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  2. 2. Punic Wars <ul><li>The first Punic War was fought on Sicily . </li></ul><ul><li>The third and final war was the time when Rome’s hatred towards Carthage exploded and Rome destroyed it forever. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman empire gained as much land to the North as Gaul, to the South as Carthage, to the East as Syria and to the West as Spain. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Military Expansion of Ancient Rome <ul><li>Rome’s borders were always expanding because of its massive military. </li></ul><ul><li>When Rome started out it was a small city, however, when Rome collapsed it was because of it’s massive empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Rome had many emperors, they continued to expand over time. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Location of Ancient Rome <ul><li>Rome originated on seven hills, near the Tiber River. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome is located on the Italian Peninsula . </li></ul><ul><li>Rome reached to the Alps in ancient times. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ancient Roman Trade <ul><li>In Rome the citizens could trade within the city, neighboring towns, or even cities across vast bodies of water. </li></ul><ul><li>If trade traveled far enough it was transported by animal or vessel. </li></ul><ul><li>In Rome you could trade numerous items as long as both parties agreed that it was a fair trade. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion
  7. 7. Roman Beliefs <ul><li>The Romans believed in several Gods and Goddesses for many different reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>The most powerful God of all was Zeus. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans would pray and give gifts or sacrifice before an important event. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans had a God or Goddess for virtually every aspect of their life. Time, War, Love, Death, Sea, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Etruscan Mysticism <ul><li>The Etruscans believed that the Gods gave them signs in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>They tried to interpret lightning before going into battle and studied flight patterns of birds to try to predict a good harvest. </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscan diviners used the stars to plan the layouts of cities and homes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Judaism <ul><li>Judaism is the religion of the Jews and is one of the oldest religions. </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism was founded in Jerusalem around the time of the Roman Empire and is still being practiced today. </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism and Christianity share some of the same beliefs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Christianity <ul><li>The Christians were led by Jesus and they were hated by the Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>If found practicing Christianity, they would be crucified or feed to the lions. </li></ul><ul><li>The bible indicates that Jesus was killed and resurrected three days later. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians only believe in one God and also that Jesus was the son of God. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Achievements
  12. 12. Architecture <ul><li>The Romans got the idea of the “arch” from the Etruscans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans received their great building skills from Greek influence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans built many beautiful, and massive monuments. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Military Organization <ul><li>The Roman Army was the first army to organize a legion. </li></ul><ul><li>A Legion was the basic unit in the Roman Army. </li></ul><ul><li>It consisted of about 5,000 men and could include many different military positions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Aqueduct <ul><li>The ancient Romans built many aqueducts to transport water to cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The length, height, and size would often be different. For example, large cities required massive aqueducts, while smaller cities and populations only required smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>There were aqueducts throughout the empire. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pax Romana <ul><li>These words in Latin mean Roman Peace. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman peace lasted for 207 years and was created by Emperor Augustus. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time there was very little military or expansion. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Politics
  17. 17. Emperor Augustus <ul><li>Augustus was born Gaius Augustus around 63 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>His uncle was Julius Caesar, which had the greatest influence on his life. </li></ul><ul><li>After Caesar was murdered, Rome fell into civil war, which lasted for thirteen years. Augustus merged as the Ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>He referred to call himself as “First Citizen” instead of King. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Julius Caesar <ul><li>Julius Caesar lived from about 100 B.C. till 44 B.C. and was a Roman military and political leader. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a key factor in the transition from the Roman Republic to a dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius was murdered on the Ides of March or as we know it March 15th. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Roman Republic <ul><li>The Republic was a Republican form of government in Ancient Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Republic lasted for over 450 years until it was destroyed through a series of civil wars. </li></ul><ul><li>The form of government that followed was Emperors. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Political Violence <ul><li>The Roman Senate was full of violence. Ex.: (when disagreements between members of the Senate murder often followed.) </li></ul><ul><li>When a Senator was insulted he could tell his body guard to kill the insulter. </li></ul><ul><li>An example was when Julius Caesar was stabbed 23 times causing his death within the Senate. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Economy
  22. 22. Inflation <ul><li>The Romans suffered severely from inflation after the rule of Marcus Aurelius. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Romans stopped moving their borders the flow of gold into Rome stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>When the coins were made with less gold, they became worth less than before. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Growing Gap Between the Rich and Poor <ul><li>The percent difference between the rich and poor in Ancient Rome was 10% to 90%. </li></ul><ul><li>While Rome was expanding the gap kept increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>If someone lost their wealth, they would be sold into slavery. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Unemployment <ul><li>During the latter part of the Roman Empire farming was done by slaves on large estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Many farmers couldn’t compete with the rich and eventually went looking for other jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>At one point there were thousands of poor people searching for food and jobs. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stable Roman Currency <ul><li>There were gold, silver, bronze, and copper coins in the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>They were also excepted as payments in Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common coins were the gold and bronze coins. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Social Structure
  27. 27. Patricians <ul><li>The word “patrician” means a group of rich families. </li></ul><ul><li>They were considered themselves the best and rulers of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally only patricians were Senate members. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Plebeians <ul><li>The plebeians were considered to be the working class of ancient Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Their apartments were usually 3 to 4 stories high, and were hot, smelly, and had no bathrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeian children often did not attend school instead they followed their parents career. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The role of women <ul><li>Women wore long togas made of silk in the summer and wool in the winter. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, they always wore make up, jewelry, and fixed their hair. </li></ul><ul><li>The women were expected to stay home and do work around the house, and watch the children. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The role of men <ul><li>If you were a Senate member you would wear a toga with a gold or purple stripe. </li></ul><ul><li>All men had their hair cut and arms shaved. </li></ul><ul><li>If you were rich you had a great life, however if you were poor you struggled. </li></ul>
  31. 31. What I think was the most important idea of Ancient Rome. <ul><li>The most important idea about Ancient Rome I think is the unemployment. I think this because it was one of the main reasons of Rome's downfall and also it sent thousands of people to the streets. </li></ul>