The Monarchy Returns </li></ul>Monarchy in England
Reading Focus <ul><li>How did the Tudors work with Parliament?
What led the first two Stuart kings to clash with Parliament?
What were the causes and results of the English Civil War?
What happened when monarchy returned to England? </li></ul>Main Idea In contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarchy was limited by Parliament; following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful. Monarchy in England
The Tudors and Parliament <ul><li>Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife </li></ul><ul><li>Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England </li></ul><ul><li>In 1534 Act of Supremacy named king as head of Church of England </li></ul>Henry and Parliament <ul><li>Two prominent members of Tudor dynasty, Henry VIII and daughter Elizabeth I, ruled when absolutism common on European continent </li></ul><ul><li>In England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Both father, daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goals </li></ul>Henry and Elizabeth
Tension <ul><li>Tension developed between Parliament, queen
Parliament pressured her to marry so she would have heir to throne
Elizabeth refused, knowing marriage would limit her freedom
Still managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed </li></ul>Edward, Mary, Elizabeth <ul><li>After Henry’s death and short reign of son Edward, Mary I became queen
Often called Bloody Mary, briefly made England Catholic again
Returned England to Anglican Church with Parliament’s help </li></ul>
Major reason for Elizabeth’s good relationship with Parliament, her willingness to let members speak minds without fear of punishment <ul><li>Close ties shown in fact that she called Parliament into session 10 times in 45-year reign
Elizabeth clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earl of Essex rebelled against authority
Asked publicly, “Cannot princes err? Cannot subjects receive wrong? Is an earthly power or authority infinite?”
Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain </li></ul>Lord Protector <ul><li>1653, Cromwell given title Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland
Skilled leader, but demanded complete obedience
Clamped down on social life, closed theaters, limited other entertainment </li></ul>England under Cromwell
A Defender of Absolutism <ul><li>In Leviathan , Hobbes described humans as being naturally selfish, fearful </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes argued that people needed all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live </li></ul><ul><li>Views sparked controversy when England trying to find balance in government </li></ul>Leviathan <ul><li>Cromwell, the king’s death, war troubled many English people </li></ul><ul><li>One was Thomas Hobbes, Royalist who fled to France during Cromwell’s rule </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes wrote classic work of political science, Leviathan </li></ul>Questions of Rule
Identify Cause and Effect What were some effects of the English Civil War? Answer(s): temporarily ended monarchy and House of Lords, restricted English social life in certain ways
Pepys: “Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires that ever, and ringing of bells…every body seems to be very joyfull in the business…” Hobbes’s ideas reflected the fact that many people were unhappy under Cromwell, especially when he dismissed Parliament to rule alone—like a king. Attitudes were changing so much that a return to monarchy became possible. The Monarchy Returns <ul><li>1658, Cromwell died; son took place; Richard Cromwell lacked father’s leadership abilities
People shouted their good wishes </li></ul>The New King
Positive and Negative <ul><li>Charles reopened theaters, flowering of English drama resulted
Habeas Corpus Act passed, guaranteeing someone accused of a crime had right to appear in court to determine if should be held, released
1665, bubonic plague returned; following year Great Fire of London
After fire, Charles supported public construction projects </li></ul>The Reign of Charles II <ul><li>Charles had to address many issues—conflict with Dutch continued; religious tensions remained; role of Parliament still being developed
Charles supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen the Church of England
Restoration years, mixture of positive, negative events </li></ul>
Later in Charles’s reign the question of who would succeed him remained. His brother James was next in line, but he was a Catholic. James II <ul><li>James married to Catholic princess, whose Catholic son would outrank James’s Protestant daughters from first marriage
Parliament gave throne to William III, Mary II as joint rulers; transfer became known as the Glorious Revolution </li></ul>Glorious Revolution
Changes in Government <ul><li>Bill of Rights central to England’s growth as Constitutional Monarchy , term for monarchy limited by law
Document’s approval came after decades of dramatic changes in English government
England had rejected concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarchy ruled by law </li></ul>Constitutional Monarchy <ul><li>With Glorious Revolution, Parliament had essentially crowned new king, queen
More important, a document William and Mary had to sign before taking throne—the English Bill of Rights
Document prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions
U.S. Bill of Rights based on this document </li></ul>Bill of Rights
Describe What happened during the Glorious Revolution? Answer(s): William and Mary were given the English throne by Parliament.
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