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  1. 1. Geography
  2. 2. Location <ul><li>During the end of the Roman Empire, they ruled the Mediterranean Sea and the land around it </li></ul><ul><li>Rome the city was founded on seven hills on the banks of the Tibers River </li></ul><ul><li>Rome was also founded on a peninsula surrounded by the Mediterranean sea </li></ul><ul><li>The Apennines and the Alps mountains surrounded Rome </li></ul>
  3. 3. Expansion <ul><li>By 146 B.C. Rome had conquered the Italian peninsula, all of Spain,Corsica,Sardinia,Sicily,Carthage, and Greece </li></ul><ul><li>By 44 B.C. they had also conquered the Asia Miner,Syria,Gaul,Egypt, and other parts of North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion didn’t help Rome entirely, it weakened the stability of the Government , and brought to many slaves from war into Rome </li></ul>
  4. 4. Urban Decay <ul><li>The poor Romans lived in apartment buildings with six or more stories, these apartment buildings were called islands </li></ul><ul><li>The first floors were not rented to the poor as the went for about 400 dollars a year </li></ul><ul><li>At one time there were 44000 islands in the city of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Any who could not pay their rent were thrown into the crime infested streets causing decay </li></ul>
  5. 5. Punic Wars <ul><li>Both Rome and Carthage singed a treaty in the six century B.C. signed that neither of them would go into each others territory </li></ul><ul><li>This treaty was broken when the Carthaginians attacked Sicily witch is Roman land </li></ul><ul><li>In the second Punic War Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, marched up and down the Italian peninsula inflicting staggering losses on the Roman </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion
  7. 7. Christianity <ul><li>Christians were mistreated for many centuries in the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity only believed in one God (monotheistic) or one diving authority </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike many religions were you’re cremated and your ashes put in an Urn, when you’re a Christian you’re buried in a catacomb with your family were you will be reunited in the after life </li></ul>
  8. 8. Judaism <ul><li>Jews believe in one god (like Christianity) and not many Gods like other religions of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Jews prayed in a Synagogue unlike Christians who prayed in a church </li></ul><ul><li>The Synagogue was made with just enough room for them to pray in </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that Jesus was a holy man but not the son of God unlike the Christians </li></ul>
  9. 9. Greek Mythology <ul><li>Myths about Gods and Goddesses functioned as a religion to the ancient Greek </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks conducted elaborate sacrifices to ensure the favor of their Gods </li></ul><ul><li>The Gods and Goddesses controlled all aspects of life of life including founding cities ,healing the sick, and winning battles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Etruscan Mysticism <ul><li>The Etruscan believed that the Gods would give them sings through nature </li></ul><ul><li>They would interpret lightning before battles and study the flight of birds to predict if there will be good harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan diviners would study the stars to plan the best layout for a new city </li></ul><ul><li>Others would read the internal organs of sheep or other animals before conducting ritual </li></ul>
  11. 11. Achievements
  12. 12. Aqueducts <ul><li>Aqueducts were giant concrete structures </li></ul><ul><li>The aqueducts would carry water from wells, springs, and distant lakes to people in cities </li></ul><ul><li>We still use aqueducts today in modern times to carry water from one place to another </li></ul>
  13. 13. Military Organization <ul><li>Military organization is being able to structure your men into organized groups </li></ul><ul><li>The basic unit of one of these groups was the Legion or also known as foot soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>By dividing the groups it was easier to flank or attack the enemy </li></ul>
  14. 14. Republican Form of Government <ul><li>No one class had to much power </li></ul><ul><li>These power was divided by the senate and other branches </li></ul><ul><li>The people also had the right to vote and elect there new leader through an election instead of him just being chosen </li></ul><ul><li>Many nations use this form of government today including the US </li></ul>
  15. 15. Network of Concrete Roads <ul><li>They built over 250,000 miles of concrete roads all over the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>This made travel faster than it ever will be till rail roads are invented </li></ul><ul><li>Their roads were paved and much smoother </li></ul><ul><li>These roads were made out of crushed stones and small pebbles </li></ul>
  16. 16. Politics
  17. 17. Political Violence and Corruption <ul><li>The Romans never found an effective system to determine who the new emperor would be after the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>After many elections and assassinations the choice fell into the hands of the Praetorian Guard (The Emperors private army) </li></ul><ul><li>Many senators and emperors were assassinated including Julius Caesar who was stabbed 23 times </li></ul>
  18. 18. Trajan <ul><li>In 96 E.C. when Nerva was emperor he appointed Trajan the Governor of the province of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>In 98 E.C. ,when Nerva died, Trajan was appointed emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan’s modest personality, firm decision making, and concern for the people made him one of the most respected and honored emperor </li></ul>
  19. 19. Roman Republic <ul><li>The Roman Republic was not ruled by a king or emperor but by the senate and the people </li></ul><ul><li>Any person, rich or poor , had the right to vote for there new leader </li></ul><ul><li>In 509 B.C. the Romans over through there last Etruscan king and established the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Republic lasted 500 years </li></ul>
  20. 20. Roman Empire <ul><li>The Roman Empire was ruled by an emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Only the emperor , some advisers, and his general made the critical decisions </li></ul><ul><li>The first emperor to rule was Augustus adopted son of Julius Cesar </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus ruled for forty years in a time called the Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Empire was after the Republic </li></ul>
  21. 21. Economy
  22. 22. Unemployment <ul><li>Many large estate owners started using slaves instead of the average farmer who you had to pay, this caused many jobless farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of unemployed farmers crowded the cities, where there were not enough jobs to accommodate them </li></ul><ul><li>At one time the emperor was importing grain and feed to over 100,000 unemployed people just in Rome </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3 Punic War <ul><li>After the second Punic war Rome conquered new territories while Carthage didn’t but the Carthaginians ability to rebuild their trade and increase there wealth angered the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>When Roman ambassadors came back from Carthage in 153 B.C. and said “It was more beautiful and larger than Rome” the Romans were especially angered </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans finally did a full scale attack and burned Carthage to the ground then plowed it with salt so nothing would ever grow there </li></ul>
  24. 24. Fall of Rome <ul><li>The Economic crisis in Rome is one of the mane reasons why the Roman empire ended </li></ul><ul><li>After the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius the Pax Romana ended and the beginning of the crisis started </li></ul><ul><li>Many civil wars were sparked and these wars cost money taking more money away from the people </li></ul><ul><li>On top of this silver and gold were declining because the rich were buying goods out of the empire so more gold was leaving than coming </li></ul>
  25. 25. Inflation <ul><li>The economy suffered from the increase in prices after the rein of Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><li>When the Romans stopped concurring lands the flow of gold decreased </li></ul><ul><li>Many merchants raised the price on goods and since coins were less valuable people began to barter which means people were being paid in food and clothes </li></ul>
  26. 26. Social Structure
  27. 27. Slaves <ul><li>As Rome concord new lands the flow of slaves into Rome increased </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were much cheaper than farmers because you didn’t have to pay the slaves so large estate owners started buying the putting the farmers out of business </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were usually captured enemy soldiers or a farmer sold into dept bondage </li></ul>
  28. 28. Plebeians <ul><li>Plebeians, compared to patritions, had little to no influence in the roman government </li></ul><ul><li>Some were rich but many were poor merchants, farmers, and artisans </li></ul><ul><li>The plebeians made up 90% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Many farmers on poor harvests would take out a loan just to survive and if they couldn’t pay back that loan they would be sold into debt bondage </li></ul>
  29. 29. Patricians <ul><li>The organization of the roman society highly favored the Patricians </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians were basically the upper class </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians ran the government through their control in the senate </li></ul><ul><li>They also acted as the leaders of the social and economic life </li></ul>
  30. 30. Emperor <ul><li>The first emperor was Octavian or as he earned his new name Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors were at the top of the social pyramid because they had the most respect and power </li></ul><ul><li>The emperor makes all the important decisions like who to attack, building projects, who can be a citizen and how, and much more </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusion I believe that the most important and interesting idea of Rome was their form of government.This idea had a huge influence on Rome and today.Some of the most powerful nations in the world,including the USA,use this form of government.It lasted for 500 years making one of the most powerful and respected nations of that time.It is also interesting that in a time of kings an emperors one city broke off making the republic and becoming very powerful.That is why I believe it is the most important and interesting ideas created by the Romans.