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  1. 1. Geography
  2. 2. Location <ul><li>Rome is located near the center of the Italian Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>This boot shaped finger of land extends from Southern Europe into the Medeteranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>A high mountain range called the Alps seperates the peninsula from the rest of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Several rivers that begin in these mountains flow across the peninsula and reach the medeteranean sea. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Punic Wars <ul><li>Rome’s military strength was tested in a series of wars with Carthage, a city founded by Phoenician sea traders in north Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>The first Punic war began in 264 b.c.,when Rome sent troops to sicily, and island claimed by Carthage. </li></ul><ul><li>The first Punic war ended over 20 years later. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Expansion <ul><li>The expansion of Rome brought many new things to wealthy Romans such as foods like Caviar, Anchovies, Peacocks, eels and whine. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with this upside for the wealthy there was also a down side for the poor. Such as, when the expansion began the poor Romans’ land was taken away from them. Then they ran out of work and as a result Rome’s poverty grew larger. </li></ul><ul><li>Another upside to the expansion was as the empire grew the Roman army grew with it. And the bigger the army was the safer the empire was beginning to be. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Resources <ul><li>Although in Ancient Rome there were many resources the most commonly used was the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean Sea was one of the most common resources in Rome because there you could collect many resources such as seaweed, fish, such as eel and octopus. </li></ul><ul><li>Another resource in Rome was Rome’s river, the Tiber. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tiber River provided Rome with fresh fish and water. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion
  7. 7. Spread of Christianity <ul><li>In Rome when Christianity was first discovered the ruler of Rome did not approve, so whenever someone admitted they were Christian they would be either stoned or killed. </li></ul><ul><li>After a couple a years of this the emperors started to believe in Christianity because of the Christians bravery of not denying their faith. </li></ul><ul><li>When the emperor embraced Christianity many people admitted their Christianity and many people started to learn more about Christianity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. God Worship <ul><li>In Ancient Rome there was the belief in one God which is Monotheism. But there was also the belief in many Gods which is called Polytheism. Although Monotheism was popular Polytheism was more common. </li></ul><ul><li>Some female Gods’ names were Libitina, Goddess of the under world, Minerva, Goddess of the city, Diana, Goddess of wild things, and Venus, Goddess of love. </li></ul><ul><li>Some popular male Roman Gods were Neptune, God of the seas, Mercury, God of commerce, Mars, the God of war, and Cupid, the God of love. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Animal Sacrifice <ul><li>In ancient Rome People would sacrifice an animal of their choosing, a chicken to a cow, it usually matters to what God their sacrificing to. The ritual was usually led by the chief priest. </li></ul><ul><li>The animal to be sacrificed would be dressed up for the occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally this might include some gold on the horns of the animal, a frilly collar and a crown of leaves taken from the plant or tree most sacred to the divinity in question. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Judaism <ul><li>Judaism is a unique religion that has many beliefs. For example, Jews did not believe killing was right. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews also were monotheistic which is the belief in one god. </li></ul><ul><li>Jew also believed that instead of having dead family members cremated, they would have them buried in a cemetery. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Jews only worship in Jewish synagogues that have just the right amount of space to pray and worship their God. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Achievements
  12. 12. Aqueducts <ul><li>One very important achievement was aqueducts. They were pipes used to store water and they also used these pipes into places that needed water in ancient Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>They were first created in Rome between 312 B.C and 260 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>They were as long as 59 miles long. </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts were also built by slaves or people who couldn’t pay off their taxes and such. </li></ul><ul><li>These slaves used bricks, concrete, and sometimes soft stone that they could sand down. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Latin Languages <ul><li>In ancient Rome there were many types of languages but the most common was Latin. This language was also known as the language of love. </li></ul><ul><li>This language was also known throughout varies countries because of the spread of Roman power they always used Latin as the language they used when trading. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin was also known as the language of scholarship and diplomacy in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Latin language was not known to Italy but was brought into the Italian Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin was brought into Italy during prehistoric times by Italic peoples who migrated from Rome. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Concrete Roads <ul><li>The Roman empire had the most advanced set of technology of their time, some of which may have been lost during the turbulent areas of late antiquity of the early middle ages. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans created concrete roads to make travel faster and easier for Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans also used concrete roads for armies to travel to where there battles were, they also used these roads for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans would use hardened mud bricks and concrete made from different minerals to make a long lasting foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>And this material of concrete they used made it so strong most roads are still standing today. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Art/Architecture <ul><li>Ancient Rome was big on art and architecture, some Romans would even make murals for the God of their choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Some wealthy Romans had a special room in their homes in which they would have pictures and murals covering all four walls. </li></ul><ul><li>This room also had pottery in all the corners of the room. </li></ul><ul><li>They would also have a fountain in the center of the room so guests would have fresh water to drink. </li></ul><ul><li>Also in the room have murals even on the ceiling where they would have pictures relating to the Gods or the heavens. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Politics
  17. 17. Political corruption <ul><li>In Rome political violence was very common, because if someone took over as ruler and not everyone was in favor with him then he was often murdered or killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Another common event was if the emperor made a bad judgment his power was questioned and tried. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes if an emperor made a law or rule that offended many people there could be a large revolt against that empire and emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually revolts led to never ending wars and other problems. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Collapse of the Roman Empire <ul><li>The collapse of the Roman empire occurred mainly because of the weak stability of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>And the government was weak because of high taxes, and because of the lack of morals in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman empire had no standard way to choose a ruler so Rome was filled with violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people also believed the collapse occurred because of the results from the expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>They thought this because people weren’t able to pay taxes so their land was taken away from them so Rome’s poverty levels went up higher than ever. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Economy
  20. 20. Trade <ul><li>In Ancient Rome trade was very popular and common. Goods were always shipped by sea since Romans controlled the Mediterranean, it was safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans carried wheat from Rome to Egypt. They carried wine, olive oil, and pottery to Europe and the Greek islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman roads were often built for military purposes but goods were also traveled on Roman roads. </li></ul><ul><li>As trade became more useful, provincial cities became centers of industry and commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Roman trade routes extended well beyond the empire. Pottery was shipped west to Great Britain and east to India. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Currency <ul><li>Economic growth in the empire was helped by the creation of a stable currency. </li></ul><ul><li>After being crowned ruler, Augustus issued a new currency in the form of the coin. </li></ul><ul><li>The main coin was the gold Denarius. </li></ul><ul><li>A gold Denarius was worth twelve times more than a silver one. </li></ul><ul><li>The value of the Denarius remained stable as long as it contained the same amount of gold or silver. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Roman Colonies <ul><li>Roman rulers allowed people in the provinces to follow their own customs and culture. However, emperors encouraged the spread of Greco and Roman culture in many ways. </li></ul><ul><li>One way was by establishing colonies in distant lands. Augustus founded more than one hundred colonies throughout Gual, Spain and South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>The people who stayed in these colonies missed the pleasure of their homelands. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, cities far from Italy had temples, public baths and essential public forums for gatherings. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Pax-Romana <ul><li>Pax-Romana was a peaceful time in Rome where everyone lived in peace and harmony. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth and colonization helped the Roman Empire expand during the Pax-Romana. </li></ul><ul><li>The leader during the time of the Pax-Romana was Octavion, Julius Caesar’s adopted son. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavion gained power after Julius Caesar ruled Rome as dictator for life until his assassination in 44 B.C. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Social Structures
  25. 25. Role of Men <ul><li>The father or grandfather in a Roman family was called the pater familias, or “head of the household”. </li></ul><ul><li>His place in the family resembled the king’s place in the old monarchy. As head of the household, the father had absolute and unlimited power. </li></ul><ul><li>He owned all of the family’s property. He even had control over his children, wife and slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The father could sell his children in to slavery if he wanted to. He could even kill them. When the father died, the eldest son took over. </li></ul><ul><li>If he had no son, his wife and daughters would take his place and have control over his closest male relative. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Role of Women <ul><li>In ancient Rome, women had the right to own their own land. Although Roman law required that women have male guardians throughout their lives, women in Rome actually had quite great control over their property. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important role of Roman women was to raise children and teach them traditional values. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal woman was a good wife and mother, who spent her time tending to her home and family. </li></ul><ul><li>As Rome grew in wealth, the role of Patrician women changed. Slaves took over the majority of the household work, and wealthy women gained more freedom to go out in public. </li></ul><ul><li>Some had influence in the political affairs of Rome, even though they could not vote or hold public office. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Patricians <ul><li>Rome was divided into two groups called ‘orders’. One group was made up of Patricians. </li></ul><ul><li>The word ‘Patrician’ comes from the Latin word ‘pater’, meaning father. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Patricians took great pride in belonging to a noble family. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Religious Leaders <ul><li>In the early Roman republic, two officials called Consuls took over the jobs once owned by the king. </li></ul><ul><li>The Consuls stood as the highest officials in the Roman government. </li></ul><ul><li>The aristocratic senate held most of the power. </li></ul><ul><li>The aristocratic senate passed laws and ran the government; although the assembly still existed, it also became controlled by aristocrats. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The most important event that has occurred in Rome that I have learned about has to be expansion. Overall expansion had the biggest effect on Rome. First due to Rome’s expansion Rome’s poverty levels went up higher than they should have been in the first place. Because of Romans not being able to pay for their farmland or not being able to pay their taxes, they went homeless and had to live on the streets. Although the expansion had a negative effect on the poor people of Rome it had an opposite effect on the wealthy. The Wealthy people of Rome had more imports of new food. They even had eel and seaweed imported to them. That is why I think expansion is the most important event that occurred in Rome.