Sustainable Design Part One: Building An Environmental Ethic
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Sustainable Design Part One: Building An Environmental Ethic

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This presentation introduces the concept of sustainable design and the environmental responsibility of the architect.

This presentation introduces the concept of sustainable design and the environmental responsibility of the architect.

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Sustainable Design Part One: Building An Environmental Ethic Sustainable Design Part One: Building An Environmental Ethic Presentation Transcript

  • What is Sustainable Design? Part One: Building an Environmental Ethic Terri Meyer Boake BES, BArch, MArch, LEED AP Associate Director School of Architecture University of Waterloo Past President of the Society of Building Science Educators Member OAA Committee on Sustainable Built Environment
  • Presentation Summary
    • In this presentation, we will discuss:
    • The Definition of Sustainable Design
    • Why is this important
    • Global warming
    • The role of buildings in the environment
    • The inclusive nature of sustainable design
  • Building an Environmental Ethic: how architecture can ~ “live lightly on the earth” Aldo Leopold Legacy Centre, Wisconsin – Carbon Neutral and LEED Platinum
  • What is Environmental Design?
    • “ the modern architect has produced the most flagrantly uneconomic and uncomfortable buildings…which can be inhabited only with the aid of the most expensive devices of heating and refrigeration. The irrationality of this system of construction is visible today in every city from New York to San Francisco: glass sheathed buildings without any contact with fresh air, sunlight, or view.” Lewis Mumford.
    • Environmentally sensitive design looks to design in harmony with, and in response to the climate. It attempts to use the natural solar and ventilation characteristics of the local climate/environment to inform the building design so to minimize use and dependency on consumptive non renewable energy sources. Sustainable building design looks to “live lightly on the earth” so that there will be quality and resources remaining for generations to come.
    Eden Project, United Kingdom – incorporating nature and innovative architectural design
  • The Sustainable Ethic:
    • Sustainable building is not a new style of building. It is a way to think about how we design, construct, and operate buildings. Its primary goal is to lessen the harm poorly designed buildings cause by using the best of ancient building approaches in logical combination with the best of new technological advances. Its ultimate goal is to make possible offices, homes, even entire subdivisions that are net producers of energy, food, clean water and air, beauty, and healthy human and biological communities.
    • Green buildings try to take less from the earth and give more to people.
  • Definitions of Sustainable Design
    • Sustainable development is seeking to meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations.
    • Sustainability envisions the enduring prosperity of all living things.
    • Sustainable design seeks to create communities, buildings, and products that contribute to this vision.
    • To paraphrase educator and author David Orr: Sustainable design is the careful meshing of human purposes with the larger patterns and flows of the natural world.
    • To paraphrase architect Bill Reed: Sustainable design is a process that supports and improves the health of the systems that sustain life.
    • “ The world will not evolve past its current state of crisis by using the same thinking that created the situation.”
    • – Albert Einstein
    The current environmental problems of the world are the result of Design …the world of DESIGN needs some Radical thinking if we are to Design ourselves out of the problem!
  • Industry 25% Transportation 27% Buildings 48%
  • POLLUTION IS AN ACT OF DESIGN Remember, EVERYTHING that is called 'disposable' was DESIGNED from day one to be garbage--as its PRIMARY and overriding design consideration.”
  • EVEN THIS BUILDING Was designed to be thrown out!
  • Radical PHILOSOPHY!?? WASTE = FOOD (the human race is the only species to DESIGN things with the INTENTION that they become GARBAGE!)
    • Design for a closed loop where WASTE becomes FOOD and FEEDS back into a healthy cycle….
    compostable end product MIMIC NATURAL CYCLES
  • Radical PROPOSITION!?? DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY So that we can take things (even buildings!) apart and easily repair or reuse them REUSE MEANS LESS ENERGY THAN RECYCLE
  • DESIGN BUILDINGS TO COME APART SO THAT THEY CAN BE REPAIRED, REUSED AND RECYCLED – EASILY! MIMIC OTHER INDUSTRIES
  • BUILDINGS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BETWEEN 40% TO 70% OF WORLD CARBON EMISSIONS Inconvenient TRUTH
  • Radical Wake Up Call
    • The Northeast Blackout of 2003 was a massive widespread power outage that occurred throughout parts of the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, and Ontario, Canada on Thursday, August 14, 2003, at approximately 4:15 pm EDT (20:15 UTC). At the time, it was the most widespread electrical blackout in history. The blackout affected an estimated 10 million people in the Canadian province of Ontario and 45 million people in eight U.S. states.
  • ICE STORM = NO POWER = NO HEAT
  • Radical PROBLEM!
    • No power…
    • Hot August weather… or
    • Cold January temperatures…
    • Hooked on electricity, heat and A/C
    • What buildings/environment/systems “worked” ?
    • What buildings/environment/systems “didn’t” work ?
  • SEALED BUILDINGS CANNOT BREATHE ELEVATORS AND LIGHTS NEED POWER MODERN ARCHITECTURE DOES NOT WORK!
  • Radical AWAKENING!
    • Grid and energy dependent buildings/environment/systems DID NOT WORK!
    • OPERABLE WINDOWS WORKED!
    • NATURAL VENTILATION WORKED!
    • SHADE WORKED!
    • SUNLIGHT WORKED!
    • DAYLIT SPACES WORKED!
    • WALKABLE NEIGHBOURHOODS WORKED!
    • BICYCLES WORKED!
  • Radical THOUGHT!?? MAYBE WE SHOULD BEGIN TO DESIGN OUR BUILDINGS/ENVIRONMENTS IN REVERSE! Start with a basic UNPLUGGED building
  • Four Key Steps:
    • #1 - start by UNPLUGGING the building
    • Then…
    • #2 – heat only with the sun
    • #3 – cool only with the wind and shade
    • #4 – light only with daylight
    • USE the ARCHITECTURE first, and mechanical systems only to supplement what you cannot otherwise provide.
    • #5 – USE RENEWABLE CLEAN ENERGY BEFORE HOOKING UP TO NATURAL GAS, OIL OR THE REGULAR ELECTRICAL GRID (with all of its nastiness – including CO 2 )
    RADICAL STEPS!
  • Radical IS Passive… PASSIVE DESIGN is where the building uses the SUN, WIND and LIGHT to heat, cool and light ARCHITECTURALLY
  • Radical REALIZATION #1 - OUR NORTH AMERICAN LIFESTYLE OF CONSUMPTION IS NOT SUSTAINABLE #2 – DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (WITH ZILLIONS MORE PEOPLE THAN WE) ARE STRIVING TO BE JUST LIKE US….
  • CO 2 Production by Country in 1997
    • Country CO 2 Produced (tonnes of carbon ) Total (millions) Per Capita
    • U.S. 1,489.6 5.48
    • China 913.8 0.75
    • Russia 390.6 2.65
    • Japan 316.2 2.51
    • India 279.9 0.29
    • Germany 27.4 2.77
    • UK 142.1 2.41
    • Canada 133.9 4.42
    • Italy 111.3 1.94
    • Ukraine 100.4 1.97
    • Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee
  • CO 2 Production by Country in 2006
    • Country CO 2 Produced % total world emissions
    • metric tonnes
    • U.S. 5,752 20.2%
    • China 6,103 21.5%
    • European Union 1,314 13.8%
    • Russia 1,564 5.5%
    • India 1,510 5.3%
    • Japan 1,293 4.6%
    • Canada 545 1.9%
    • The Global situation in the past 10 years has become many times WORSE. China’s emissions INCREASED by 668% in 10 years.
    • Source: Wikipedia, accessed Sept 3, 2009
  •  
  • Canadian GHG Stats: Canadians create 2% of global GHGs, but are 0.05% of global population. Canada is 9 th largest emitter of GHG emissions, but Canadians are the 2nd highest per capita creators of GHGs in the world. Energy use and GHGs by Sector in Canada: Industrial 39% energy 33.3% GHGs Transportation 29% energy 35.7% GHGs Residential 17% energy 15.5% GHGs Commercial & Institutional 12% energy Agriculture 3% energy
  • Kyoto Protocol:
    • To stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at today's levels will require reducing human-generated emissions by 80 percent immediately .
    • There are six greenhouse gases covered under the protocol to the international convention on climate change (the Kyoto Protocol) – carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
    The Kyoto protocol was agreed upon through international co-operation under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was created in 1992. The Kyoto protocol came out of the UNFCCC’s December 1997 meeting held in Kyoto, Japan. Under the agreement, industrialized nations must reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2 per cent (from 1990 levels) by the period 2008 to 2012.
  • Consider the percentage of energy used as a direct result of “buildings”… Who designs buildings? So, who should be held responsible for them? US figures
  • Sustainable Checklist: "Treat the Earth well. It was not given to you by your parents. It was loaned to you by your children." --- Kenyan Proverb.
    • Ideally a sustainable building should:
    • make appropriate use of land
    • use water, energy, lumber, and other resources
    • efficiently
    • enhance human health
    • strengthen local economies and communities
    • conserve plants, animals, endangered species, and natural habitats
    • protect agricultural, cultural, and archaeological resources
    • be nice to live in
    • be economical to build and operate
    The Liu Centre University of British Columbia Architectonica/Stantec
  • The End of Oil Scientists firmly believe that we are running out of oil and the bottom line is that while consumption is ever increasing, production is felt to have peaked and is predicted to rapidly decline.
  • Radical CONFLICT!?? #1 – GLOBAL WARMING – too much CO 2 #2 – RUNNING OUT OF OIL (oil causes CO 2 )
  • The conundrum…
    • Greenhouse gas emissions are ruining life on the planet as we know it
    • Greenhouse gas comes from burning fossil fuels
    • We are running out of fossil fuels, so potentially the faster we run out of fossil fuels the more quickly we can solve Global warming
    • So, why is this a problem?
  • If fuel production declines, there is not enough fuel to heat and cool the present building stock in 40 years time -- not to mention heating and cooling any buildings we might add between now and then…. Also of concern is the growing reliance on OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), or non North American fuel sources, given the instability in the Middle East.
  • The Challenge
    • Architects need to figure out how to solve this problem by designing buildings more sustainably and holistically
    • Also to use less and less fossil based fuels as eventually we simply won’t be able to rely on them.
  • Design and Construction Industry as potential single largest contributor (40%) to Canada’s solutions for compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and for creating long term ecological sustainability. ‘ Environmental Design is definitely an avenue towards sustainability. Great potential for ‘Environmental Leadership’ in architecture Environmentally responsible architecture CAN make a huge difference. Environmental Architecture: The George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture at the Toronto Botanical Garden Montomery Sisam Architects Toronto, Ontario LEED TM Silver
    • * Healthful Interior Environment.
    • * Energy Efficiency.
    • * Ecologically Benign Materials.
    • * Environmental Form.
    • * Good Design .
    Five principles of an environmental Architecture: (Thomas A. Fisher, AIA, November, 1992 ) The Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research University of Toronto Benisch and Architect Alliance Architects
  • Healthful Interior Environment.
    • * All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that materials and building systems do not emit toxic substances and gasses into the interior atmosphere. Additional measures are to be taken to clean and revitalize interior air with filtration and plantings.
    Cambridge City Hall Diamond Schmitt Architects Cambridge, Ontario LEED TM Gold
  • Energy Efficiency.
    • * All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that the building's use of energy is minimal. Cooling, heating and lighting systems are to use methods and products that conserve or eliminate energy use.
    Stratus Winery Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario Les Andrew Architect LEED TM Silver CMHC Healthy House Martin Leifhebber Architect (Breathe Architects) Toronto, Ontario
  • Ecologically Benign Materials.
    • * All possible measures are to be taken to use building materials and products that minimize destruction of the global environment. Wood is to be selected based on non destructive forestry practices. Other materials and products are to be considered based on the toxic waste output of production.
    Jackson Triggs Winery Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario KPMB Architects Mountain Equipment Coop Winnipeg, Manitoba Prairie Architects
  • Environmental Form.
    • * All possible measures are to be taken to relate the form and plan of the design to the site, the region and the climate. Measures are to be taken to "heal" and augment the ecology of the site. Accommodations are to be made for recycling and energy efficiency. Measures are to be taken to relate the form of building to a harmonious relationship between the inhabitants and nature.
    YMCA Environmental Learning Centre Paradise Lake, Ontario Charles Simon Architect
  • Good Design.
    • * All possible measures are to be taken to achieve an efficient, long lasting and elegant relationship of use areas, circulation, building form, mechanical systems and construction technology. Symbolic relationships with appropriate history, the Earth and spiritual principles are to be searched for and expressed. Finished buildings shall be well built, easy to use and beautiful.
    Glen Eagles Recreation Centre, Vancouver, BC Patkau Architects White Rock Operations Centre, White Rock, BC Busby and Associates LEED TM Gold
  • Your ecological footprint… If we are not going to be part of the PROBLEM. We are going to learn how to be part of the SOLUTION! Project #1: Calculate your ecological footprint. How many planets are YOU using now….
  • What is an ecological footprint? It is a measure of our consumption and/or emissions as a result of our lifestyle. The bottom line is SMALLER IS BETTER! Calculating your “ecological footprint” … can naturally extend to an understanding of your “carbon footprint” Source: http://www.cycleoflife.ca/kids/education.htm
  • The relative consumption patterns across the planet earth .
  • www.zerofootprint.net
    • "Future generation is the most important" --- Confucius.
    • “ Sustainable development is seeking to meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations.”
    • "It's not easy being green." --
    • Kermit the Frog, 1972.
  • Presentation Summary
    • In this presentation, we discussed:
    • The Definition of Sustainable Design
    • Why is this important
    • Global warming
    • The role of buildings in the environment
    • The inclusive nature of sustainable design