Ch18 Sec1 3


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Ch18 Sec1 3

  1. 2. Preview <ul><li>Starting Points Map: Monarchs of Europe
  2. 3. Main Idea / Reading Focus
  3. 4. The King Becomes Emperor
  4. 5. Artistic Achievements
  5. 6. Spain under Philip II </li></ul>The Power of Spain
  6. 7. Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  7. 8. Reading Focus <ul><li>What challenges did King Charles I face when he became Emperor Charles V?
  8. 9. What were some artistic achievements of Spain’s golden age?
  9. 10. How did Spain rise and then decline under Philip II? </li></ul>Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s. The Power of Spain
  10. 11. The King Becomes Emperor <ul><li>Absolute monarchs believed they ruled by divine right
  11. 12. Monarchs received power from God, must not be challenged
  12. 13. 1500 through 1700s, absolute monarchs tried to impose their will across much of Europe, lands beyond
  13. 14. In Spain, Charles struggled to keep empire under control </li></ul>Imposing Their Will <ul><li>1516, teenaged Charles became King Charles I of Spain
  14. 15. Inexperienced, but had one kingly trait—as member of ancient, powerful Hapsburg family, prepared to rule as absolute monarch
  15. 16. Absolute monarch, ruler whose power not limited by having to consult with nobles, common people or their representatives </li></ul>Kingly Trait
  16. 17. When Charles became king of Spain, he inherited the Low Countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, along with colonies in the Americas. Charles V and the Empire <ul><li>1519, throne of Holy Roman Empire became vacant
  17. 18. Position elective; Charles borrowed money to buy votes
  18. 19. Became Holy Roman Emperor Charles V </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holdings expanded to parts of Italy, Austria, various German states
  19. 20. So vast ‘the sun never set” over it </li></ul></ul>Emperor Charles V <ul><li>Ruling vast territories not easy task for Charles
  20. 21. Faced enemies on all sides—Ottoman Turks, French, rebellious German princes
  21. 22. Also fought for religious control over Europe
  22. 23. Wanted Europe to be Roman Catholic
  23. 24. Growing Protestant movement threatened influence </li></ul>Enemies Everywhere
  24. 25. Peace <ul><li>Agreement gave each German prince right to decide if his state would be Catholic or Protestant
  25. 26. Charles’ vision of a Catholic Europe never became reality
  26. 27. Constant warfare also brought Charles to brink of bankruptcy </li></ul>Confrontation <ul><li>1521, Charles confronted Protestant leader Martin Luther directly
  27. 28. In spite of Charles’ efforts, Protestants gained influence
  28. 29. Rebellions against Catholic rulers spread
  29. 30. After years of warfare, Charles V had to sign Peace of Augsburg </li></ul>
  30. 31. Charles V more successful in Americas than in Europe <ul><li>During reign, Spanish explorers claimed much of Americas for Spain
  31. 32. Among explorers King Charles supported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hern á n Cort é s, who conquered Aztec empire
  32. 33. Francisco de Coronado, who explored American Southwest region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silver and gold flowed from American colonies
  33. 34. Brought Spain fabulous wealth </li></ul>Success in Americas
  34. 35. Dividing the Empire <ul><li>Brother took over Hapsburg holdings in Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Son, Philip II , ruled Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, Spain’s colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Charles V moved to monastery, dream of unified empire unfulfilled </li></ul>Imposing Their Will <ul><li>Frustrated by failures in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1556, Charles V gave up thrones </li></ul><ul><li>Decided to divide large empire </li></ul><ul><li>Split between his brother and his son </li></ul>Relinquished Thrones
  35. 36. Draw Conclusions In what ways was Charles V successful as an emperor? In what ways was he unsuccessful? Answer(s): successful—exploration of the Americas, which brought fabulous wealth to Spain; unsuccessful—did not maintain religious control over Europe; constant wars brought financial problems
  36. 37. <ul><li>From 1550 to 1650, Spanish golden age of artistic achievement
  37. 38. Became known as the Golden Century </li></ul>Artistic Achievements <ul><li>One of most prominent painters, Greek Domenicos Theotocopoulos
  38. 39. Became known as El Greco; style famous for elongated figures
  39. 40. Much work religious, reflected Spain’s central role in Counter-Reformation </li></ul>Art <ul><li>Another Spanish painter, Diego Vel á zquez
