IUP Task Force members include researchers, librarians, academic publishers, and museum curators. There are representatives from both Japan and North America.
The first goal was to document the range of problems encountered by US Academics. In order to identify the specific problems that scholars encounter in obtaining permissions from Japan, the task-force conducted an survey in the winter of 2007-2008 which was sent out by various Japan-related list-serves.
There were 120 responses to the survey, most from scholars, teachers or graduate students in Japanese or Asian studies in various disciplines. Most of the respondents state that their native language is not Japanese. This is the break down of scholars’ disciplines and how they use images in their research. The survey results were compiled and analyzed by Ms. Reiko Yoshimura (The Smithsonian Institution) and Ms. Eiko Sakaguchi (University of Maryland) and the more detailed report of the survey by Reiko is posted on the Image Use Protocol Website, which will be touched upon later today.
I will not discuss the survey in detail, but I do want to share some of the results. The survey identified what types of images scholars use and how they use them, procedures for obtaining permissions, and problems encountered. According to the survey results, common aspects of problems encountered included lack of understanding of legal issues, cultural and social differences between North America and Japan, and communication problems.
The next two goals were to clarify the differences between U.S. academic publishing and publishing in Japan, and to organize a meeting with Japanese image rights holders to promote mutual understanding and exchange views about improving access to images. In order to accomplish those goals, a day-long symposium was held in Tokyo to increase our mutual understanding of copyright guidelines and the permissions process. The background of the Tokyo Conference is two fold: 1) the need for communication, to share information, and to seek advice from Japanese counterparts And 2) the need to call attention in Japan to the importance of international image use and its problems, including the difficulties faced by foreign scholars.
The symposium was held on June 23 of last year, at the International House of Japan, with over 100 participants in attendance. Participants from North America consisted of task force members, librarians, North American scholars from various disciplines, and a representative from an American academic publisher. Librarians from Europe also attended. From the Japan side, there were publishers, and representatives from museums, temples, and other organizations. The morning meeting was an open session and the topics included the survey findings, the importance of using images, standard procedures for obtaining permission to use images in North America, and experiences of using Japanese images. You can read about the morning session in the Tokyo conference booklet. The afternoon session was closed and started with presentations on standard procedures for obtaining image use permission by Japanese publishers, museums and religious institutions as well as individuals. Japanese publishers explained how to acquire permission to use an image in a publication and how they handle requests received for use of images that appeared in books produced by the publisher. Museum curators described the increase in demand for images provided by museums. And temples and shrines shared the obstacles in use of images due to their religious concerns. Also, the draft of Image the Use Guidelines created by IUP was presented and a great deal of discussion followed with advice from Japanese stakeholders.
Note to presenter: Animations: 1 st click: Item #1 appears. 2 nd click: Item #2 appears. 3 rd click: Item #3 appears. 4 th click: Item #4 appears. 5 th click: Item #5 appears. 6 th click: Item #6 appears. 7 th click: Go to the next slide. These are some of the important findings of the Tokyo Conference. In general, images are copyrighted, so, you need permission(s) to use them. Follow the copyright laws of the country in which you plan to use (publish) the images. In case of image use, permissions may be required not only from a copyright holder, but also from other right holders. Who is the owner/creator of the object in the image? Who created the image? Who is the owner of the image? What/who is in the image? Japanese situations are substantially different form those of North America: The “Fair use” (“fair dealing“ in Canada) provision is NOT commonly applied to use of images even for scholarly and educational purposes. Japanese copyright laws approve “quotation” of both texts and images. Rights holders are not accustomed to being requested for a permission, due to the “quotation” provision. Publishers obtain image reproduction permissions, not authors. Communication in English is not widely accepted in Japan. Delay of responses is expected if English is used for communication.
Introduction NCC & Image Use Protocol Task Force April 23, 2010 University of Hawai’i at Manoa Library North American Coordinating Council on Japanese Library Resources (NCC)