Despite difficulties in obtaining data on new and used EEE as statistical data does not distinguish between thesetwo categories of products, the studies in Ghana, for example, revealed that in 2009 around 70% of all importswere used EEE. 30% of the used EEE imported was determined to be non-functioning (hence should have beendefined as e-waste): half of this amount was repaired locally and sold to consumers and the other half was unrepairable.It is unclear how much of the remaining imported used EEE functioned for a reasonable timeafter it was sold.This so called “near-end-of-life” equipment can be another major source of e-waste which was imported intoWest African countries as equipment but turned into waste in a relatively short time. However, it is assumed thatin 2010 between 50 - 85% of e-waste was domestically generated out of the consumption of new or used EEEof good quality with a reasonable life-span. For the five selected West African countries, this is between 650,000and 1,000,000 tonnes of domestic e-waste generated per annum, which at a certain point needs to be managed.
Community sensitization – governments, corporations, average consumer and downstream sector What is E-waste, hazards found, what not to do and what to do with the e-waste you ownCollection – strategically located collection points that are secure and easy to access for individuals (retail locations, meeting points, etc)National level: Collection partners:Combined up- and downstream approachbuilding on informal sector recyclingManual disassembly: metals, hard plastics, cables, etc.Regional level: Manual disassembly: metals, hard plastics, cables, etcAutomated processing: CRTs, hard plastics, cablesStorage & shipping: hazardous & capital intensive partsInternational partnerships: Recycling of hazardous & capital intensive fractions for which no environmentally sound solution exists locally
One computer asset (CPU and monitor)10 kg of metal and 2 kg of plastics can be resold on local second markets, driving resource conservation;8 kg of complex and hazardous fractions are transported to Europe to be recycled in an environmentally sound way there
E-waste as anEconomic and Environmental Solution in Developing Countries Best of Two Worlds Theory in Practice WorldLoop Barbara Toorens Barbara.email@example.com
How many electronics do you have in your:– Suitcase ?– Home ?– Office ?AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD HAS 91 ELECTRONIC DEVICES
What happens when it stopsworking, where does it go?
The End-of-Life Challenge• ICT has positive benefits on development for education, gender equality, health, etc.• When ICT equipment has reached the end of functional use as ICT equipment, it is ready for disposal…• However, many developing countries lack the needed legislation, expertise and infrastructure to manage proper disposal…
E-waste Facts & Figures for Africa • 650,000-1,000,000 tons of e-waste generated in West African countries/year1 • 70% of all imports in Ghana were used EEE (2009) 2 • 30% determined non-functioning • UGANDA: No dedicated e-waste legislation ; 9+ national laws ; 9+ international conventions 3 • Negative impact on environment and health 4 • Mercury in LCDs, batteries, etc = brain / liver damage; contaminated food sources • TBBA in wiring boards = hormonal disorders • Barium in CRT’s = Brain swelling, muscle weakness, damage to the heart, liver and spleen • Lead in CRTs, batteries, etc = Kidney damage, brain12 UNEP (2010) disorders, blood disorders. Basel Convention: How are WEEE doing in Africa (2011 report)3 Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET)4 EMPA E-waste Guide
ICT E-Waste: Economic Resource CENTRAL UNIT – AVERAGE COMPOSITION Scrap steel 7,7KG 33 KES € 2,42 CD, A-drive, HD 1,51KG 33 KES € 0,47 Copper 0,1KG 400 KES € 0,38 Aluminium 0,04KG 100 KES € 0,04 Plastics 0,5KG 10 KES € 0,05 Printed Circuit Boards – Medium * 0,3KG 400 KES € 1,14 Mixed wires 1,13 KG 0 KES € - 12,18KG 976 KES € 4,50 * Printed Circuit Boards - € 5,14 High 0,9KG 600 KES CRT MONITOR – AVERAGE COMPOSITION Metal 1,00 KG 33 KES € 0,31 Copper 0,41 KG 400 KES € 1,56 Aluminium 0,23 KG 100 KES € 0,22 Plastics 1,90KG 10 KES € 0,18 Thick wires 0,1 KG 33 KES € 0,03 CRT Glass 8,47KG 0KES € - Printed circuit boards - Medium 1,20KG 400 KES € 4,57 Mixed scrap 0,35 KG 0 KES € - Transformer 0,05 KG 0 KES € - Mixed wires 0,4 KG 0 KES € - Deflection coil 0,56 KG 0 KES € -Source: EMPA; Currency exchange rate 1.05 Getterpil - electrogun 0,03 KG 0 KES € - 14,70KG 976KES € 6,88
About WorldLoopStarted by Close the Gap, an ICT for Development NGO, as apilot in 2010Extending the positive impact of ICT projects in developingcountries by offsetting the negative environmental impact ofits hardware.Using a Bo2W model, develop sustainable e-waste recyclingcentres in developing countries to turn e-waste intosustainable, human and economic resources.Offer ‘like-for-like’ recycling based on the sale andmanagement ofE-Resource certificatesObjectives – Create awareness and drive action. – Create an operational network.
Operational Model: Best of 2 WorldsCircuit boards, leadedglass & batteries Dead electronicrecycled using latest device Xtechnologies in Europe Electronic device Locally dismantled Valuable Device collected and materials spared from the dump extracted
• Transparency: Monthly Good Governance reporting • Asset intake • Assets processed • Fraction sales w/ customer • Recycling Standards details • Local legislation • ISO140001• Accountability: Annual • R2 / E-Stewards Audits • Code of Conduct • Financial • 10 principles of UN Global Compact • Environmental • Occupational Health and Safety
PILOT CASE: East African Community END PROCESSING EuropeMaterial Collection Manual Dismantling & sorting Fraction resale Automated processing & recycling Hazardous fraction disposal (WEEE Centre)
WorldLoop Financing Model– Public Private Partnerships – In-kind support for business services & recycling operational needs– Corporate Sponsorships – Financial contributions to support WorldLoop activities– E-Resource Certificates – B2B market driven contribution to offset e-waste footprint
Market Driven Funding: E-Resource Certificate Environmentally sound disposal o = E- 20KG of electronic waste: Resource Certificat e EX: 1 CPU + MonitorFunding Distribution:• 80% → WorldLoop members as: • Seed capital and/or contribution to bridge pilot phase • Capacity building• 20% → WorldLoop organization for quality assurance
Board of Directors– Mr. Wilhemus A.G. Blonk Stakeholders– Mr. Olivier Vanden Eyden– Mr. Hennie Wesseling International CommunityBoard of recommendation – European Commission– Archbishop Desmond Tutu DG Digital Media – United Nations: – PACEMembers – StEP– WEEE Centre, Kenya – Industrial Development– GLEM, Rwanda Organization (UNIDO)– Viafrica, Tanzania – Environment Programme (UNEP) – Global Compact (UNGC) Strategic Partners – Global Partnership on Waste – Coolrec Management (GPMW) – Umicore – Basel Action Network – Close the Gap – e-Stewards / R2 – Computer Aid International – WEEE Forum – Deloitte – PKF Corporate Sponsors – AIR – Recupel – KLM – CharITy – Flection – BTC – Vintage productions – RICOH – Acerta – Rabobank
Community of supportThrough the CIO Community: