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  1. 1. Geography
  2. 2. Rome’s Location <ul><li>Rome was located on seven hills. Ancient Rome relied on their axis to the sea for the international trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tiber R iver went through Ancient Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people lived on the steep Seven Hills. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Expansion <ul><li>Rome was first a collection of tiny villages. </li></ul><ul><li>By 600 B.C. the villages formed a city covering Seven Hills. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome’s population increased to around 80,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>The location of Rome played a major role in its growth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Urban Decay <ul><li>Most of the people in Rome were not wealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Romans lived in crime infested streets. </li></ul><ul><li>Because people were living on the streets, cities started to decay. Many believed that this lead to the falling of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Although most were poor, there were few wealthy Romans who lived in a domus with marble walls, beautiful tiled floors and small pains of glass windows. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Punic Wars <ul><li>Rome sent troops to Sicily which caused the first Punic War. </li></ul><ul><li>After 20 years of fighting Carthage finally agreed to turn over Sicily to the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the first Punic War was fighting over a country. </li></ul><ul><li>A general launched a second Punic War, he brought with him a lot of men and a couple elephants. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman leaders vowed to end the power of Carthage forever. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion
  7. 7. Priests <ul><li>All the top officials of the government also served as priests to the people. </li></ul><ul><li>The priests performed services and religious rituals at important events. </li></ul><ul><li>Just as people rebelled against the government, they rebelled from the priests as well. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Worshipping of Gods <ul><li>The Romans were known for worshipping a hundred Gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Several of these Gods came from the Greek and Etruscan religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman people also believed that gods lived in sacred spots. </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Juno, Mars, and Minerva were the main gods of Rome. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Temples <ul><li>Although Romans had shrines in their homes, they liked to worship in public at the Great Temples. </li></ul><ul><li>It was known that Romans prayed to the household spirits because they thought they shaped their daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the spirits they prayed to was called Lares, and Lares were the spirits of the family ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman’s had faith that the Lares could protect their homes from evil things. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rise in Christianity <ul><li>Peter and Paul helped the church spread its boundaries beyond Jerusalem, until it included more non-jews than jews. </li></ul><ul><li>Historians say that Christianity made its followers start to oppose the war and this made it more difficult to defend Roman lands from the barbarians. </li></ul><ul><li>Historians also say that the Church attracted many leaders who were qualified to deal with the problems of the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>In the end, it was the historians theory that money that would have been used to maintain the empire was used to build churches and monasteries instead. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Achievements
  12. 12. Aquaducts <ul><li>It was the ingenuity of the Roman engineers who designed the aquaduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaducts supplied towns with clean water. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans built hundreds of miles of canals and aquaducts that moved water from the mountain springs, rivers and lakes to the plains. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman aquaducts look like long bridges with water running on one level. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of the aquaduct taught us how to bring water from one place to another, to where people need it. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Concrete Roads <ul><li>Roman architects invented a new building material called concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>They invented it by mixing small stones and sand with limestone clay and water. </li></ul><ul><li>The concrete was easier to work with because it was lighter than stone. </li></ul><ul><li>The workers did not have to be as skilled to pour concrete as they had to be to carve stone. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Arts <ul><li>Romans were very realistic with their forms of art and used real people as subjects in their art. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans were known for their art sculptures. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans also used mosaics as another art form. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of Roman art and architecture was modeled on Greek works. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Greater Freedom for Women <ul><li>Women gained more rights in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>They are now able to own land. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are also able to own their own businesses. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Politics
  17. 17. Political Corruption <ul><li>Choosing new emperors was one of Romes serious problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman’s did not have an effective system to choose who would be the new emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the fact that they did not have an effective system of electing a new emperor choosing a new emperor, was always open to debate with the old emperors, the Senate, the emperors private army or the army. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Roman Government <ul><li>The Roman type of government has had a great influence on the way our political and legal system is today. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans believed that the people could and should rule themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>When the constitution was written for the United States they borrowed many ideas from Ancient Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of checks and balances was also borrowed from the Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman constitution helped citizens get rights. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Citizenship <ul><li>The Roman’s believed in giving citizenship to most people living across the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship was not given to women and slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>As the empire grew the Roman’s made special laws for dealing with people that did not have citizenship. </li></ul><ul><li>These laws were known as The Law of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Today we call them international laws. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Rule of Law <ul><li>The Roman’s set up a court system with judges, lawyers and juries. </li></ul><ul><li>The Twelve Tables issued in 451 B.C. set the foundation for Rome’s first law code. </li></ul><ul><li>After some time the civil law grew. As the law code changed it continued to be based on the idea of justice. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Economy
  22. 22. Inflation <ul><li>When the emperors tried to increase the money supply by giving coins made of less valued metal, inflation arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>After merchants and people realized that the coins were being made with less precious metal they raised their prices and this caused inflation. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation hurt their businesses and they did not have the money to pay their taxes. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Diocletion Divides the Empire <ul><li>Diocletion reorganized the Imperial Government from top to bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Diocletion made the army twice the size. </li></ul><ul><li>Diocletion split the empire into two parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Diocletion raised taxes to pay for the added soldiers and officials. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Unemployment <ul><li>Due to slave labor that was used on large estates, unemployment rose. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers could not afford to pay their workers and produce goods as cheaply as a slave-owner. </li></ul><ul><li>Slave-owners sold their crops for lower prices. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, many farmers could not compete with these low prices so they lost or had to sell their farms. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Trade <ul><li>Roman’s controlled the Mediterranean so shipping goods by sea was safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Ships carried wine, olive oil, and pottery to Europe and the Greek Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman’s also connected their empire with many paved roads. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Social Structures
  27. 27. Patricians <ul><li>Rome was divided into two main groups called orders. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the orders was made up Patricians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Patricians were the upper-class of the Roman society. </li></ul><ul><li>The Patricians felt proud to belong to noble families. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Plebians <ul><li>The other order included the Plebians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plebians were the common people of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plebians made up 90% of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Plebians were wealthy, but most were farmers. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Role of Men <ul><li>The Roman family centered around men. </li></ul><ul><li>The father or grandfather in a family was the head of the house. </li></ul><ul><li>He had absolute and unlimited power. </li></ul><ul><li>He owned all of the family’s goods and property. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Role of Women <ul><li>Women could own their own property in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman law required that women have male guardians throughout their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though they had to have a male guardian, they still had a great deal of control over their property. </li></ul><ul><li>Bearing and raising children to honor traditional values was the most important role of woman. </li></ul>
  31. 32. What I Learned About Ancient Rome <ul><li>Rome’s location along the Tiber River was an essential part of why it grew into a large city. It had access to major trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts between social classes brought changes in the government to the Roman Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Family relationships were a significant part of Rome’s social structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman’s built their empire on a powerful military force and diplomacy. </li></ul><ul><li>For centuries the Roman Empire was wealthy and strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Greco-Roman culture spread throughout the empire, but with the end of the Pax Romana, the proud empire started to grow dim. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though there was a lot of resistance from the Roman officials, Christianity still spread across the Roman Empire. </li></ul>