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Organelles

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    Organelles Organelles Presentation Transcript

    • Bellringer
      Based on you experience with the microscope, which was larger, plant cells or bacterial cells?
      How do you think those bacterial cells were able to move around?
    • Agenda
      Collect Homework
      Microscope Skills Lab
      Any Old Assignments (P-T conf. tonight)
      Notes: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
      Membrane and movement
      2 main types of cells
      Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells
    • Cell Membrane & Cytoplasm
      The cell membrane is the outer edge of a cell.
      Membranes are made of specialized fats called “Phospholipids”
      The membrane is filled with a jelly-like fluid called cytoplasm
    • Flagella & Cilia
      Flagella & Cilia are hair-like structures attached to the outside of some cells.
      Unicellular creatures use these to swim.
      Flagella are long and few in number
      Cilia are short and numerous
    • Video Clip: Flagella & Cilia
    • Human Flagella & Cilia:
      Sperm and Lungs
    • Types of Cells
      There are two types of cells:
      Prokaryotes: Simple
      Eukaryotes: Complex
    • Prokaryotes
      Prefix “Pro” means “First”
      Prokaryotes are believed to be the most primitive forms of life
      They have no nucleus, so the DNA floats free in the cytoplasm
      There are no organelles (specialized parts) inside
      Bacteria are Prokaryotic
    • Eukaryotes
      Prefix “Eu” means “New”
      These cells have internal organization
      The DNA is contained within a nucleus that keeps it separate from other parts of cell
      There are organelles specialized for jobs
      Plants and Animals are Eukaryotic
    • List of Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells
      Nucleus
      Ribosomes
      Endoplasmic Reticulum
      Golgi Apparatus
      Mitochondria
      Lysosomes
      Vacuoles
    • Nucleus
      The nucleus contains the cell’s DNA.
      It is large enough to be easily seen under a microscope
      DNA is the coded instructions for telling the rest of the cell how to make proteins.
    • Ribosomes
      Ribosomes are small structures where proteins are assembled.
      Some ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
      Some ribosomes are ‘free floating’ in the cytoplasm.
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      The Endoplasmic Reticulum is a series of flattened tubes attached to the nucleus
      There are two types.
      Rough ER
      Smooth ER
    • Rough ER
      Rough ER is called rough, because it has ribosomes attached to the outer membrane.
      Proteins made by the ribosomes enter into the rough ER where it is stored and chemically modified.
    • Smooth ER
      Smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached to the outer membrane; therefore, it has a “smooth” appearance.
      In the smooth ER, lipids are assembled and detoxification (breaking down harmful substances) occurs.
    • Golgi Apparatus
      Golgi apparatus’ function is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials (lipids) from the ER and transport them to the outside of the cell.
    • Summary of Protein Building and Transportation within Cells
      1) DNA within the Nucleus has instructions
      2) Instructions are brought to the ribosomes by a chemical signal
      3) Ribosomes in the Rough ER build the protein
      4) ER packages assembled proteins and sends them to the Golgi Apparatus
      5) Golgi Apparatus receives proteins and lipids, then repackages them to be sent to next destination in the body.
    • Mitochondria
      Mitochondria are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food (glucose) into a usable form (ATP).
      This process is called cellular respiration
    • Lysosomes
      Lysosomes are small organelles filled with digestive enzymes.
      These enzymes function in breaking down and recycling molecules within the cell.
    • Vacuoles
      Vacuoles store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates for the cell to use at a later time.