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EMBRACE THE BRACE
Terri Meyer Boake
Professor
School of Architecture University
of Waterloo Canada
PDH: N43a-89385 N43b-86...
Nature of the Presentation
A look at the benefits of expressed and exposed
bracing systems
• Their evolution as AESS eleme...
EMBRACE THE BRACE
The Evolution of the Brace
From High Tech to AESS
Sainsbury Centre for the Arts, England – Norman Foster
HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STE...
Tubular members are first used for exposed bracing systems
HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED...
Tubular members are first used for exposed bracing systems
HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED...
Pompidou Centre, Paris – Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers
HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED ST...
Expressed cross bracing as a distinct system
HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
Expressive connections that are not hidden
HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
Murphy/Jahn Architects
THE BIRTH OF AESS IN CHICAGO O’HARE AIRPORT
Expressed bracing systems continue to create a connection language
THE BIRTH OF AESS IN CHICAGO O’HARE AIRPORT
NEO Bankside, London – Rogers, Stirk, Harbour + Partners
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural...
NEO Bankside, London – Rogers, Stirk, Harbour + Partners
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural...
Office Building, Berlin, Germany
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
Munich International Airport
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
Architectural Office, Las Vegas, Nevada
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
New Lynn Transit Terminal, Auckland, New Zealand
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
University Building, Waterloo – KPMB Architects
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
University Building, Waterloo – KPMB Architects
PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
Pavilion, Minneapolis – Frank Gehry Architect
BRACING GIVES FORM TO THE SHAPE OF THE BUILDING
Pavilion, Minneapolis – Frank Gehry Architect
BRACING GIVES FORM TO THE SHAPE OF THE BUILDING
Pavilion, Minneapolis – Frank Gehry Architect
BRACING GIVES FORM TO THE SHAPE OF THE BUILDING
Dubai, UAE
EXPOSED BRACING FOR LATERAL STABILITY IN TALL BUILDINGS
Intermodal Terminal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
THE USE OF DIAGONAL STEEL FOR ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETIC
Intermodal Terminal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
THE USE OF DIAGONAL STEEL FOR ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETIC
Intermodal Terminal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
THE USE OF DIAGONAL STEEL FOR ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETIC
EMBRACE THE BRACE
Seismic Applications
Ai Weiwei Exhibit at the Art Gallery of Ontario
Sichuan Earthquake 2008
Sichuan Earthquake 2008 (Ai Weiwei blog)
Sichuan Earthquake 2008 = Major loss of life
Christchurch Earthquake, February 22, 2011
Chart prepared prior to the Christchurch earthquake of February 2011.
THE “COSTS” OF EARTHQUAKES
The cost of rebuilding Christchurch has been estimated at NZ$15
billion (£7.6 billion) or more.
Mr. John Key (Prime Minist...
Christchurch Earthquake = Major loss of property
“Reinforced concrete, as customarily designed and detailed, and
in contra...
Concrete structure being demolished
Earthquake damage to reinforced concrete residential structure
Earthquake damage at Theatre Royal
Seismic repair of historic stone church building in Christchurch
REPAIR BRACING
Seismic repair of 13th century monastery, Athens, Greece
Seismic repair of 13th century monastery, Athens, Greece
Seismic repair of 13th century monastery, Athens, Greece
Pacific Tower, 22 storeys - A Success Story
Cracked EBF link in parking garage
Cracked EBF link in Pacific Tower
Exposed steel bracing in Pacific Tower parking structure
Opening up walls and floors to inspect the EBF system
The concealed system
was difficult to inspect for
damage.
Cut out existing links and replace with removable/replaceable links
Major issue is access to the link to perform the work – and subsequent repair
Three 35, Addington, Christchurch by Jasmax Architects
FIRST EVER NEW APPLICATION OF REPLACEABLE LINK BRACING
“Exposed” seismic retrofit, Wellington, New Zealand
RETROFIT BRACING
Exposed seismic retrofit, Wellington, New Zealand
Not “designed” to be integrated into the architecture
Exposed seismic bracing, Athens, Greece
Integrated into the architecture
Retrofit for School of Architecture, Wellington, New Zealand
Exposed seismic bracing, Salt Lake City, Utah
Integrated into the architecture
If the economic impact of earthquake damaged buildings is so
great, why continue to design buildings that are:
• Construct...
EMBRACE THE BRACE
Diagrid Structures
Diagrid structures
take bracing
systems to new
heights as the
expression of the
bracing system
becomes the
architectural
e...
 originated in the work
of Vladimir Shukhov circa
1896
 creation of tall
hyperbolic paraboloid
structures to support
wat...
 Diagonals re-
appeared as
expressions of
bracing
 They provided
lateral support
for wind and
seismic loads
 Columns ca...
Expressed lateral high rise bracing
Scale issues with blockage of window views due to frequency/size of members
Image:VincentHui
Note: The core will be framed in steel or cast in concrete as a
function of local practices and construct...
I.M. PEI w/
LESLIE ROBERTON ENG.
BANK OF CHINA 1989
Hong Kong
Diagonal geometry permitted unusual
massing of the tower.
I.M. PEI w/
LESLIE ROBERTON ENG.
BANK OF CHINA 1989
Hong Kong
Diagonals were constructed of steel
that was embedded in lar...
FOSTER+PARTNERS
w/ARUP
SWISS RE 2004
London, England
Photo: ARUP
Steel as the exclusive structural
system for exterior, fl...
FOSTER+PARTNERS w/
WSP GROUP
HEARST MAGAZINE TOWER 2006
New York, New York
 Used for a rectilinear building
 Expression ...
 Increased stability due to
triangulation
 diagrids combine the gravity and
lateral load bearing
systems, thereby provid...
 reduced use of structural
materials which translates into
“carbon” or environmental savings
 reduced weight of the
supe...
KYOUNG SUN MOON
YALE UNIVERSITY
OPTIMIZATION WORK
2007 TO PRESENT
6 storeys 8 storeys 10 storeys
KYOUNG SUN MOON
OPTIMIZATION WORK
Bending moment at the base
Shear resistance at the top
WILKINSON + EYRE w/ARUP
GUANGZHOU IFC 2010
Guangzhou, China
12 storeys
(54m)
 400m
Supertall
tower
 Taper
towards
top
 ...
7 storey
“megaframe”
 exposed steel
 double façade
 sloped face
 module height linked to trapezoidal
shape/height of b...
MZ ARCHITECTS w/ARUP
ALDAR HQ 2012
Abu Dhabi, UAE
4+4=
8 storeys
 Concealed steel
 Gently curved shape
 floor edge beam...
RMJM ARCHITECTS
SELF ENGINEERED
CAPITAL GATE 2012
Abu Dhabi, UAE
2 storeys
 Eccentric
geometry
 18o
backwards lean
 Off...
SOM
Lotte Super Tower (visionary)
Seoul, Korea
 555m supertall tower
 Taper towards top
 Rounded plan at the
top
 Squa...
SOM
Lotte Super Tower
(visionary)
Seoul, Korea
 plan changes from
square at the bottom to
round at the top
 module heigh...
8 storeys
 Concealed steel
 Fixed node
 No shoring
 Shop fabricated
 Bolted on site
FOSTER+PARTNERS w/ WSP GROUP
HEAR...
 AESS (intumescent coating)
 Concrete filled tubes
 No shoring
 Shop fabricated
 Welded on site (temp bolts)
Images:A...
 Concealed
 Fixed node
 No shoring
 Shop fabricated
 Bolted on site
4 storeys
Images:ARUP
FOSTER+PARTNERS w/ARUP
SWIS...
 AESS
 Tensioned connection
 Adjusted during construction to
correct lean of building
 Node types vary per location
 ...
LIBESKIND w/
ARUP CANADA/HALSALL
ROM CRYSTAL 2006
Toronto, Canada
GENERAL ISSUES:
 Eliminate shoring
 Quick (bolted) sit...
RMJM ARCHITECTS
CAPITAL GATE 2011
Abu Dhabi, UAE
ISSUES:
 eccentric geometry
 no two nodes alike (822 unique)
 all weld...
 Fire engineering a must (codes)
 Member selection criteria
 Function of space/aesthetic
 Impact of scale of members/n...
WILKINSON + EYRE w/ARUP
GUANGZHOU IFC 2010
 Fire engineering a must (codes)
 Concrete-filled steel tubes +
Intumescent
...
FITZPATRICK+PARTNERS w/ARUP
MCQUARIE BANK 2011
Sydney, Australia
 Climate restricted (hot or temperate)
 Thermal bridgin...
FITZPATRICK+PARTNERS w/ARUP
MCQUARIE BANK 2011
Sydney, Australia
 Hot dip galvanized exterior structure
 standard struct...
WARREN + MAHONEY ARCHITECTS
w/MJH ENGINEERING
Manukau Institute of Technology
Auckland, New Zealand
 Climate restricted
...
ARCHITECT
ENGINEER
FABRICATOR
Images:ARUP
* New code issues!
Diagrids not in current
seismic codes
If we can create an architectural language
of expressed diagonal steel (diagrids)
The next step is to adapt this to a new
...
WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS?
• Overcome any aesthetic stigma associated with exposed bracing
• Additional research and testing on current replaceable l...
Terri Meyer Boake
Professor
School of Architecture
University of Waterloo
tboake@uwaterloo.ca
www.tboake.com
2012
2014 201...
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014
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Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014

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Presentation on the applications of bracing systems in AESS, seismic design and diagrids, presented at NASCC Conference in Toronto, March 2014.

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Transcript of "Embrace the Brace - NASCC 2014"

  1. 1. EMBRACE THE BRACE Terri Meyer Boake Professor School of Architecture University of Waterloo Canada PDH: N43a-89385 N43b-86676
  2. 2. Nature of the Presentation A look at the benefits of expressed and exposed bracing systems • Their evolution as AESS elements • Their use in seismic applications • Their basis in diagrid structural systems
  3. 3. EMBRACE THE BRACE The Evolution of the Brace From High Tech to AESS
  4. 4. Sainsbury Centre for the Arts, England – Norman Foster HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
  5. 5. Tubular members are first used for exposed bracing systems HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
  6. 6. Tubular members are first used for exposed bracing systems HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
  7. 7. Pompidou Centre, Paris – Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
  8. 8. Expressed cross bracing as a distinct system HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
  9. 9. Expressive connections that are not hidden HIGH TECH ARCHITECTURE BEGINS TO CREATE AN AESTHETIC OF EXPOSED STEEL
  10. 10. Murphy/Jahn Architects THE BIRTH OF AESS IN CHICAGO O’HARE AIRPORT
  11. 11. Expressed bracing systems continue to create a connection language THE BIRTH OF AESS IN CHICAGO O’HARE AIRPORT
  12. 12. NEO Bankside, London – Rogers, Stirk, Harbour + Partners PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  13. 13. NEO Bankside, London – Rogers, Stirk, Harbour + Partners PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  14. 14. Office Building, Berlin, Germany PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  15. 15. Munich International Airport PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  16. 16. Architectural Office, Las Vegas, Nevada PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  17. 17. New Lynn Transit Terminal, Auckland, New Zealand PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  18. 18. University Building, Waterloo – KPMB Architects PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  19. 19. University Building, Waterloo – KPMB Architects PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED BRACING – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
  20. 20. Pavilion, Minneapolis – Frank Gehry Architect BRACING GIVES FORM TO THE SHAPE OF THE BUILDING
  21. 21. Pavilion, Minneapolis – Frank Gehry Architect BRACING GIVES FORM TO THE SHAPE OF THE BUILDING
  22. 22. Pavilion, Minneapolis – Frank Gehry Architect BRACING GIVES FORM TO THE SHAPE OF THE BUILDING
  23. 23. Dubai, UAE EXPOSED BRACING FOR LATERAL STABILITY IN TALL BUILDINGS
  24. 24. Intermodal Terminal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin THE USE OF DIAGONAL STEEL FOR ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETIC
  25. 25. Intermodal Terminal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin THE USE OF DIAGONAL STEEL FOR ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETIC
  26. 26. Intermodal Terminal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin THE USE OF DIAGONAL STEEL FOR ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETIC
  27. 27. EMBRACE THE BRACE Seismic Applications
  28. 28. Ai Weiwei Exhibit at the Art Gallery of Ontario Sichuan Earthquake 2008
  29. 29. Sichuan Earthquake 2008 (Ai Weiwei blog)
  30. 30. Sichuan Earthquake 2008 = Major loss of life
  31. 31. Christchurch Earthquake, February 22, 2011
  32. 32. Chart prepared prior to the Christchurch earthquake of February 2011. THE “COSTS” OF EARTHQUAKES
  33. 33. The cost of rebuilding Christchurch has been estimated at NZ$15 billion (£7.6 billion) or more. Mr. John Key (Prime Minister of New Zealand) stressed how significant the earthquakes had been to New Zealand's tiny economy, saying the cost was equivalent to 8 per cent of GDP. "Damage from the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan was just over 2 per cent of Japan's GDP, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 cost about 1 per cent of US GDP, and March's Japanese earthquake and tsunami disaster was an estimated 3-5 per cent of Japan's GDP," he said. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/newzealand/8593434/Christ church-earthquake-government-wants-to-demolish-5000-homes.html
  34. 34. Christchurch Earthquake = Major loss of property “Reinforced concrete, as customarily designed and detailed, and in contrast to structural steel, is essentially a brittle construction material. Brittleness can be a danger in regions prone to earthquakes. However, with due care in design and detailing, reinforced concrete structures can be made adequately ductile for good performance in earthquakes.” J. P. Hollings, researcher, 1968
  35. 35. Concrete structure being demolished
  36. 36. Earthquake damage to reinforced concrete residential structure
  37. 37. Earthquake damage at Theatre Royal
  38. 38. Seismic repair of historic stone church building in Christchurch REPAIR BRACING
  39. 39. Seismic repair of 13th century monastery, Athens, Greece
  40. 40. Seismic repair of 13th century monastery, Athens, Greece
  41. 41. Seismic repair of 13th century monastery, Athens, Greece
  42. 42. Pacific Tower, 22 storeys - A Success Story
  43. 43. Cracked EBF link in parking garage Cracked EBF link in Pacific Tower
  44. 44. Exposed steel bracing in Pacific Tower parking structure
  45. 45. Opening up walls and floors to inspect the EBF system The concealed system was difficult to inspect for damage.
  46. 46. Cut out existing links and replace with removable/replaceable links
  47. 47. Major issue is access to the link to perform the work – and subsequent repair
  48. 48. Three 35, Addington, Christchurch by Jasmax Architects FIRST EVER NEW APPLICATION OF REPLACEABLE LINK BRACING
  49. 49. “Exposed” seismic retrofit, Wellington, New Zealand RETROFIT BRACING
  50. 50. Exposed seismic retrofit, Wellington, New Zealand Not “designed” to be integrated into the architecture
  51. 51. Exposed seismic bracing, Athens, Greece Integrated into the architecture
  52. 52. Retrofit for School of Architecture, Wellington, New Zealand
  53. 53. Exposed seismic bracing, Salt Lake City, Utah Integrated into the architecture
  54. 54. If the economic impact of earthquake damaged buildings is so great, why continue to design buildings that are: • Constructed from substandard materials (noting the use of bad quality concrete in both the Sichuan and Haiti earthquakes) • Prone to irreparable damage • Difficult to inspect • Difficult and expensive to repair Earthquake design objectives need to ALSO focus on the economic impact and recovery time in addition to LOSS OF LIFE.
  55. 55. EMBRACE THE BRACE Diagrid Structures
  56. 56. Diagrid structures take bracing systems to new heights as the expression of the bracing system becomes the architectural expression of the building.
  57. 57.  originated in the work of Vladimir Shukhov circa 1896  creation of tall hyperbolic paraboloid structures to support water towers  structure had no need of a core for lateral load resistance
  58. 58.  Diagonals re- appeared as expressions of bracing  They provided lateral support for wind and seismic loads  Columns carried the gravity loads  Core was the primary means of lateral resistance
  59. 59. Expressed lateral high rise bracing Scale issues with blockage of window views due to frequency/size of members
  60. 60. Image:VincentHui Note: The core will be framed in steel or cast in concrete as a function of local practices and construction sequencing/erection priorities. A pure steel diagrid tower does not require a core for lateral resistance.
  61. 61. I.M. PEI w/ LESLIE ROBERTON ENG. BANK OF CHINA 1989 Hong Kong Diagonal geometry permitted unusual massing of the tower.
  62. 62. I.M. PEI w/ LESLIE ROBERTON ENG. BANK OF CHINA 1989 Hong Kong Diagonals were constructed of steel that was embedded in large masses of concrete at the major nodes. Images:LeslieE.Robertson
  63. 63. FOSTER+PARTNERS w/ARUP SWISS RE 2004 London, England Photo: ARUP Steel as the exclusive structural system for exterior, floors and core.
  64. 64. FOSTER+PARTNERS w/ WSP GROUP HEARST MAGAZINE TOWER 2006 New York, New York  Used for a rectilinear building  Expression of the diagrid on the detailing of the corners  Exclusive steel structure for core, exterior diagrid support and floor system
  65. 65.  Increased stability due to triangulation  diagrids combine the gravity and lateral load bearing systems, thereby providing more efficiency  provision of alternate load paths in the event of a structural failure  some buildings noting a 20% reduction in the amount of structural steel required FOSTER+PARTNERS w/ ZEIDLER HALCROW YOLLES BOW ENCANA 2012 Calgary, Alberta
  66. 66.  reduced use of structural materials which translates into “carbon” or environmental savings  reduced weight of the superstructure translates into reduced load on the foundations  ability to provide structural support for a myriad of shapes  MOST APPLICATIONS ARE ARCHITECTURALLY DRIVEN ROGERS STIRK HARBOUR + PARTNERS w/ ARUP THE LEADENHALL BUILDING 2013 London, England
  67. 67. KYOUNG SUN MOON YALE UNIVERSITY OPTIMIZATION WORK 2007 TO PRESENT 6 storeys 8 storeys 10 storeys
  68. 68. KYOUNG SUN MOON OPTIMIZATION WORK Bending moment at the base Shear resistance at the top
  69. 69. WILKINSON + EYRE w/ARUP GUANGZHOU IFC 2010 Guangzhou, China 12 storeys (54m)  400m Supertall tower  Taper towards top  Rounded triangular plan  Large scale for large building
  70. 70. 7 storey “megaframe”  exposed steel  double façade  sloped face  module height linked to trapezoidal shape/height of building ROGERS STIRK HARBOUR+PARTNERS w/ ARUP LEADENHALL 2013 London, England
  71. 71. MZ ARCHITECTS w/ARUP ALDAR HQ 2012 Abu Dhabi, UAE 4+4= 8 storeys  Concealed steel  Gently curved shape  floor edge beams brace diagrid along its length Image:WilliamHare
  72. 72. RMJM ARCHITECTS SELF ENGINEERED CAPITAL GATE 2012 Abu Dhabi, UAE 2 storeys  Eccentric geometry  18o backwards lean  Offset concrete core  Large diagonals on close spacing for structural reasons Image:MiroslavMunka
  73. 73. SOM Lotte Super Tower (visionary) Seoul, Korea  555m supertall tower  Taper towards top  Rounded plan at the top  Square plan at the bottom  steepness of the diagrid shifts from moment resisting (steep) at the base to shear resisting (shallow) at the top Image:SOM
  74. 74. SOM Lotte Super Tower (visionary) Seoul, Korea  plan changes from square at the bottom to round at the top  module height changes from 10 storeys at the bottom to 2 storeys at the top  round open lattice at the top good for vortex shedding Image:SOM
  75. 75. 8 storeys  Concealed steel  Fixed node  No shoring  Shop fabricated  Bolted on site FOSTER+PARTNERS w/ WSP GROUP HEARST TOWER 2006 Images:Foster+Partners
  76. 76.  AESS (intumescent coating)  Concrete filled tubes  No shoring  Shop fabricated  Welded on site (temp bolts) Images:ARUP WILKINSON + EYRE w/ARUP GUANGZHOU IFC 2010
  77. 77.  Concealed  Fixed node  No shoring  Shop fabricated  Bolted on site 4 storeys Images:ARUP FOSTER+PARTNERS w/ARUP SWISS RE 2004 Tension rings
  78. 78.  AESS  Tensioned connection  Adjusted during construction to correct lean of building  Node types vary per location  Bolted on site ROGERS STIRK HARBOUR+PARTNERS w/ ARUP LEADENHALL 2013
  79. 79. LIBESKIND w/ ARUP CANADA/HALSALL ROM CRYSTAL 2006 Toronto, Canada GENERAL ISSUES:  Eliminate shoring  Quick (bolted) site connections  Staging area  Highly skilled labour ROM SPECIFIC ISSUES:  Geometrical challenges due to lack of uniformity  Gravity working against erection (eccentric pieces)  Abundance of unique situations
  80. 80. RMJM ARCHITECTS CAPITAL GATE 2011 Abu Dhabi, UAE ISSUES:  eccentric geometry  no two nodes alike (822 unique)  all welded – welding access  tensioned core to offset lean Images:ADNEC/JeffSchofield
  81. 81.  Fire engineering a must (codes)  Member selection criteria  Function of space/aesthetic  Impact of scale of members/nodes RMJM ARCHITECTS CAPITAL GATE 2012
  82. 82. WILKINSON + EYRE w/ARUP GUANGZHOU IFC 2010  Fire engineering a must (codes)  Concrete-filled steel tubes + Intumescent Function of space/aesthetic  Impact of scale of members/nodes
  83. 83. FITZPATRICK+PARTNERS w/ARUP MCQUARIE BANK 2011 Sydney, Australia  Climate restricted (hot or temperate)  Thermal bridging issues  Corrosion protection
  84. 84. FITZPATRICK+PARTNERS w/ARUP MCQUARIE BANK 2011 Sydney, Australia  Hot dip galvanized exterior structure  standard structural steel interior  bolted site connections
  85. 85. WARREN + MAHONEY ARCHITECTS w/MJH ENGINEERING Manukau Institute of Technology Auckland, New Zealand  Climate restricted  Thermal bridging  Corrosion protection  Module 5 storeys  Middle node at mid floor height  Use of steel cable to tie mid height nodes together
  86. 86. ARCHITECT ENGINEER FABRICATOR Images:ARUP * New code issues! Diagrids not in current seismic codes
  87. 87. If we can create an architectural language of expressed diagonal steel (diagrids) The next step is to adapt this to a new aesthetic based upon expressed seismic bracing, including replaceable links.ROGERS STIRK HARBOUR+PARTNERS w/ ARUP LEADENHALL 2013 London, England WARREN + MAHONEY ARCHITECTS w/MJH ENGINEERING Manukau Institute of Technology Auckland, New Zealand
  88. 88. WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS?
  89. 89. • Overcome any aesthetic stigma associated with exposed bracing • Additional research and testing on current replaceable link EBF systems • New research on the requirements for different steel shapes as the diagonal bracing members (hot rolled shapes – round, rectangular and elliptical) • Understanding that exterior bracing systems are limited to warmer climates due to thermal expansion and thermal bridging issues • Grow an acceptance of exposed bracing systems for interior applications • Fire resistance ratings for interior exposed systems (is intumescent enough?) • Incorporate replaceable link systems into current seismic codes • RESEARCH FUNDING $$$$$$$$
  90. 90. Terri Meyer Boake Professor School of Architecture University of Waterloo tboake@uwaterloo.ca www.tboake.com 2012 2014 20152011 2014 PDH: N43a-89385 N43b-86676

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