The Economics of Wilderness - Zoltan Kan

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TBLI CONFERENCE™ EUROPE 2012 - Zurich - Switzerland

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  • I will speak about our roadmap to change and how we (together with you) enhance wilderness protection in Europe.
  • But do we actually deliver on this if we keep focusing only on verification?
  • Wilderness is a human concept, which can be interpreted in a very different ways depending on cultural and / or national background. Therefore the understanding of wilderness will always be very emotional. Nature conservation or protected areas in most continent started with the protection of what was left relatively untouched. The designation of protected areas got a boost in Europe after the 70s when IUCN introduced the new protected area categories (IV, V and VI) which applied much more to the European context. Wilderness was almost a forgotten category in Europe. Quite often 1% of Europe’s territory is stated as wilderness. However the existing data sets are misleading. However in order to apply the PES or develop policies, there is a need for a broadly accepted technical definition
  • There is marine wilderness ...
  • Fabulous mountains also host wild areas ...
  • Highlight that these maps were produced not on the basis of checking the actual management practice. So the maps very often present opportunities or human perceptions of European citizens
  • The Message from Prague also ask for actions quantification of the value of non-extractive economic benefits identify and promote the linkage of ecosystem services to wilderness key economic dimensions, challenges and opportunities of wilderness areas in E urope. TEEB report not penetrated yet into PA management particular importance to define the ecosystem services and potential payment methods for wilderness
  • Communications is an essential part of our work to raise professional and public support for wilderness protection. Creating positive protection of wilderness could be the basis of successful protection In order to do this we use the parks of the network as examples of the best of Europe’s wilderness ‘ You can go there and experience wilderness yourself, earn about it in the field’
  • We need to argue that the more natural the area is the higher value and ecosystem services potential it has. Wilderness management is not only more sustainable in terms of financing management practice, but can potentially bring more ecosystem services value.
  • Independently
  • We welcome not only protected areas to join our campaign for wilderness, but also researchers to develop a strategic European wilderness research agenda.
  • The Economics of Wilderness - Zoltan Kan

    1. 1. Soomaa NP © Arne Ader
    2. 2. THE ECONOMICS OF WILDERNESS Payment for Ecosystem Services vs Commercial Forestry Zoltan KUN, Executive Director PAN Parks FoundationPaanajärvi NP © Viktor Gritsuk
    3. 3. Who we are • PAN Parks works to protect Europe’s wilderness , the continent’s most undisturbed areas of nature • the first European-wide organisation focusing on the protection of wilderness areasPaanajärvi NP ©Viktor Gritsuk
    4. 4. How to define wilderness? NO extractive use such as: •hunting •fishing •mining •logging •grazing •grass cutting •road and building construction is allowed in wildernessFulufjallet NP © Vitantonio Dell’Orto
    5. 5. Fulufjället NP © Vitantonio Dell’Orto/exuviaphoto.com
    6. 6. Peneda-Geres NP © Marcos Veiga
    7. 7. Archipelago NP © Janne Görling
    8. 8. Archipelago NP © Janne Görling
    9. 9. Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Konstantin Gabrichidze
    10. 10. Oulanka NP © Kimmo Salminen
    11. 11. Soomaa NP © Arne Ader
    12. 12. Wilderness QualityIndex of Europe• Based on GIS datasets (road density,population density,etc...)• Management practiceis not considered!
    13. 13. The European WildernessPreservation System
    14. 14. The Economics of Wilderness Why dealing with the economics of wilderness? • the European Parliament calls on the Commission and Member States to co-operate with local non-governmental organisations to promote the value of wilderness (point 6);Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Kote Gabrichidze
    15. 15. The Economics of Wilderness Wilderness is not a priceless heritage for future generations! • Europeans are not valuing wilderness as much as they should!Oulanka NP ©Michael Hennemann
    16. 16. Insert Braat and Ten Brink figureabout the inkage between landuse and level of ecosystemservices
    17. 17. The Economics of Wilderness Making wilderness areas financially viable means seizing opportunities of emerging markets for ecosystem services • Payments for Ecosystem ServicesRila NP © Nicolas Cegalerba
    18. 18. The Economics of Wilderness To protect wilderness we need to diversify incomes • payments for carbon offset • payments for water-related and nature disaster mitigation • peatbog restoration • payments for recreational servicesArchipelago NP © Heidi Arponen
    19. 19. The Economics of Wilderness Examples • Economic impact of Finnish National Parks • Wild Nephin managed by Coiltte • The valuation of Tatra, and Slovensky raj • Sveaskog EcoparksOulanka NP ©Hannu Hautala
    20. 20. The Economics of Wilderness Economic impact of Finnish National Parks through visitation • 85 M EUR / year • 1,100 man-year • visitor related income in Oulanka NP 14,7 M EUR http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2010/mw p149.pdf
    21. 21. The Economics of Wilderness Location Atlantic Ocean Wild Nephin Mayo Ireland Westport
    22. 22. The Economics of Wilderness Public Good Values Type of value Low range Mid range High range Individual use €145,000 €225,000 €528,000 value Existence & €270,000 €450,000 €1,056,000 bequest values Option values €225,000 €450,000 €1,056,000 Indirect values Tourist income €75,000 €150,000 €225,000
    23. 23. The Economics of Wilderness Tatra and Slovensky raj National Park • Conclusion: the smaller park with better management practice creates higher value Reasonale mean value 740,327 k EUR / year No extractive use!
    24. 24. The Economics of Wilderness Sveaskog’s example • Ecoparks are large connected ecological landscapes • important outdoor pursuits forests, providing many opportunities for different activities • 36 ecoparks planned in Sweden more information at http://www.sveaskog.se/en/forestry-and- environment/nature-conservation/eco-parks/
    25. 25. Annual land take in Europe between2000-2006 was over 111,000 ha/year
    26. 26. If increases with the current trend, we will have 5% artificial surface by 2017 4% of Europe is 4% of Europe is covered by covered byartificial surface in artificial surface in 2006 2006 The size equal to The size equal to Crete was Crete was covered by covered by concrete in 77 concrete in years (2000-2006) years (2000-2006) Our goal: 5% of Our goal: 5% of Europe must be Europe must be wilderness wilderness
    27. 27. The Million Project To ensure guaranteed protection of 1 million hectares of wilderness in Europe by 2015Archipelago NP © Seppo Keränen
    28. 28. The Economics of Wilderness Building partnerships with protected areas • Making a commitment to resolve a major challenge • Improving wilderness management in partner protected areas (biodiversity offsets) • Biz & Biodiversity EUMajella NP ©MNP programme
    29. 29. Join us in The Million Project! We can protect (and still benefit from) the last pieces of Europe’s wilderness together!Paanajärvi NP ©Viktor Gritsuk
    30. 30. PAN Parks works to protect Europe’swilderness, the continent’s mostundisturbed areas of nature www.panparks.org

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