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Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
Becoming Physically Fit
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Becoming Physically Fit

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    • 1. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
    • 2. Basic Concepts <ul><li>Physical fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise (subset of physical activity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned, structured, and repetitive activity designed to improve or maintain physical fitness </li></ul></ul>
    • 3. Four Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscular fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength vs. endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul>
    • 4. Cardiorespiratory Endurance <ul><li>Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by exercise involving continuous, repetitive movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerobic (with oxygen) energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Structural and functional benefits </li></ul>
    • 5. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Strength : Ability to contract skeletal muscles to a maximal level </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance : Ability to contract skeletal muscles repeatedly over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Improved by performing repeated contractions at less than maximal levels </li></ul>
    • 6. Flexibility and Body Composition <ul><li>Flexibility : Ability of your joints to move through an intended range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition: The make-up of the body in terms of muscle, bone, fat, water, and minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness experts are most concerned with percentages of body fat and fat-free weight </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. Developing a Personalized Fitness Program: Key Principles <ul><li>Overload : Placing increasing amounts of stress or resistance on the body causes changes that improve fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity : The type of exercise must be specific to the outcome that is targeted for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Reversibility (regression): “Use it or lose it” </li></ul>
    • 8. Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training Factors <ul><li>Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul>
    • 9. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance Program <ul><li>Mode of activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using large muscle groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-train and/or vary activities to maintain motivation </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program <ul><li>Frequency (How often should I train?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-5 times/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 3 times/week will not show significant improvement </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program <ul><li>Intensity (How hard should I train?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target heart rate (THR) = Between 65% and 90% of maximum heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum heart rate can be estimated by subtracting your age from 220 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target heart rate range = (220 – age) x 65-90% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample calculation for a 20-year-old: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>220 - 20 = 200 x 0.65 = 130 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>220 - 20 = 200 x 0.90 = 180 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACSM recommends 20-60 minutes of continuous activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lower the intensity, the longer the duration should be </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Types of Muscular Fitness Exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Isometric (“same length”): Muscle contraction without movement </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic (“same tension”): Muscle contraction with movement against a specific fixed resistance throughout the full range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Isokinetic (“same motion”): Muscle contraction with movement against variable resistance through the full range of motion at a fixed speed </li></ul>
    • 14. Muscular Fitness: Equipment
    • 15. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Frequency: 2 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>One set of 8-12 repetitions (10-15 repetitions for adults over 50) of 8-10 exercises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple sets could provide greater benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sufficient resistance to fatigue major muscle groups (legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back) </li></ul><ul><li>Training recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic or isokinetic exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Major Muscle Groups
    • 17. Flexibility <ul><li>Failure to maintain flexibility can result in reduced range of motion and injury </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of stretching motions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static stretching: Slow lengthening of a muscle group to an extended stretch, followed by a hold of the extended position for 10-30 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballistic stretching: A bouncing form of stretching in which a muscle group is lengthened repetitively to produce multiple quick, forceful stretches </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Flexibility Training <ul><li>Stretch all major muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>Should be done following a warm-up </li></ul><ul><li>Static stretching is preferred over ballistic stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds </li></ul>
    • 19. Body Composition <ul><li>Measurement of percent body fat is often included in a fitness program </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce body fat, an exercise program should maximize caloric expenditure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACSM recommends exercise sessions expending 300-400 calories </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. The Workout Routine <ul><li>Warm-up (5-10 minutes of slow, gradual, comfortable movements related to the upcoming activity; can end with a period of stretching) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and/or flexibility workout following ACSM guidelines) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooldown (5-10 minutes of relaxing exercises to return the body to a resting state) </li></ul>
    • 21. Exercise and Aging <ul><li>Change is gradual </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences occur </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest change is noted in areas of complex function </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic decline occurs with age </li></ul><ul><li>Stay physically active to slow physical decline </li></ul>
    • 22. Changes in Older Adults <ul><li>Decrease in bone mass and changes in bone structure </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in muscle bulk and strength </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in cardiorespiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease hearing and vision abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in sensory modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Slower reaction time </li></ul><ul><li>Gait and postural changes </li></ul>
    • 23. Exercise for Older Adults <ul><li>Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exams are recommended before beginning a program </li></ul><ul><li>Well-designed programs should start slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize signs of distress </li></ul>
    • 24. Special Health Concerns <ul><li>Low-back pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects 4 out of 5 adults at least once in their lifetimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical (postural) problems tend to be the main culprit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity greatly reduces the occurrences of low-back pain </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Special Health Concerns <ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased bone mass; may lead to fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of suffers are women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower level of estrogen may decrease calcium absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake; weight bearing exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in older adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often occurs in weight-bearing joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition is also a key factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity may reduce the risk for osteoarthritis </li></ul></ul>
    • 26. Training Recommendations <ul><li>Drink enough fluid before, during, and after activity </li></ul><ul><li>Wear comfortable clothing that promotes temperature regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate safety equipment </li></ul>
    • 27. Effects of Steroids
    • 28. Exercise Injuries: Strategies for Prevention and Care <ul><li>Start at a low level and progress gradually </li></ul><ul><li>If you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the level at which you stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to your body </li></ul><ul><li>Follow rehabilitation instructions carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a preventive approach to all injuries </li></ul>
    • 29. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit

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