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Ch18 Sec1 3

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  • 1. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1
  • 2. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 The Power of Spain Preview • Starting Points Map: Monarchs of Europe • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The King Becomes Emperor • Artistic Achievements • Spain under Philip II
  • 3. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  • 4. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 The Power of Spain Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s. Reading Focus • What challenges did King Charles I face when he became Emperor Charles V? • What were some artistic achievements of Spain’s golden age? • How did Spain rise and then decline under Philip II?
  • 5. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 The King Becomes Emperor Kingly Trait Imposing Their Will • 1516, teenaged Charles • Absolute monarchs believed became King Charles I of Spain they ruled by divine right • Inexperienced, but had one • Monarchs received power from kingly trait—as member of God, must not be challenged ancient, powerful Hapsburg family, prepared to rule as • 1500 through 1700s, absolute absolute monarch monarchs tried to impose their will across much of Europe, • Absolute monarch, ruler whose lands beyond power not limited by having to consult with nobles, common • In Spain, Charles struggled to people or their representatives keep empire under control
  • 6. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Charles V and the Empire When Charles became king of Spain, he inherited the Low Countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, along with colonies in the Americas. Emperor Charles V Enemies Everywhere • 1519, throne of Holy Roman • Ruling vast territories not easy Empire became vacant task for Charles • Position elective; Charles • Faced enemies on all sides— borrowed money to buy votes Ottoman Turks, French, • Became Holy Roman Emperor rebellious German princes Charles V • Also fought for religious control over Europe – Holdings expanded to parts of Italy, Austria, various • Wanted Europe to be Roman German states Catholic • Growing Protestant movement – So vast ‘the sun never set” threatened influence over it
  • 7. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Confrontation • 1521, Charles confronted Protestant leader Martin Luther directly • In spite of Charles’ efforts, Protestants gained influence • Rebellions against Catholic rulers spread • After years of warfare, Charles V had to sign Peace of Augsburg Peace • Agreement gave each German prince right to decide if his state would be Catholic or Protestant • Charles’ vision of a Catholic Europe never became reality • Constant warfare also brought Charles to brink of bankruptcy
  • 8. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Success in Americas Charles V more successful in Americas than in Europe • During reign, Spanish explorers claimed much of Americas for Spain • Among explorers King Charles supported – Hernán Cortés, who conquered Aztec empire – Francisco de Coronado, who explored American Southwest region • Silver and gold flowed from American colonies • Brought Spain fabulous wealth
  • 9. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Dividing the Empire Relinquished Thrones Imposing Their Will • Frustrated by failures in • Brother took over Europe Hapsburg holdings in Austria • 1556, Charles V gave up thrones • Son, Philip II, ruled Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, • Decided to divide large Spain’s colonies empire • Charles V moved to • Split between his brother monastery, dream of and his son unified empire unfulfilled
  • 10. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Draw Conclusions In what ways was Charles V successful as an emperor? In what ways was he unsuccessful? Answer(s): successful—exploration of the Americas, which brought fabulous wealth to Spain; unsuccessful—did not maintain religious control over Europe; constant wars brought financial problems
  • 11. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Artistic Achievements • From 1550 to 1650, Spanish golden age of artistic achievement • Became known as the Golden Century Art Court Painter • One of most prominent • Another Spanish painter, painters, Greek Domenicos Diego Velázquez Theotocopoulos • Created masterpieces • Became known as El Greco; portraying people of all social style famous for elongated classes with great dignity figures • Velázquez had privilege of • Much work religious, reflected being the court painter Spain’s central role in Counter- Reformation
  • 12. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Literature Writers Cervantes • Spanish golden age also • Most famous work, Don Quixote produced fine writers de la Mancha • Greatest was Miguel de • About man caught between Cervantes medieval, modern worlds Colonial Writers Church Criticism • Writers in Spain’s colonies • Church officials criticized Sister produced works of merit Juana for some of her ideas • Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz • She believed women had right wrote poetry, prose, plays to education
  • 13. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Summarize What were some achievements of Spain’s Golden Century? Answer(s): paintings by El Greco and Velásquez, writings by Miguel de Cervantes and Juana Ines de la Cruz
  • 14. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Spain under Philip II • Spain at peak of grandeur with reign of Philip II • One reason—stream of gold and silver from colonies in Americas • With wealth came power—but gold could not solve Spain’s problems Religion and Revolt Catholicism in Revolt in the Low • King Philip II devout Territories Countries Catholic • Mary died before • Philip’s faith clashed having heir to return with Calvinist • Saw himself as leader England to Catholic Protestantism of of Counter- faith northern Low Country Reformation provinces • Philip also wanted to • Marriage to Queen secure position of • 1560s, bloody revolt Mary I of England Catholicism in began chance to spread European territories Catholicism
  • 15. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Dutch Revolt Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip • To punish, Philip sent army under command of Duke of Alba • Alba set up court – Known locally as Court of Blood – Tortured, executed thousands suspected of being rebels – Cruelties made situation worse; rebellion broke out anew • Revolt dragged on for decades • 1609, truce reached • Seven northern provinces formed independent nation, the Netherlands • Southern provinces remained in Spanish hands
  • 16. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Spain and England English Aid to Dutch • Dutch revolt deepened another rivalry, between Spain, England • As fellow Protestants, England sent aid to Dutch rebels • England’s assistance to Dutch infuriated Philip Attacks on Spanish Ships • Philip also worried about English attacks on his ships • England’s Queen Elizabeth I allowed ship captains to attack Spanish treasure ships, steal gold, silver for England Invasion Planned • King Philip II wanted to stop England from raiding ships, return England to Catholic Church • Decided to invade England
  • 17. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Philip’s Armada • Philip ordered navy to assemble great fleet, the Spanish Armada • Totaled about 130 ships, 20,000 soldiers, sailors • 1588, invincible fleet sailed into English channel • Queen Elizabeth I rallied troops and prepared for attack Naval Battles Armada Not Invincible • Spanish packed ships with • English aimed eight fire ships at soldiers for land invasion remaining ships of Armada • Also planned to be joined by • Spanish ships fled in panic, Spanish forces in Netherlands disarray • Faced fierce naval battles that • As damaged ships made way severely damaged fleet home, several were wrecked
  • 18. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 An Empire in Decline • The defeat of the Armada was not the end for Spain, which recovered from the loss. • But England remained Protestant, defiant, and undefeated. Internal Problems Americans Join the Battle • Spain’s real problems internal • Philip spent wealth from • Philip’s government centralized Americas on constant warfare • He trusted no one • Borrowed money often; went • Court riddled by factions, bankrupt four times suspicion • Prices driven up, inflation • Government action practically • Spain did not develop industries came to standstill Relying on traditional agricultural economy, Spain’s economy lagged behind that of other countries. Spain declined as a major power.
  • 19. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Recall What were two events that caused problems for Spain? Answer(s): revolt in the Netherlands; defeat of the Spanish Armada