults
      • Often occurs in weight-bearing joints
      • Genetic predisposition is also a key factor
      • Regular physical activity may reduce the risk for osteoarthritis
  • Training Recommendations
    • Drink enough fluid before, during, and after activity
    • Wear comfortable clothing that promotes temperature regulation
    • Use appropriate safety equipment
  • Effects of Steroids
  • Exercise Injuries: Strategies for Prevention and Care
    • Start at a low level and progress gradually
    • If you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the level at which you stopped
    • Listen to your body
    • Follow rehabilitation instructions carefully
    • Develop a preventive approach to all injuries
  • Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit