Based on you experience with the
microscope, which was larger, plant
cells or bacterial cells?
How do you think those bacterial cells
were able to move around?
– Microscope Skills Lab
– Any Old Assignments (P-T conf. tonight)
Notes: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
– Membrane and movement
– 2 main types of cells
– Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells
Cell Membrane & Cytoplasm
The cell membrane is the outer
edge of a cell.
Membranes are made of
specialized fats called
The membrane is filled with a
jelly-like fluid called cytoplasm
Flagella & Cilia
Flagella & Cilia are hair-like structures
attached to the outside of some cells.
Unicellular creatures use these to swim.
– Flagella are long and few in number
– Cilia are short and numerous
Types of Cells
There are two types of cells:
– Prokaryotes: Simple
– Eukaryotes: Complex
Prefix “Pro” means “First”
Prokaryotes are believed to be
the most primitive forms of life
– They have no nucleus, so the
DNA floats free in the cytoplasm
– There are no organelles
(specialized parts) inside
Bacteria are Prokaryotic
Prefix “Eu” means “New”
These cells have internal organization
– The DNA is contained within a nucleus that
keeps it separate from other parts of cell
– There are organelles specialized for jobs
Plants and Animals are Eukaryotic
List of Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells
The nucleus contains the cell’s DNA.
It is large enough to be easily seen under
DNA is the coded instructions for telling
the rest of the cell how to make proteins.
Ribosomes are small structures where
proteins are assembled.
– Some ribosomes are attached to the
– Some ribosomes are ‘free floating’ in the
The Endoplasmic Reticulum is a series
of flattened tubes attached to the nucleus
There are two types.
– Rough ER
– Smooth ER
Rough ER is called rough, because it
has ribosomes attached to the outer
Proteins made by the ribosomes enter
into the rough ER where it is stored and
Smooth ER does not have ribosomes
attached to the outer membrane;
therefore, it has a “smooth” appearance.
In the smooth ER, lipids are assembled
and detoxification (breaking down
harmful substances) occurs.
Golgi apparatus’ function is to modify,
sort, and package proteins and other
materials (lipids) from the ER and
transport them to the outside of the cell.
Summary of Protein Building and
Transportation within Cells
1) DNA within the Nucleus has instructions
2) Instructions are brought to the ribosomes by
a chemical signal
3) Ribosomes in the Rough ER build the protein
4) ER packages assembled proteins and
sends them to the Golgi Apparatus
5) Golgi Apparatus receives proteins and lipids,
then repackages them to be sent to next
destination in the body.
Mitochondria are organelles that convert
the chemical energy stored in food
(glucose) into a usable form (ATP).
This process is called cellular respiration
Lysosomes are small organelles filled with
These enzymes function in breaking down
and recycling molecules within the cell.
Vacuoles store materials such as water,
salts, proteins, and carbohydrates for
the cell to use at a later time.
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