1) What is a molecule?
2) If you had to guess, what do you think
the term “organic macromolecules” means?
• Mr. Bowden will collect:
• Illustration of the Nitrogen Cycle
• NOTES: Biogeochemical Cycles
• Sub Assignment: Atoms & Molecules
Illustration of Nitrogen Cycle
Notes: Biogeochemical Cycles
Collect Sub Assignment:
Atoms and Molecules Worksheet
GUIDED NOTES: Biochemistry & Properties of Water
Students practice drawing molecules
Everything in the universe is made of tinyEverything in the universe is made of tiny
particles called atomsparticles called atoms
Atoms are very, very small. More thanAtoms are very, very small. More than
make up a single drop of water.make up a single drop of water.
The names of Atoms are abbreviated with 1 or 2The names of Atoms are abbreviated with 1 or 2
letters called the Atomic Symbol.letters called the Atomic Symbol.
The Atomic Symbol of every type of atom isThe Atomic Symbol of every type of atom is
listed in the periodic tablelisted in the periodic table
Molecules are groups of atoms thatMolecules are groups of atoms that
have been bonded together.have been bonded together.
A formula lists the atoms that make up aA formula lists the atoms that make up a
If an atomic symbol is followed by a small numberIf an atomic symbol is followed by a small number
then that number is how many atoms of that kindthen that number is how many atoms of that kind
are found in the moleculeare found in the molecule
Example:Example: NHNH33 = 1 Nitrogen, 3 Hydrogen= 1 Nitrogen, 3 Hydrogen
““Organic” is a word that means Living.Organic” is a word that means Living.
““Macro” is the opposite of “Micro”, so it means Large.Macro” is the opposite of “Micro”, so it means Large.
Organic MacromoleculesOrganic Macromolecules areare large molecules that arelarge molecules that are
found within living thingsfound within living things
Organic molecules are mostly made up of 4 elements:Organic molecules are mostly made up of 4 elements:
TYPES OF MACROMOLECULES
Macromolecules are made byMacromolecules are made by
joining together small unitsjoining together small units
called monomers to formcalled monomers to form
long chains called polymers.long chains called polymers.
There are 4 types:There are 4 types:
Nucleic AcidsNucleic Acids
Water MoleculesWater Molecules
A water molecule (HA water molecule (H22O), is madeO), is made
up of three atoms --- one oxygenup of three atoms --- one oxygen
and two hydrogen.and two hydrogen.
Water is a neutral molecule, because the negativeWater is a neutral molecule, because the negative
charges are balanced by the positive charges.charges are balanced by the positive charges.
However, water molecules are polar, meaningHowever, water molecules are polar, meaning
they have a partially positive side and a partiallythey have a partially positive side and a partially
negative side.negative side.
This polarity is due to an uneven distribution ofThis polarity is due to an uneven distribution of
electrons between the oxygen and hydrogenelectrons between the oxygen and hydrogen
When it comes to electricWhen it comes to electric
charges, opposites attract.charges, opposites attract.
The positive end of oneThe positive end of one
water molecule is attractedwater molecule is attracted
to the negative end ofto the negative end of
This electrical attractionThis electrical attraction
between water moleculesbetween water molecules
forms a connection thatforms a connection that
scientists call a “Hydrogenscientists call a “Hydrogen
Properties of WaterProperties of Water
4 important properties of water:4 important properties of water:
Resistance to Temperature ChangeResistance to Temperature Change
Less Dense as a SolidLess Dense as a Solid
Attraction between particles of a substance.Attraction between particles of a substance.
Cohesive substances stick together.Cohesive substances stick together.
Results inResults in surface tensionsurface tension that produces athat produces a
film allowing insects to walk on the surfacefilm allowing insects to walk on the surface
of waterof water
Attraction between two different substances.Attraction between two different substances.
Water will make hydrogen bonds with otherWater will make hydrogen bonds with other
surfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, andsurfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, and
Attached to a silken spider webAttached to a silken spider web Form spheres & hold onto plant leavesForm spheres & hold onto plant leaves
Resistance to TemperatureResistance to Temperature
Water resistsWater resists
temperature change, bothtemperature change, both
for heating and cooling. Itfor heating and cooling. It
can absorb or releasecan absorb or release
large amounts of heatlarge amounts of heat
energy with little changeenergy with little change
in actual temperature.in actual temperature.
This is because theThis is because the
hydrogen bonds betweenhydrogen bonds between
water molecules work towater molecules work to
keep things in a liquidkeep things in a liquid
Water is Less Dense as a SolidWater is Less Dense as a Solid
Ice is less dense then liquidIce is less dense then liquid
water. That is why icewater. That is why ice
Molecules in Liquid WaterMolecules in Liquid Water
are constantly breaking andare constantly breaking and
reforming hydrogen bonds,reforming hydrogen bonds,
meaning they are closemeaning they are close
Frozen water forms aFrozen water forms a
crystal-like lattice wherebycrystal-like lattice whereby
molecules are spread out atmolecules are spread out at
fixed distances.fixed distances.