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Becoming Physically Fit
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Becoming Physically Fit

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  • Image source: Ryan McVay/Getty Images
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
    • 2. Basic Concepts
      • Physical fitness
        • A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
      • Physical activity
        • Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure
      • Exercise (subset of physical activity)
        • Planned, structured, and repetitive activity designed to improve or maintain physical fitness
    • 3. Four Components of Physical Fitness
      • Cardiorespiratory endurance
        • Aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise
      • Muscular fitness
        • Strength vs. endurance
      • Flexibility
      • Body composition
    • 4. Cardiorespiratory Endurance
      • Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time
      • Produced by exercise involving continuous, repetitive movements
        • Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling
      • Aerobic (with oxygen) energy production
      • Structural and functional benefits
    • 5. Muscular Fitness
      • Strength : Ability to contract skeletal muscles to a maximal level
      • Endurance : Ability to contract skeletal muscles repeatedly over a long period of time
      • Improved by performing repeated contractions at less than maximal levels
    • 6. Flexibility and Body Composition
      • Flexibility : Ability of your joints to move through an intended range of motion
      • Body composition: The make-up of the body in terms of muscle, bone, fat, water, and minerals
        • Fitness experts are most concerned with percentages of body fat and fat-free weight
    • 7. Developing a Personalized Fitness Program: Key Principles
      • Overload : Placing increasing amounts of stress or resistance on the body causes changes that improve fitness
      • Specificity : The type of exercise must be specific to the outcome that is targeted for improvement
      • Reversibility (regression): “Use it or lose it”
    • 8. Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training Factors
      • Mode
      • Frequency
      • Intensity
      • Duration
    • 9. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance Program
      • Mode of activity
        • Continuous activity
        • Using large muscle groups
        • Aerobic in nature
        • Enjoyable
        • Cross-train and/or vary activities to maintain motivation
    • 10. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program
      • Frequency (How often should I train?)
        • 3-5 times/week
        • More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement
        • Less than 3 times/week will not show significant improvement
    • 11. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program
      • Intensity (How hard should I train?)
        • Target heart rate (THR) = Between 65% and 90% of maximum heart rate
        • Maximum heart rate can be estimated by subtracting your age from 220
      • Target heart rate range = (220 – age) x 65-90%
        • Sample calculation for a 20-year-old:
            • 220 - 20 = 200 x 0.65 = 130 bpm
            • 220 - 20 = 200 x 0.90 = 180 bpm
    • 12. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program
      • Duration
        • ACSM recommends 20-60 minutes of continuous activity
        • The lower the intensity, the longer the duration should be
    • 13. Muscular Fitness
      • Types of Muscular Fitness Exercises
      • Isometric (“same length”): Muscle contraction without movement
      • Isotonic (“same tension”): Muscle contraction with movement against a specific fixed resistance throughout the full range of motion
      • Isokinetic (“same motion”): Muscle contraction with movement against variable resistance through the full range of motion at a fixed speed
    • 14. Muscular Fitness: Equipment
    • 15. Muscular Fitness
      • Frequency: 2 times/week
      • One set of 8-12 repetitions (10-15 repetitions for adults over 50) of 8-10 exercises
        • Multiple sets could provide greater benefits
      • Sufficient resistance to fatigue major muscle groups (legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back)
      • Training recommendations
        • Isotonic or isokinetic exercises
        • Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing
    • 16. Major Muscle Groups
    • 17. Flexibility
      • Failure to maintain flexibility can result in reduced range of motion and injury
      • Two forms of stretching motions:
        • Static stretching: Slow lengthening of a muscle group to an extended stretch, followed by a hold of the extended position for 10-30 seconds
          • Recommended
        • Ballistic stretching: A bouncing form of stretching in which a muscle group is lengthened repetitively to produce multiple quick, forceful stretches
    • 18. Flexibility Training
      • Stretch all major muscle groups
      • 2-3 times/week
      • Should be done following a warm-up
      • Static stretching is preferred over ballistic stretching
      • Hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds
    • 19. Body Composition
      • Measurement of percent body fat is often included in a fitness program
      • To reduce body fat, an exercise program should maximize caloric expenditure
        • ACSM recommends exercise sessions expending 300-400 calories
    • 20. The Workout Routine
      • Warm-up (5-10 minutes of slow, gradual, comfortable movements related to the upcoming activity; can end with a period of stretching)
      • Conditioning (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and/or flexibility workout following ACSM guidelines)
      • Cooldown (5-10 minutes of relaxing exercises to return the body to a resting state)
    • 21. Exercise and Aging
      • Change is gradual
      • Individual differences occur
      • Greatest change is noted in areas of complex function
      • Homeostatic decline occurs with age
      • Stay physically active to slow physical decline
    • 22. Changes in Older Adults
      • Decrease in bone mass and changes in bone structure
      • Decrease in muscle bulk and strength
      • Decrease in cardiorespiratory endurance
      • Loss of nerve cells
      • Decrease hearing and vision abilities
      • Decrease in sensory modalities
      • Slower reaction time
      • Gait and postural changes
    • 23. Exercise for Older Adults
      • Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50
      • Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary
      • Physical exams are recommended before beginning a program
      • Well-designed programs should start slowly
      • Recognize signs of distress
    • 24. Special Health Concerns
      • Low-back pain
        • Affects 4 out of 5 adults at least once in their lifetimes
        • Mechanical (postural) problems tend to be the main culprit
        • Regular physical activity greatly reduces the occurrences of low-back pain
    • 25. Special Health Concerns
      • Osteoporosis
        • Decreased bone mass; may lead to fractures
        • 80% of suffers are women
        • Lower level of estrogen may decrease calcium absorption
        • Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake; weight bearing exercise
      • Osteoarthritis
        • Joint inflammation
        • Common in older adults
        • Often occurs in weight-bearing joints
        • Genetic predisposition is also a key factor
        • Regular physical activity may reduce the risk for osteoarthritis
    • 26. Training Recommendations
      • Drink enough fluid before, during, and after activity
      • Wear comfortable clothing that promotes temperature regulation
      • Use appropriate safety equipment
    • 27. Effects of Steroids
    • 28. Exercise Injuries: Strategies for Prevention and Care
      • Start at a low level and progress gradually
      • If you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the level at which you stopped
      • Listen to your body
      • Follow rehabilitation instructions carefully
      • Develop a preventive approach to all injuries
    • 29. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit