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The restoration of natural capital and the development of payments for ecosystem services in South Africa:  An opportunity...
The market for ecosystem services relevant to the Southern African context   <ul><li>Water  regulation and supply </li></u...
Environmental and Social Cluster of the Expanded Public Works -  Promoting Socio-Economic Development and Improved Livelih...
The Opportunities in the Water Sector   <ul><li>Yield (utilizable water), </li></ul><ul><li>Retention (maximize low flows)...
The Water Pricing Strategy -  Clearing of Invasive Alien Plants (IAP’s) <ul><li>The full cost of control of certain IAP’s ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Photograph courtesy: Ms. Terry Everson Impact of Sedimentation on the Siltation of Dams and Water Quality
Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
Dry Season
Dry Season
Opportunities in the Carbon Market: Working for Woodlands in the Eastern Cape Thicket Restoration Programme
Degradation of Albany Thicket Biome
The good - 300,000 ha Semiarid solid thicket (characterized by a dense canopy of tall shrubs and a  Portulacaria afra  Jac...
The bad - 600,000 ha Moderately degraded by injudicious goat-farming
The ugly - 800,000 ha Severely degraded by injudicious goat-farming
Comparing Carbon storage in Semi-arid and Arid Systems with Lilliputian (Rain) forest Lechmere-Oertel  et. al.  (2006) Aus...
Above  ground 40 ± 3 7 ± 1 Litter 11 ± 1 1 ± 0.4 Roots 25 ± 1.3 11 ± 0.7 Soil 133 ± 27 95 ± 15 and falling? Total 209 ± 28...
Krompoort (MAP 300 mm yr -1 ) 27 years growth 4.2  ± 0.08  t C ha -1  yr -1   = 15.4 t CO 2  ha -1  yr -1   Mills & Cowlin...
<ul><li>Financial overview </li></ul><ul><li>Goat farming $7 – $30 income ha -1  yr -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Spekboom farming ...
<ul><li>Large-scale project scenario </li></ul><ul><li>20, 000 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>417 people employed over 10 year...
Opportunities in Water, Carbon & Biodiversity: Integrated Veld and Forest Fire Management
 
Impacts of Fire on Biodiversity, Ecosystem Processes and Services <ul><li>Sprouting  – a large  proportion of plants in fi...
 
 
 
Two Major Impacts on Soil Movement and Related Ecosystem Services <ul><li>Fire (rotation and season) </li></ul><ul><li>Uns...
Land Use & Management Options Unsustainable Fire Regimes
Conclusion <ul><li>There is potential for the development of a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Market in South Afric...
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The restoration of natural capital and the development of payments for ecosystem services in South Africa: An opportunity for sustainable natural resource management and use?

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Christo Marais, Head: Operations Support - Working For Water - South Africa

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Transcript of "The restoration of natural capital and the development of payments for ecosystem services in South Africa: An opportunity for sustainable natural resource management and use?"

  1. 1. The restoration of natural capital and the development of payments for ecosystem services in South Africa: An opportunity for sustainable natural resource management and use? Christo Marais Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa
  2. 2. The market for ecosystem services relevant to the Southern African context <ul><li>Water regulation and supply </li></ul>2. Carbon sequestration and maintenance 3. Natural landscapes (biodiversity) for recreation and bequest value.
  3. 3. Environmental and Social Cluster of the Expanded Public Works - Promoting Socio-Economic Development and Improved Livelihoods <ul><li>Working for Water - manages invasive alien plants to enhance the sustainable use and conservation of our natural resources </li></ul>2. Working for Wetlands - champions the protection, rehabilitation and sustainable use of South Africa's wetlands 3. Working on Fire - enhance the sustainability and protection of life, livelihoods, ecosystem services and natural processes through integrated fire management 4. Working for Woodlands - regain woodland composition, structure and function.
  4. 4. The Opportunities in the Water Sector <ul><li>Yield (utilizable water), </li></ul><ul><li>Retention (maximize low flows), </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality (minimize the loss of top soil, siltation of water infrastructure, damage to water services and human health risks) and </li></ul><ul><li>Risk (minimize impacts of floods and droughts). </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Water Pricing Strategy - Clearing of Invasive Alien Plants (IAP’s) <ul><li>The full cost of control of certain IAP’s may be charged to affected water users. </li></ul><ul><li>… . in consultation with affected stakeholders, … the control of IAPs is the best and most cost effective action possible to increase long term water security and availability. </li></ul><ul><li>Once agreement is reached …, the total cost of control must be communicated to all affected stakeholder organisations. These costs may be supported by subsidy where available and appropriate. </li></ul>
  6. 12. Photograph courtesy: Ms. Terry Everson Impact of Sedimentation on the Siltation of Dams and Water Quality
  7. 13. Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
  8. 14. Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
  9. 15. Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
  10. 16. Dry Season
  11. 17. Dry Season
  12. 18. Opportunities in the Carbon Market: Working for Woodlands in the Eastern Cape Thicket Restoration Programme
  13. 19. Degradation of Albany Thicket Biome
  14. 20. The good - 300,000 ha Semiarid solid thicket (characterized by a dense canopy of tall shrubs and a Portulacaria afra Jacq. component)
  15. 21. The bad - 600,000 ha Moderately degraded by injudicious goat-farming
  16. 22. The ugly - 800,000 ha Severely degraded by injudicious goat-farming
  17. 23. Comparing Carbon storage in Semi-arid and Arid Systems with Lilliputian (Rain) forest Lechmere-Oertel et. al. (2006) Austral Ecology
  18. 24. Above ground 40 ± 3 7 ± 1 Litter 11 ± 1 1 ± 0.4 Roots 25 ± 1.3 11 ± 0.7 Soil 133 ± 27 95 ± 15 and falling? Total 209 ± 28 114 ± 14 t C ha -1 Mills et. al. (2005) Austral Ecology
  19. 25. Krompoort (MAP 300 mm yr -1 ) 27 years growth 4.2 ± 0.08 t C ha -1 yr -1 = 15.4 t CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 Mills & Cowling (2006) Restoration Ecology
  20. 26. <ul><li>Financial overview </li></ul><ul><li>Goat farming $7 – $30 income ha -1 yr -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Spekboom farming </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation costs: $400 – $700 ha -1 </li></ul><ul><li>- based on large-scale DWAF project in Baviaanskloof </li></ul><ul><li>Potential turnover (inclusive of transaction costs): </li></ul><ul><li>@ $3 $30 ha -1 yr -1 </li></ul><ul><li>@ $20 per credit $200 ha -1 yr -1 </li></ul><ul><li>present carbon price: $5-$10 </li></ul><ul><li>- 2006 high: approximately $ 40 (energy credits) </li></ul>10 t CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 - conservative Mills & Cowling (2006) Restoration Ecology: 15.4 t CO 2 ha -1 yr -1
  21. 27. <ul><li>Large-scale project scenario </li></ul><ul><li>20, 000 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>417 people employed over 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost: $26 million </li></ul><ul><li>Potential annual earnings: </li></ul><ul><li>@ $3 per credit $600,000 </li></ul><ul><li>@ $20 per credit $4 million </li></ul><ul><li>The Proviso </li></ul><ul><li>There is no free lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>Sellers must be capacitated to enter the market. </li></ul><ul><li>There is money to be made but it needs proper regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>A long term view </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction costs can be a deal breaker! </li></ul>
  22. 28. Opportunities in Water, Carbon & Biodiversity: Integrated Veld and Forest Fire Management
  23. 30. Impacts of Fire on Biodiversity, Ecosystem Processes and Services <ul><li>Sprouting – a large proportion of plants in fire-prone areas have the ability to sprout after fire, </li></ul><ul><li>Serotiny – some plants (for exam ple, proteas) hold their seeds in “fire-proof capsules” built from the remains of the flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke-stimulated germination – the seeds of many plant species are stimulated to germinate by the chemical cocktails contained in smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire-stimulated flowering – many species are stimulated to flower, following fires, offering the best opportunity for seed production and germination of these plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Flammability – “killing their neighbours”, and creating space for their own progeny to thrive. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on fire-induced nutrient flushes - Some animals, such as Roan antelope, calve in the middle of the dry season, when green grass is scarce. The females need the protein flush that follows a fire to provide enough milk for their calves. </li></ul>
  24. 34. Two Major Impacts on Soil Movement and Related Ecosystem Services <ul><li>Fire (rotation and season) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsustainable use (overgrazing and “nutrient mining”) </li></ul>
  25. 35. Land Use & Management Options Unsustainable Fire Regimes
  26. 36. Conclusion <ul><li>There is potential for the development of a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Market in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The two most promising options at the moment are water regulation and carbon . </li></ul><ul><li>It has the potential to have significant socio-economic benefits to the rural poor where up to 80% of the population are unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>Restoring Natural Capital and the development of PES could make significant contributions to the alleviation of poverty in developing countries all over the world. </li></ul>
  27. 37. Thank You!
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