Preview <ul><li>Main Idea / Reading Focus
The English Monarchy
Faces of History: Eleanor of Aquitaine
Other European Monarchies
Map: The Holy Roman Empire </li></ul>The Growth of Monarchies
Reading Focus <ul><li>How did the power of the English monarchy grow and change?
How did kings increase their powers in the other monarchies of Europe? </li></ul>Main Idea The power of kings grew and the...
Alfred drove the Viking forces north of London to what became the Danelaw, a territory under Viking control. England was o...
For most of period, England divided into seven small kingdoms
Each had own laws, customs </li></ul>Anglo-Saxon England <ul><li>800s, Danish Vikings invaded, conquered several Anglo-Sax...
878, Viking campaign cut short by  Alfred the Great , king of Wessex in southern England </li></ul>Danish Vikings
<ul><li>Alfred’s descendants ruled England for most of next two centuries
1066, king died without heir; two men claimed throne: Harold, Anglo-Saxon nobleman from England; William, duke of Normandy...
Supported by English nobility, Harold named new king </li></ul>The Norman Conquest <ul><li>William decided to take crown b...
Two armies fought in Battle of Hastings; William won
Became King William I of England, known as  William the Conqueror </li></ul>William  <ul><li>William stronger king than An...
Claimed all English land as personal property
Divided land into fiefs for his Norman soldiers; new nobility created, all owing loyalty to king </li></ul>Strong King
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Norman Kings

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Norman Kings

  1. 1. Preview <ul><li>Main Idea / Reading Focus
  2. 2. The English Monarchy
  3. 3. Faces of History: Eleanor of Aquitaine
  4. 4. Other European Monarchies
  5. 5. Map: The Holy Roman Empire </li></ul>The Growth of Monarchies
  6. 6. Reading Focus <ul><li>How did the power of the English monarchy grow and change?
  7. 7. How did kings increase their powers in the other monarchies of Europe? </li></ul>Main Idea The power of kings grew and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the early Middle Ages. The Growth of Monarchies
  8. 8. Alfred drove the Viking forces north of London to what became the Danelaw, a territory under Viking control. England was one of the first countries in Europe to develop a strong central monarchy. Under the Anglo-Saxons, who first unified the country, and then under the Normans, who conquered the Anglo-Saxons, the English kings exercised considerable power. The English Monarchy <ul><li>Anglo-Saxon rulers descendants of Angles, Saxons who invaded in 400s
  9. 9. For most of period, England divided into seven small kingdoms
  10. 10. Each had own laws, customs </li></ul>Anglo-Saxon England <ul><li>800s, Danish Vikings invaded, conquered several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, not all of England
  11. 11. 878, Viking campaign cut short by Alfred the Great , king of Wessex in southern England </li></ul>Danish Vikings
  12. 12. <ul><li>Alfred’s descendants ruled England for most of next two centuries
  13. 13. 1066, king died without heir; two men claimed throne: Harold, Anglo-Saxon nobleman from England; William, duke of Normandy in France
  14. 14. Supported by English nobility, Harold named new king </li></ul>The Norman Conquest <ul><li>William decided to take crown by force; gathered army, sailed for England where Harold met him
  15. 15. Two armies fought in Battle of Hastings; William won
  16. 16. Became King William I of England, known as William the Conqueror </li></ul>William <ul><li>William stronger king than Anglo-Saxon rulers
  17. 17. Claimed all English land as personal property
  18. 18. Divided land into fiefs for his Norman soldiers; new nobility created, all owing loyalty to king </li></ul>Strong King
  19. 19. French Culture <ul><li>William, Normans introduced elements of French culture into England
  20. 20. Most of England’s new nobles born in France, spoke French, practiced French customs
  21. 21. Most of lower classes kept old Anglo-Saxon language, habits </li></ul>Domesday Book <ul><li>William ordered survey taken to learn more about kingdom
  22. 22. Wanted to know who lived in each part of England, what they owned, how much they could afford to pay in taxes
  23. 23. Resulting in Domesday Book , used to create central tax system for England </li></ul>
  24. 24. The English in France <ul><li>Even more territories in France added when Henry married powerful French duchess, Eleanor of Aquitane
  25. 25. Together they ruled England, half of France
  26. 26. In theory, French holdings made English kings vassals of king of France
  27. 27. In practice, kings of England stronger than kings of France, ignored feudal obligations </li></ul>More Territories <ul><li>Kings following William gained even more power as time passed
  28. 28. New power came from acquisition of new lands, many in France
  29. 29. Descendants inherited position as duke of Normandy; great-grandson Henry II also son of a French duke
  30. 30. Henry inherited father’s lands in France, which became part of England </li></ul>More Lands
  31. 32. By about 1200 the power of the English king started to worry some nobles. They feared kings would abuse their powers. Magna Carta <ul><li>Nobles concerned their rights would be taken away
  32. 33. 1215, concerns reached crisis point under King John
  33. 34. John caught in war with France, lost almost all of England’s French holdings
  34. 35. Tried to raise money with new tax on nobility
  35. 36. Nobles refused tax, took up arms against king </li></ul>Nobles’ Concerns <ul><li>Rebellious nobles forced John to accept document outlining their rights, Magna Carta