  40. 41. Created masterpieces portraying people of all social classes with great dignity
  41. 42. Vel á zquez had privilege of being the court painter </li></ul>Court Painter
  42. 43. Writers <ul><li>Spanish golden age also produced fine writers
  43. 44. Greatest was Miguel de Cervantes </li></ul>Colonial Writers <ul><li>Writers in Spain’s colonies produced works of merit
  44. 45. Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz wrote poetry, prose, plays </li></ul>Cervantes <ul><li>Most famous work, Don Quixote de la Mancha
  45. 46. About man caught between medieval, modern worlds </li></ul>Church Criticism <ul><li>Church officials criticized Sister Juana for some of her ideas
  46. 47. She believed women had right to education </li></ul>Literature
  47. 48. Summarize What were some achievements of Spain’s Golden Century? Answer(s): paintings by El Greco and Velásquez, writings by Miguel de Cervantes and Juana Ines de la Cruz
  48. 49. <ul><li>Spain at peak of grandeur with reign of Philip II
  49. 50. One reason — stream of gold and silver from colonies in Americas
  50. 51. With wealth came power —but gold could not solve Spain’s problems </li></ul>Spain under Philip II <ul><li>King Philip II devout Catholic
  51. 52. Saw himself as leader of Counter-Reformation
  52. 53. Marriage to Queen Mary I of England chance to spread Catholicism </li></ul>Religion and Revolt <ul><li>Mary died before having heir to return England to Catholic faith
  53. 54. Philip also wanted to secure position of Catholicism in European territories </li></ul>Catholicism in Territories <ul><li>Philip’s faith clashed with Calvinist Protestantism of northern Low Country provinces
  54. 55. 1560s, bloody revolt began </li></ul>Revolt in the Low Countries
  55. 56. Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip <ul><li>To punish, Philip sent army under command of Duke of Alba
  56. 57. Alba set up court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known locally as Court of Blood
  57. 58. Tortured, executed thousands suspected of being rebels
  58. 59. Cruelties made situation worse; rebellion broke out anew </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolt dragged on for decades
  59. 60. 1609, truce reached
  60. 61. Seven northern provinces formed independent nation, the Netherlands
  61. 62. Southern provinces remained in Spanish hands </li></ul>Dutch Revolt
  62. 63. English Aid to Dutch <ul><li>Dutch revolt deepened another rivalry, between Spain, England
  63. 64. As fellow Protestants, England sent aid to Dutch rebels
  64. 65. England’s assistance to Dutch infuriated Philip </li></ul>Invasion Planned <ul><li>King Philip II wanted to stop England from raiding ships, return England to Catholic Church
  65. 66. Decided to invade England </li></ul>Attacks on Spanish Ships <ul><li>Philip also worried about English attacks on his ships
  66. 67. England’s Queen Elizabeth I allowed ship captains to attack Spanish treasure ships, steal gold, silver for England </li></ul>Spain and England
  67. 68. <ul><li>Philip ordered navy to assemble great fleet, the Spanish Armada
  68. 69. Totaled about 130 ships, 20,000 soldiers, sailors
  69. 70. 1588, invincible fleet sailed into English channel
  70. 71. Queen Elizabeth I rallied troops and prepared for attack </li></ul>Philip’s Armada <ul><li>Spanish packed ships with soldiers for land invasion
  71. 72. Also planned to be joined by Spanish forces in Netherlands
  72. 73. Faced fierce naval battles that severely damaged fleet </li></ul>Naval Battles <ul><li>English aimed eight fire ships at remaining ships of Armada
  73. 74. Spanish ships fled in panic, disarray
  74. 75. As damaged ships made way home, several were wrecked </li></ul>Armada Not Invincible
  75. 76. Relying on traditional agricultural economy, Spain’s economy lagged behind that of other countries. Spain declined as a major power. <ul><li>The defeat of the Armada was not the end for Spain, which recovered from the loss.
  76. 77. But England remained Protestant, defiant, and undefeated. </li></ul>An Empire in Decline <ul><li>Spain’s real problems internal
  77. 78. Philip’s government centralized
  78. 79. He trusted no one
  79. 80. Court riddled by factions, suspicion
  80. 81. Government action practically came to standstill </li></ul>Internal Problems <ul><li>Philip spent wealth from Americas on constant warfare
  81. 82. Borrowed money often; went bankrupt four times
  82. 83. Prices driven up, inflation
  83. 84. Spain did not develop industries </li></ul>Americans Join the Battle
  84. 85. Recall What were two events that caused problems for Spain? Answer(s): revolt in the Netherlands; defeat of the Spanish Armada