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  • 1. No Bellringer This Week
  • 2. Agenda
    • NOTES: Mitosis
      • Details of Chromosome Structure
      • Organelles Involved in Division
      • Mnemonic Device for PMATC
      • Details of each step of Mitosis
  • 3. Structure of Chromosomes
    • Chromosomes are tightly packed bundles of DNA that look like the letter X.
    • The left and right halves of chromosomes are identical strands called “Sister Chromatids”.
    • The spot where the chromatids connect together is called the centromere.
  • 4. Chromosomes
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. Nuclear Membrane
    • The Nuclear Membrane is the outer skin of the nucleus.
    • It is the the “Sac” that holds Chromatin.
    • It is sometimes called the Nuclear Envelope.
  • 8. Cytoskeleton
    • The cytoskeleton is a network of protein fibers that run throughout the cell.
    • These fibers maintain the shape of a cell and act as tiny muscles to stretch and move.
  • 9. BLUE = Microtubules GREEN = Intermediate Filaments RED = Microfilaments
  • 10. Mitotic Spindle
    • The mitotic spindle is a collection of fibers that pull chromosomes apart during mitosis.
    • It has 3 major components
      • Centrioles: A pair of organelles that anchor the mitotic spindle at opposite ends of the cell.
      • Asters: Short fibers that radiate out from the centrioles in order to hold their position
      • Kinetechore fibers: Long fibers that pull chromosomes apart and toward either end of cell.
  • 11.
  • 12. Steps of Mitosis
    • Mitosis is the division of Eukaryotic Cells.
    • It has 5 steps
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase
      • Cytokinesis
  • 13. Pass Me Another Tasty Cupcake
  • 14. Pimps Make All That Cash
  • 15. Pet My Alligator, Tom Cruise
  • 16. P.M.A.T.C.
    • Pass Me Another Tasty Cupcake
    • Pimps Make All That Cash
    • Pet My Alligator, Tom Cruise
  • 17. Prophase
    • Chromatin in the DNA coils to make chromosomes
    • The nuclear membrane breaks down, releasing chromosomes into the cytoplasm
    • Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and the mitotic spindle forms between them.
    • Kinetechore fibers from each half of the spindle attach to the centromere region of each chromosome.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Metaphase
    • Kinetechore fibers of the spindle move chromosomes towards center of the cell.
    • By the end of this phase all chromosomes are lined up along the “equator”.
  • 21. Metaphase Chromosomes lined at the Equator Asters at the poles Spindle Fibers
  • 22.
  • 23. Anaphase
    • Chromosomes are split apart and Sister chromatids are pulled in opposite directions
    • This occurs very quickly ( Less than 5 minutes )
  • 24. Anaphase Sister Chromatids being separated
  • 25. Telophase
    • Sister chromatids arrive at opposite ends of the cell and begin converting back into chromatin.
    • A nuclear envelope forms around each set of DNA to create new nuclei.
    • The mitotic spindle is broken down.
  • 26.
  • 27. Cytokinesis
    • The Cell Membrane pinches together between the 2 newly formed nuclei
    • This movement is done by the cytoskeleton.
  • 28. BrainPOP: Mitosis
  • 29. Assignment
    • 17 review questions
    • Due Tomorrow