  36. 37. Restricted king’s power; even kings not above the law
  37. 38. King had to obtain consent of nobles before raising taxes
  38. 39. Ended king’s ability to arrest, punish people without cause or take property illegally </li></ul>New Rights
  39. 40. Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Magna Carta addressed many concerns, but some nobles still not satisfied
  40. 41. King constantly asked for approval to raise taxes of which they disapproved
  41. 42. 1260s, nobles began another rebellion to obtain say in how kingdom was run </li></ul>Powers <ul><li>For several years the powers of Parliament remained undefined
  42. 43. Edward I one of first kings to clarify role of Parliament, work effectively with governing body </li></ul>Parliament <ul><li>As part of agreement to end rebellion, king agreed to meet with members of nobility, clergy, middle class to discuss key issues facing country
  43. 44. Resulting council developed into English governing body, Parliament </li></ul>Parliament
  44. 45. 1295, Parliament summoned by Edward included nobles, clergy, representatives from every English county, town <ul><li>Had power to create new taxes, advise king on lawmaking, royal policy
  45. 46. Edward strengthened England’s central government, reformed system of laws
  46. 47. Saw Parliament as tool for strengthening monarchy, not limiting it; kept Parliament in secondary role to power of king </li></ul>Central Government Strengthened
  47. 48. Summarize How did Magna Carta and Parliament change the English monarchy? Answer(s): reduced the king's power, formed a council (Parliament) that would create new taxes and advise the king on lawmaking
  48. 49. The changes in the English monarchy were unique. During the Middle Ages, kings in other European countries also worked to gain more power, but their experiences were different from those of he English rulers. Other European Monarchies <ul><li>After Charlemagne, kings of France did not rule much territory
  49. 50. Limited to area around Paris, Orleans
  50. 51. Rest in hands of powerful nobles </li></ul>France <ul><li>Mid-900s, one noble family rose to power when one member elected king
  51. 52. Hugh Capet , successors extended power throughout France </li></ul>Capetians <ul><li>Sometimes Capetians fought local nobles for power
  52. 53. Other times created allegiances
  53. 54. By 1300, ruled almost all of modern France </li></ul>Power
  54. 55. Empire Split <ul><li>Emperor Charlemagne had unified most of western Europe into one empire
  55. 56. After his death, the empire split into two parts
  56. 57. Western part became France; eastern part became known as Germany </li></ul>Otto <ul><li>Worked to unite German lands, conquered parts of northern Italy
  57. 58. 962, aided Pope John XII, rewarded by being named Emperor of the Romans
  58. 59. Territories united under Otto became known as Holy Roman Empire </li></ul>Germany <ul><li>France remained somewhat unified under one king
  59. 60. Germany separated into several small states, each with own ruler, or duke
  60. 61. 936, Otto the Great gained enough support to become king of the Germans </li></ul>Holy Roman Empire
  61. 62. Holy Roman Empire <ul><li>Called holy because empire had pope’s support
  62. 63. Called Roman because Charlemagne had title Emperor of the Roman People </li></ul>Emperors Elected <ul><li>1100s, Holy Roman emperors did not inherit position, were elected upon death of emperor
  63. 64. Group of electors—dukes, archbishops—chose successor </li></ul>Holy Roman Emperors <ul><li>Made decisions, passed laws with help of dukes
  64. 65. Dukes maintained full authority on own lands </li></ul>Crowned by Pope <ul><li>Person chosen by electors had to travel to Rome
  65. 66. Pope had to crown new emperor before his power fully recognized </li></ul>Description of Empire
  66. 67. <ul><li>Growth of monarchy in Spain, Portugal coupled with religious struggles
  67. 68. Today the two countries share Iberian Peninsula, which had been conquered by Muslims in early 700s
  68. 69. Muslims, called Moors by Christians, built powerful state centered in city of Cordoba.
  69. 70. Christians ruled only few kingdoms in far northern part of peninsula </li></ul>Spain and Portugal <ul><li>722, Christian rulers began to fight Moors, drive them out of Europe
  70. 71. Christian rulers continued westward push, little success until 1000s
  71. 72. Civil war had broken out in Muslim Spain, weakening Moorish leadership </li></ul>Fighting Moors <ul><li>Christian states began series of campaigns to retake Iberian Peninsula, called the Reconquista
  72. 73. 1085, king of Castile won great victory over Moors, inspired rulers of two other Christian kingdoms to join in the Reconquista </li></ul>Campaigns
  73. 74. Victories <ul><li>Together three Iberian kingdoms won victory after victory over Moors
  74. 75. Early 1100s, Portuguese drove Moors completely out of their lands, established Kingdom of Portugal </li></ul>Modern Spain <ul><li>Modern Spain has origins in late 1400s
  75. 76. Royal marriage between rulers of Aragon and Castile united two kingdoms
  76. 77. Combining countries and power, they ruled one of strongest countries in Europe </li></ul>Pushing South <ul><li>Rulers of Aragon and Castile continued to push south, captured Cordoba 1236
  77. 78. Christians pushed Moors almost all the way out of Spain within a few years
  78. 79. Moors not driven completely off Iberian Peninsula until 1492 </li></ul>Victory over Moors
  79. 81. Analyze How did rulers in France, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain gain power? Answer(s): by acquiring new land and territories through alliances, marriage, and conquest
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